653 Armenia and Iberia fall into Arab hands.
655 Northumberland regains leadership of the Anglo-Saxons and brings the Strathclyde 'Welsh', Picts and Scots as vassals.
679 The Anglo-Saxons transfer their alliegence to Mercia.
695 The Picts and Scots throw off the Northumberland yoke.
696 Lazica overcome by the Arabs.
698 The Arabs conquer Carthage.
702 The Berbers are conquered and converted. This gives them the confidence and recruits to cross into the Iberian peninsula.
711 The Arab victory over the Visigoths delivers the whole peninsula into their hands, plus a corner of Gaul from which to attack the Franks.
Abasgia in the Caucasus is also overrun, and the Arabs then attack and break the power of the Khazars. The latter lose their Bulgarian and Volga tributaries.
732 The Frankish king, Charles Martel, repels the Arabs at Poitiers, marking the end of Arab successes in Europe.
by 737 The Byzantines lose control of central Italy. Rome and its hinterland are controlled by the Pope.
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