291-306 A series of civil wars, the Rebellion of the Eight Princes, significantly weakens the Jin state.
301-3 Li family generals fight against Luo Shang, Jin governer of Yi province (modern Shichuan and Chongqing).
304 Li Xiong captures Chengdu, capital of Yi province, Luo Shang flees, and in 306 the Cheng state is founded.
After a request for help from a Jin prince in Hebei, Liu Yuan, chief of the Southern Xiongnu (based in Ordos, Shanxi, northern Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia), reorganises the 5 Xiongnu tribes in Shanxi and declares himself King of Han. This is the start of the Former Zhao or Han Zhao state. The initial capital (of 6) is Lishi (Lüliang, Shanxi).
305 Former Zhao capital moved to Liting (Changzhi, Shanxi) after a famine. Despite success against other armies, they are unable to hold on to other cities, and their control is still limited to the immediate area around the capital.
308 Former Zhao capital moved to Puzi (Linfen, Shanxi) after capturing more territory.
309 Former Zhao capital moved to Pingyang (also Linfen, Shanxi). The Former Zhao now occupy all of southern Shanxi.
311 The Jin are driven from Luoyang by the Xiongnu under Liu Cong, with capital at Pingyang.
313 Zhang Gui, Han governor of Liangzhou, founds the Former Liang in modern-day Gansu. However, the date of independence from the Jin, with capital at Guzang (Wuwei, Gansu) and territories including present-day Gansu and parts of Ningxia, Shaanxi, Qinghai and Xinjiang, is not clear: some put it in 314-5 with his son Zhang Shi, others 320, when Zhang Mao issued a pardon for people in his domain.
Jin general Zu Ti recaptures a large swathe of Henan south of the Yellow river, repeatedly defeating the Later Zhao forces.
315 Tuoba Yilu, a Xianbei chieftain of the Tuoba clan sets up the Dai state, with its capital at Shengle (just south of Hohot).
316 The Jin are driven from Chang'an by the Former Zhao and become the Eastern Jin, south of the Yangtse (from 317), with their capital at Jiankang (Nanjing). They are joined by millions of refugees from the north.
318 Former Zhao capital moved to Chang'an.
319 Han Zhao general Shi Le breaks away and forms the Later Zhao state, with capital at Xiangguo (Xingtai, Hebei). It will eventually control much of northern China.
321 During a Jin rebellion Later Zhao take back Henan.
327 Zhang Gui of the Former Liang creates the Gaochang commandery, resulting in significant Han settlement in the area.
329 Former Zhao capital moved to Shanggui (Tianshui, Gansu). Later Zhao's Shi Le terminates the Former Zhao state by defeating Liu Yao at the river Luo.
335 Shi Hu moves the capital of the Later Zhao state to Yecheng.
337 After defeating his brother the previous winter, Murong Huang claims the title title of Prince of Yan, and the Former Yan state begins, with its capital at Jicheng (Beijing).
338 Li Shou renames Cheng as Han, though historians treat Cheng Han as a single kingdom.
Tuoba Shiyijian declares Dai independent and builds a capital at Shengle (Horinger County, Hohhot).
341 Murong Huang moves the Former Yan capital to Longcheng (modern Zhaoyang).
346-7 Later Zhao forces attempt to conquer Former Liang, seizing land south of the Yellow River, including Lanzhou, but are stopped. The land south of the river, however, is lost.
347 Jin general Huan Wen defeats the last Cheng emperor, and Cheng Han reverts to Jin.
350 Shi Min, de facto ruler of the Later Zhao and Han by birth (adopted nephew of a Zhao emperor), rallies the Han population and incites them to massacre over 200,000 non Han (especially Jie). Di chief, Pu/Fu Hong, based in Fangtou (Hebi, Henan), is one of the generals resisting Shi Min.
Shi Min changes his name back to his father's surname Ran, kills the Later Zhao emperor, and founds his own Wei state. In the ensuing struggle, Jin and especially Former Yan states begin appropriating parts of the Former Zhao state, including modern Beijing, Tianjin, and northern Hebei. The Ran Wei capital is Yecheng (Handan, Hebei).
After his death Pu/Fu Hong's son Fu Jian captures Chang'an in the winter.
351 Liu Xian, Former Zhao general sent to fight Ran Wei, kills his own emperor instead, and proclaims himself emperor.
Fu Jian, seizes the western part of Later Zhao, and establishes the Former Qin state. He is unopposed because the Zhao emperor is busy fighting the Wei.
The southern provinces switch allegiance to Jin.
The Former Yan moves south.
352 Ran Min captures Xiangguo and kills Liu Xian. This is the end of the Later Zhao. Ran Min attacks the Former Yan, but is captured and killed. Ran Wei soon afterwards collapses.
354 Jin general Huan Wen briefly retakes Chang'an from the Former Qin.
355-6 Murong Jun of the Former Yan beseiges and conquers Duan Kan at Guanggu (Qingzhou, Shandong).
356 Jin general Huan Wen takes Luoyang from Qiang chief Yao Xiang.
357 The Former Yan move their capital from Jicheng (Beijing) to Yecheng (Handan, Hebei).
359 Jin forces attack the Former Yan, but are defeated, allowing the Former Yan to gradually take over the Henan region, south of the Yellow river.
None, other than textual sources, mostly in Wikipedia.
I was unable to find a source map for this period, so I constructed this map by listing known places associated with each kingdom around 360 CE, and then drawing lines around them. There was particularly little information about the Dai kingdom.
View the SVG only