401 Xiongnu Juqu Mengxun seizes control of the Northern Liang.
403 The Later Qin conquers the Later Liang, extending control over much of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia.
405 Han commander Li Gao at Dunhuang breaks away from the Northern Liang to found the Western Liang.
407 Helian Bobo, a Xiongnu chief, rebels and founds the Xia in northern Shaanxi.
409 The Western Qin are revived in southern Shaanxi.
General Feng Ba kills emperor Murong Xi of the Later Yan and founds the Northern Yan.
410 The Southern Yan is conquered by the Eastern Jin.
414 Southern Liang is conquered by the Western Qin.
416 Eastern Jin general Liu Yu captures Luoyang and Chan'an and terminates the Later Qin. When Liu Yu returns to take the Jin throne, the Xia sieze Chang'an.
420 Jin general Liu Yu forces emperor Gong to abdicate and declares the start of the Liu Song dynasty.
421 The Western Liang is reabsorbed by the Northern Liang.
423 Northern Wei Tuoba Tao subdues the Rouran nomads to the north, and begins the conquest of Shaanxi, Ningxia and Gansu.
427 The Northern Wei captures the Xia capital at Tongwancheng (Jingbian, Shaanxi). The Xia move to Pingliang, Gansu.
431 Xia Helian Ding conquers the Western Qin at Jincheng (Lanzhou). He is subsequently driven further west by the Northern Wei.
436 Northern Wei emperor Tuoba Tao leads an expedition against the Northern Yan.
439 The Northern Liang surrenders to the Northern Wei. This completes the Northern Wei's unification of northern China and ends the 16 Kingdoms period.
Atlas of World History, ed. Jeremy Black, p 261
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