747 The Abbasids foment revolt against the Umayyads.
751 The Lombards take Ravenna. The Pope appeals to the Franks for protection of the Papal State.
756 After a civil war, a surviving Umayyad establishes an independent emirate in the Iberian peninsula. The civil war enables the Asturias to expand their territory into the larger Kingdom of Galicia.
756-9 In return for the Pope's support for his elevation to the Frankish throne, Pepin defeats the Lombards and places a Papal state, enlarged to cover the former Byzantine province, under Frankish protection. Pepin also drives the Arabs from Septimania.
758 The Bavarian Duchy establishes a protectorate over the Slavs on its eastern border. This is the beginning of a movement that will eventually distinguish the northern from the southern Slavs.
by 771 Some time during the 6th and mid 8th centuries, the Getes succumb to the Swedes.
The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History, Colin McEvedy, pp 34-35
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