Updated 2 June, 2023
This page brings together basic information about the Javanese script and its use for the Javanese language. It aims to provide a brief, descriptive summary of the modern, printed orthography and typographic features, and to advise how to write Javanese using Unicode.
ꦧꦧ꧀꧇꧒꧇꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦢꦂꦧꦺꦲꦏ꧀ꦠꦸꦩꦿꦥ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦏꦧꦼꦧꦱ꧀ꦱꦤ꧀ꦏꦧꦼꦧꦱ꧀ꦱꦤ꧀ꦏꦁꦠꦶꦤꦸꦭꦶꦱ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦥꦿꦚꦠꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦩꦸꦩ꧀ꦲꦶꦏꦶꦠꦤ꧀ꦥꦥꦶꦭꦶꦃꦏꦱꦶꦃ꧈ꦏꦧꦺꦃꦮꦫꦠꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦢꦶꦭ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦱꦩꦸꦧꦫꦁ꧈ꦏꦪꦠꦧꦺꦢꦧꦺꦢꦤꦶꦁꦫꦱ꧀ ꦮꦂꦤꦤꦶꦁꦲꦮꦏ꧀ ꦧꦺꦢꦧꦺꦢꦤꦶꦁꦭꦤꦁꦭꦤ꧀ꦮꦢꦺꦴꦤ꧀ ꦧꦱ꧈ꦄꦒꦩ꧈ꦥꦸꦭꦶꦠꦶꦏ꧀ ꦭꦤ꧀ꦥꦤꦼꦩꦸꦭꦶꦪꦤꦺ꧈ꦲꦱꦭ꧀ꦲꦸꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦱꦸꦏꦸꦧꦁꦱꦭꦤ꧀ꦧꦼꦧꦿꦪꦤ꧀ ꦲꦏ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺ꧈ꦠꦠꦭꦲꦶꦂꦭꦤ꧀ꦏꦭꦸꦁꦒꦸꦃꦲꦤ꧀ꦭꦶꦪꦤꦺ꧉
Note: ZWSP has been added between orthographic syllables in the above text in order to allow the text to wrap. The major browsers don't wrap it automatically.
Use of the Javanese script ended abruptly during the Second World War, when its use was forbidden by the occupying forces. Its use has since declined, and everyday Javanese is now generally written in the Latin script, although the Javanese orthography is still taught in most elementary schools and some junior high schools in Javanese speaking areas. There are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script.
The Javanese script derives from the ancient Brahmi script, via Old Kawi. It is the pre-colonial script of the Javanese language spoken on the Indonesian islands of Java and Bali and is used to write the Tengger and Osing languages, also spoken in Java and Bali. Historically it was also used to write the Bali language, which is now written largely in the Latin and the (closely related) Balinese scripts, and the Sunda language, which is now written in the Latin and Arabic scripts.
Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines.
Sources: Scriptsource, Wikipedia.
Javanese is an abugida, ie. consonants carry an inherent vowel sound that is overridden, where needed, using vowel signs. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features of the modern Javanese orthography.
Javanese text runs left to right in horizontal lines.
Words are not separated by spaces, however syllables may be separated by ZWSP, as long as they don't fall inside a stack. Spaces may be used to separate phrases. ❯ word
The 20 consonant letters used for pure Javanese words are supplemented by 10 more which are used as honorifics, a little like capital letters, and 5 more used in Sanskrit words. Repertoire extensions for 8 non-native sounds are achieved by applying the cecak telu diacritic to characters. ❯ consonants
Consonant clusters are represented by stacked consonants (many subjoined consonants have alternative shapes) or conjoined pairs. Occasionally, a visible pangkon (virama) is used. ❯ clusters
Stacked consonants and conjoined pairs span word boundaries.
Syllable-initial clusters use 3 dedicated combining marks for the second consonant. ❯ onsets
Word-final consonant sounds may be represented by 4 dedicated combining marks. Otherwise, if nothing follows, they are ordinary consonants followed by a visible ꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON]. ❯ finals
The Javanese orthography is an abugida with 2 inherent vowels. Other post-consonant vowels are written using 5 vowel signs, all combining marks. It is mandatory for 2 of the consonant+vowel sequences to be written using vocalics, rather than vowel signs. ❯ vowels
There is 1 pre-base glyph and no circumgraphs. Only one multipart vowel is used in modern Javanese orthography, although more exist when writing Sanskrit or Kawi in this script. The multipart vowel used in modern Javanese involves only 2 vowel signs, and places glyphs on either side of the base consonant(s). ❯ compositeV
Standalone vowel sounds are written using independent vowels when there is a need to distinguish normal words from proper nouns or foreign words. The normal approach for standalone vowels is to apply vowel signs to ꦲ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA]. ❯ standalone
Javanese has vocalics. ❯ vocalics
These are sounds for the Javanese language.
Click on the sounds to see where else in the document they are referred to.
Sounds in parentheses are non-native or allophones. Source Wikipedia.
i u e o are pronounced ɪ ʊ ɛ ɔ, respectively in closed syllables.wl,#Vowels
e and o are pronounced ɛ and ɔ, respectively, in open syllables when followed by one of i u. Otherwise they may be pronounced ə.wl,#Vowels
In the standard dialect of Surakarta, a is pronounced ɔ in word-final open syllables.wl,#Vowels
Diphthongs ai and aw are not used in modern Javanese.ws,#Swara
|stops||p b||t d||ʈ ɖ||k g||ʔ|
Most sources (eg. Daniels) imply that the voiced plosives are voicedd. Comriec describes the voiceless plosives as virtually unaspirated, and that the voiced plosives are devoiced at the end of a word. Wikipedia says that the Javanese "voiced" phonemes are in fact voiced voiceless, with breathy voice on the following vowel, the difference being described as stiff voice versus slack voice.wl,#Consonants Here we use the more common transcription.
The sound ʔ appears between words ending with a and the suffix ake, eg. lunga+ake -> lungaʔake.c
Root words are typically disyllables of the form Cˡ V Cˡ V Cˡ, where Cˡ represents an optional consonant or consonant cluster, and V represents a vowel. Most commonly, this represents CVCVC, followed by CVCCVC.c
A Javanese phonetic syllable can begin with a vowel, a consonant, or a consonant cluster.
Syllable-initial consonant clusters usually have either r or j in the second position, or may have both.
According to Comrie, word-initial consonant clusters may involve prenasalised sounds such as mb, nd, ndh, nj or nng, which appear to be written using unconnected consonants side by side,c eg. ꦩꦧꦸꦫꦸ
Syllable-final consonants are usually a single sound.
In the orthography, phonetic syllable boundaries don't always coincide with the typographic units used. See segmentation for details.
Diacritics are added to the vowels to indicate nasalisation (not shown here).
For additional details see vowel_mappings.
ꦏ ka ~ kɔ U+A98F JAVANESE LETTER KA
Javanese has two possible inherent vowel sounds: a and ɔ. The choice of inherent vowel can depend on the speaker's dialect: speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as a, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer ɔ.ws,#Form So ka/kɔ is written by simply using the consonant letter.
Wikipedia describes the following rules by Wewaton Sriwedari for determining the inherent vowel of a letter:ws,#Form
ꦏꦶ ki U+A98F JAVANESE LETTER KA + U+A9B6 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN WULU
Javanese uses the following dedicated combining marks for vowels. They may be used on their own, or in combination with others (see compositeV).
Additional information about archaic forms and variants of these characters and others mentioned below can be found in the character notes document.
ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG] was originally a length mark, but in modern Javanese it is only used in the combination described in the section compositeV.
Modern Javanese doesn't write the sounds rə and lə using the consonant+vowel combinations *ꦫꦼ [U+A9AB JAVANESE LETTER RA + U+A9BC JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET] or *ꦭꦼ [U+A9AD JAVANESE LETTER LA + U+A9BC JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET]. Vocalic letters are used instead,ws,#Swara eg. ꦊꦩꦃꦊꦩ꧀ꦧꦸꦠ꧀
When a vowel sign follows a subjoined consonant it appears above the stack.
Three of the vowel signs are spacing marks, meaning that they consume horizontal space when added to a base consonant.
Four more vowel signs are not used in modern Javanese.
An orthography that uses vowel signs is different from one that uses simple diacritics or letters for vowels, in that the vowel signs are generally attached to an orthographic syllable, rather than just applied to the letter of the immediately preceding consonant. This means that pre-base vowel signs and the left glyph of circumgraphs appear before a whole consonant cluster if it is rendered as a conjunct (see prebase).
See also vocalics.
In Javanese, unlike many other scripts, including Balinese, when a vowel is represented by multiple glyphs either side of a base character two separate combining marks need to be added to the base. Javanese has no circumgraphs (ie. a single code point that places glyphs around the base).
Only one such multipart vowel is used for modern Javanese, ꦺꦴ [U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING + U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG], which represents the sound o. Both characters are typed and stored after the base character, and should be in the order shown.
A two-part vowel associated with a consonant cluster appears before and after the whole cluster, whether it is conjoined or stacked. This is a reminder that vowel signs are applied to the orthographic syllable, rather than to a single letter. In fig_vs_conjoined this actually extends across a word boundary, since the last and first letters of the adjoining words form a conjunct cluster. This means that the pre-base part of the vowel sign appears to be within the previous word.
A number of archaic vowels are also represented by combinations of the basic vowel signs, but are not used in modern Javanese.
The following list shows where vowel signs are positioned around a base consonant to produce vowels, and how many instances of that pattern there are. The figure after the + sign represents combinations of Unicode characters,
Javanese has two ways to represent standalone vowels.
The normal approach combines a vowel sign with ꦲ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA], eg. ꦧꦲꦸꦱꦱ꧀ꦠꦿ ꦩꦲꦺꦴꦱ꧀
Without a vowel sign the letter ꦲ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA] represents a, eg. ꦲꦕꦫ
However, it may alternatively represent the sound ha. The reading is ambiguous, eg. compare the previous example with this: ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ
The same applies for other combinations of this base letter and vowel sign.
There are 8 independent vowel letters in the Javanese block, of which 5 are used in modern text.
The independent vowel letters are used in Javanese to distinguish proper nouns or foreign words from ordinary wordsu, eg. compare the following two words, which include an adjective and a personal name (both have the same pronunciation): ꦲꦪꦸ ꦄꦪꦸ
Modern Javanese only uses short vowels. Other characters or sequences of characters were used for long vowels and diphthongs in the past or for other languages.
Three of the above use ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG] to produce long sounds.
Unlike Javanese, Kawi uses ꦅ [U+A985 JAVANESE LETTER I KAWI] and ꦆ [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I] for short and long, respectively.d
One vowel sign appears to the left of the base consonant letter or cluster in modern Javanese.
This is a combining mark that is always stored after the base consonant. The rendering process places the glyph before the base consonant.
A similar vowel sign is no longer used.
Javanese is not a tonal language.
This section maps Javanese vowel sounds to common graphemes in the Javanese orthography, grouped by open ( o ), or closed ( c ), syllables, or as a standalone vowel ( s ). Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.
Standalone vowels normally use the vowel sign over a silent ꦲ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA]. These are not shown here, but independent vowels are. Vowel signs that decompose are shown only in precomposed form.
ꦼ [U+A9BC JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET]
ꦉ [U+A989 JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK] in vocalic rə
ꦊ [U+A98A JAVANESE LETTER NGA LELET] in vocalic lə
These characters are treated as vowels in other scripts, such as Balinese, but as consonants in Javanese.
They represent the sounds rə and lə. Javanese doesn't use the consonant+vowel combinations *ꦫꦼ [U+A9AB JAVANESE LETTER RA + U+A9BC JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET] or *ꦭꦼ [U+A9AD JAVANESE LETTER LA + U+A9BC JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET] for those sounds,d but uses these vocalic letters instead, ws,#Swara eg. ꦊꦩꦃꦊꦩ꧀ꦧꦸꦠ꧀
Javanese vocalics have no corresponding vowel signs. They do, however, have conjoined forms, used in consonant clusters.
Two more vocalic letters or sequences are not used in modern Javanese, but are used for writing Kawi and Sanskrit.ws,#Swara
For additional details see vowel_mappings.
Only 20 of the consonants in the Javanese Unicode block are used for pure Javanese language text. Some others (murda) are used as a kind of uppercase letter, but the remainder are used for words derived from Sanskrit or Kawi, or are archaic forms.
The characters listed here and in the following sections also have conjoined and/or subjoined forms, which may differ significantly from those shown here. See clusters for a list of glyph shapes.
ꦲ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA] represents either ha or the standalone vowel a.
Murda forms can be viewed as a kind of capital letter for proper nouns (not sentence initial letters), used as honorifics. They are used to replace an ordinary letter form in the first syllable of the name. However, not all letters have a murda form, so if there is no letter in the first syllable that has a murda form, one is used for the next syllable in the name that has one.
Highly respected names may be all 'capitalized' to the extent that the corresponding murda are available.
ꦖ [U+A996 JAVANESE LETTER CA MURDA] is only attested as a subjoined form, ꧀ꦖ The non-subjoined forms shown in this paragraph and the above list are a modern-day reinvention.ws,#Wyanjana
ꦯ [U+A9AF JAVANESE LETTER SA MURDA] is a rare letter which, when used with other characters, represents the Chinese sound se, ie. ꦯ͜ꦌ̈ Another represents the Chinese syo, ie. ꦯ꦳ꦾꦺꦴ
ꦬ [U+A9AC JAVANESE LETTER RA AGUNG] not used in modern text, and also not widely known, was used historically by some writers to address royal figures..ws,#Wyanjana
These are letters that are not basic forms, nor are repurposed as murda consonants.
Mahaprana forms were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit and Kawi transliterations (mahaprana means aspirated). They are rarely, if ever, found in modern text.
The following combinations, called aksara rékan (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦫꦺꦏꦤ꧀), are used to represent foreign sounds. There may be some variance around which combinations produce which sounds.ws,#R%C3%A9kan
Javanese uses ꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU] with a similar consonant to represent most foriegn sounds, initially those from Arabic, but then also those from Dutch, Indonesian, and English.
ꦐ [U+A990 JAVANESE LETTER KA SASAK] is used for writing q in Sasak.
When consonants are subjoined there can be some ambiguity about which consonant the cecak telu applies to. For example, the following look identical:ꦏ꦳꧀ꦗ kˑ͓ʤ kza ꦏ꧀ꦗ꦳ k͓ʤˑ xja
Wikipedia has a set of Chinese sounds that are represented using some combining characters from a non-Javanese block.ws,#Additional_Aksara
Where no letter follows a consonant and the vowel is silent, for example at the end of a sentence or isolated word or before a number, a visible ꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON] is used to indicate that the inherent vowel is suppressed, eg. the following explicitly represents just the sound k: ꦏ꧀ k͓
The pangkon is also used to produce conjunct forms for consonant clusters (stacking or conjoined shapes), in which case it is invisible (see clusters). Because Javanese commonly combines the last character of one word and the first of another into a conjunct, the pangkon is often not visible after words that end with a consonant within a sentence.
There are some exceptions, especially where the pangkon may be used to disambiguate words, eg. ꦧꦶꦱ꧀ꦠꦿꦤ꧀ꦱ꧀ꦗꦏꦂꦠ
No pangkon is needed between an onset consonant and a medial consonant, or after a dedicated final consonant.
Three dedicated combining characters represent medial consonants (wyanjana), making it easy to tell that the consonant is part of a syllable-initial cluster and not the start of a new syllable.
Examples of use include ꦥꦿꦩꦸꦏ ꦏꦾꦲꦶꦏꦤ꧀ꦗꦼꦁ ky̆hikn͓ʤəŋ̽ kyai kanjeng ꦕꦕꦶꦁꦏꦽꦩꦶ ʧʧiŋ̽kr̥̆mi cacing kremi
Balinese doesn't have these dedicated medial consonants.
Word-final consonant sounds with no following consonant may be represented by ordinary consonant characters, followed by a visible ꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON] character, eg. ꦏꦿꦸꦥꦸꦏ꧀ ꦏꦔꦼꦤ꧀
If another word or consonant does follow the word-final consonant, the pangkon is still used, but becomes invisible and results in the stacking of the two consonants. (See clusters.)
However, there is also a set of dedicated combining characters (seisigeg) that dispense with the need for the pangkan.
Four syllable-final consonant sounds are represented using combining characters.
Examples: ꦱꦼꦏꦺꦴꦭꦃ ꦥꦼꦫꦲꦸꦭꦪꦂ ꦥꦼꦠꦼꦁ
The absence of a vowel sound after a letter (ie. not involving medial or final consonant diacritics) is shown visually in the script in one of the following ways:
Word boundaries. Conjuncts span word boundaries. Because there are no spaces between words, consonants with no following vowel at the end of one word and a consonant at the beginning of the next create a cluster.
Stacks and conjoined sequences are not normally split at line ends (see word and linebreak for the ramifications of this). It means that some words cannot be wrapped at word boundaries.
See a table of 2-consonant clusters.
The table allows you to test results for various fonts.
In Unicode, the stacking and conjoining behaviour is achieved by adding ꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON] between the consonants. The font hides the glyph automatically when a stacked conjunct is formed. However, in some cases the glyph needs to remain visible.
To represent consonants without intervening vowels, the non-initial consonant is typically drawn below the initial consonant.
Many of the subjoined forms are just slightly smaller versions of the original, some with small additions, but several have very different shapes altogether, most of which ligate with the cluster initial consonant by joining strokes.
This list shows consonants in their normal and subjoined forms
In conjoined clusters, the consonant glyphs remain side by side, but the non-initial consonant is reduced on the left side. fig_conjoined_p shows an example in the word ꦱꦩ꧀ꦥꦸꦤ꧀.
This list shows consonants in their normal and conjoined forms
The conjoined ꦱ [U+A9B1 JAVANESE LETTER SA] is unusual in that it also adds a glyph (resembling the vowel sign ꦸ [U+A9B8 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN SUKU]) below the initial consonant. This helps distinguish it from the conjoined p. See fig_conjoined_p for an example in the word ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ.
Occasionally ꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON] may be visible in the middle of a word, eg. ꦧꦶꦱ꧀ꦠꦿꦤ꧀ꦱ꧀ꦗꦏꦂꦠ
The Javanese section of the Unicode Standard doesn't indicate how to force the pangkon to remain visible, but the Balinese section recommends the use of [U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER] (ZWNJ) after the adeg-adeg in order to prevent conjunct formation. However, not many people understand the function of ZWNJ or can access it easily from the keypad. It also doesn't introduce line-break opportunities. A better solution may be to use [U+200B ZERO WIDTH SPACE] (ZWSP). This character is needed anyway on most systems in order to allow line-breaking, and it appears to work equally well for this.
Javanese represents some final consonants using dedicated marks. There are also dedicated marks for medial consonants. Such marks are preceded and/or followed by ordinary consonant shapes in consonant clusters. There is no visual indication of missing vowel sounds other than the use of the mark itself.
This section maps Javanese consonant sounds to common graphemes in the Javanese orthography, grouped by native Javanese letters ( b ), murda ( M ), or mahaprana derived forms ( m ), or extended with cecak telu ( e ). Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.
ꦃ [U+A983 JAVANESE SIGN WIGNYAN] word-final
ꦀ [U+A980 JAVANESE SIGN PANYANGGA] word-final
ꦔ [U+A994 JAVANESE LETTER NGA]
ꦁ [U+A981 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK] word-final
ꦿ [U+A9BF JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN CAKRA] medial
ꦂ [U+A982 JAVANESE SIGN LAYAR] word-final
ꦽ [U+A9BD JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN KERET] in medial vocalic rə.
ꦉ [U+A989 JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK] in vocalic rə.
ꦊ [U+A98A JAVANESE LETTER NGA LELET] in vocalic lə.
ꦋ [U+A98B JAVANESE LETTER NGA LELET RASWADI] in vocalic ləː.
ꦾ [U+A9BE JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN PENGKAL] as medial
The following indicates the expected ordering of Unicode characters within a typographic unit for Javanese. The labels are those used for the Unicode Indic Syllabic Categories. Follow that link to see what characters are represented by a given label.
Typographic Unit := (Consonant Nukta* Virama)* Consonant Nukta* Consonant_Medial* Vowel_Dependent* Bindu* Visarga* Consonant_Final* := Vowel_Independent := Consonant Nukta* Virama
It is reported that the independent vowels and numbers may be followed by combining characters.
When multiple dependent vowels appear, they should be in the following order:
Left Top Bottom Right
When multiple medials appear, they should be in the following order:
Bottom_And_Left || Bottom Bottom_And_Right
Ordering characters as shown above avoids potential ambiguities and maximises the likelihood of success when rendering the text.
Javanese uses native digits, which are decimal-based and used in the same way as European numerals.
Several of the digits are identical to letters of the alphabet, so ꧇ [U+A9C7 JAVANESE PADA PANGKAT] is often used around numbers, eg. ꧇꧑꧕꧇ꦎꦏ꧀ꦠꦺꦴꦧꦼꦂ꧇꧒꧐꧑꧒꧇
Everson, on the other hand, says that ꧈ [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] is used for this purpose, and gives the examples 6 8 9 and 2007 shown below:e ꧈꧖꧈꧘꧈꧙꧈ ꧈꧒꧐꧐꧗꧈
Javanese script is written horiztonally, left to right.
bidi_class properties for characters in the Javanese orthography described here.
This section brings together information about the following topics: writing styles; cursive text; context-based shaping; context-based positioning; baselines, line height, etc.; font styles; case & other character transforms.
You can experiment with examples using the Javanese character app.
Javanese text is not cursive (ie. joined up), however there is a significant amount of interaction between glyphs, and some joining, around consonant clusters.
The orthography has no case distinction, and no special transforms are needed to convert between characters.
Glyph shaping is required for Javanese. One principle area is that of subjoined or postfixed consonants, which often interact typographically with the preceding consonant.
Not all fonts show the same shaping behaviours.
In fig_k_joins, the three syllables, each containing a k-k stack, show how the font adapts the subjoined ꦏ [U+A98F JAVANESE LETTER KA] at the bottom right according to what follows it.
The following two syllables show how the font changes the shape of ꦿ [U+A9BF JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN CAKRA] to match the depth of the syllable.
The fig_ku_shaping the font shows different renderings of the u vowel sign after the second character in a consonant cluster. In kru the lines suggest that the medial r is drawn after the u, although it is pronounced the other way around.
Note that the middle cluster contains only one u character. The similar-looking shape in the middle of the word is just part of the kS conjoined shape. The rightmost cluster uses a ligature for -ru, where the chakra appears to be drawn after the u, although actually stored before it.
Obviously the principle of subjoining consonants requires rules about positioning, and those rules need to be disregarded for combinations where the second character of a cluster is not subjoined (though it usually changes shape).
In the following example we see ka with cecak telu on the left. In the middle syllable cecak telu has shifted slightly to the left to make room for the other diacritic. In the right-hand syllable the cecak telu has both moved and reduced in size to fit with the other diacritic.
Another example of the need for special positioning occurs when a vowel sign is pronounced after a subjoined consonant but appears above the previous consonant in the stack (see the example earlier).
Observation: Numerous examples of slanted text exist in the publication Kajawen in 1933. However, they are used to distinguish blocks of text from other blocks, but not inline.
Examples of use include separate panels floated alongside the main flow of text (the whole panel is slanted), subheadings or sometimes headings, figure captions, and by-lines.
Grapheme clusters alone are not sufficient to represent typographic units in Javanese. Stacks and conjoined sequences are very common and must not be split apart by edit operations that visually change the text (such as letter-spacing, first-letter highlighting, and line breaking). For those operations one needs to segment the text using orthographic syllables, which string grapheme clusters together with ꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON],
which has an Indic Syllabic Category of
The pangkon is rendered visibly if it is not part of a consonant cluster, for example at the end of a word followed by a space.
Javanese doesn't use word boundaries for text segmentation, relying instead on grapheme boundaries because consonant clusters that span word boundaries are combined into stacks or conjoined forms.
Combining marks may include zero or more of the following types of character:
Javanese grapheme clusters that include a syllable nucleus usually begin with a consonant, but can also begin with an independent vowel, and occasionally numbers also constitute a base (and by some reports may be followed by combining marks).
Syllable codas may be represented by a combining mark, or may be incorporated into a consonant cluster, but they may also be written using a sequence of consonant letter (possibly including a cecak telu) followed by a pangkon, which is visible if no base immediately follows it, eg.
The following examples show a variety of grapheme clusters:
Click on the text version of these words to see more detail about the composition.
Note how grapheme clusters break up the conjuncts in the last 2 examples. This is not usually desirable (see orthographicS just below).
(Base Cecak_telu? Pangkon)* Grapheme_cluster
Javanese commonly stacks or conjoins glyphs, to form conjuncts. The conjuncts represent consonant clusters, which can arise where one phonetic syllable ends in a consonant letter and the following syllable begins with a consonant. (Unlike Balinese, medial consonants – for sequences such as Cr-, Cy-, Cw-, Cry-, etc – are combining characters rather than conjunct forms.) The cluster of consonants that make up the conjunct are all encoded with adeg adeg between them (see clusters).
Javanese is unusual in that these conjuncts occur across word boundaries, so the word-final consonant of the first word may be stacked above the word-initial consonant of the second. See fig_pangandika for an example.
Grapheme clusters terminate after a sequence of marks containing a pangkon, but editorial operations that change the visual appearance of the text, such as letter-spacing, first-letter highlighting, line-breaking, and justification, should never split conjunct forms apart. For this reason, an alternative way of segmenting graphemes is needed. This may not apply, however, for some other operations such as cursor movement or backwards delete.
Where conjuncts appear, a typographic unit contains multiple grapheme clusters. The non-final grapheme clusters all end with ꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON], and the final grapheme cluster begins with a consonant.
The following are examples. The first 2 examples were shown in the previous section: here the conjunct is treated as a single typographic unit.
Click on the text version of these words to see more detail about the composition.
Note that one of the characteristic features of the Indic category of Virama is that the pangkon is visible when not followed by a consonant, but invisible when a consonant does follow (creating a stack). This means that the pangkon sometimes participates in a simple grapheme cluster, but when followed by a consonant it becomes the 'glue' that creates an orthographic syllable.
On the infrequent occasions when a pangkon needs to be visible even though it is followed by another base, an invisible character must be added to prevent it joining with the following base. A zero-width space can achieve that.
Test in your browser. The words test units that equate to grapheme clusters only, and others that include conjuncts. First, the text is displayed in a contenteditable paragraph, then in a textarea. Results are reported for Gecko (Firefox), Blink (Chrome), and WebKit (Safari) on a Mac.
ꦠꦶꦂꦠ ꦏꦿꦶꦪ ꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ
Cursor movement. Move the cursor through the text.
Gecko steps through the whole text using grapheme clusters. It takes 2 or more steps (depending on the number of GCs) to get through the stacks, one grapheme cluster at a time. Blink and WebKit step through all words using the orthographic syllables described here (ie. they step over a stack and all associated combining characters in one jump).
Selection. Place the cursor next to a character and hold down shift while pressing an arrow key.
The behaviour is the same as for cursor movement.
Deletion. Forward deletion works in the same way as cursor movement. The backspace key deletes code point by code point, except for WebKit, which deletes one grapheme cluster at a time.
Line-break. See this test. The CSS sets the value of the
line-break property to
anywhere. Change the size of the box to slowly move the line break point.
Gecko appears to segment on orthographic syllable, per the description here, except for one case where the complex stack is split. WebKit and Blink appear to sometimes wrap inside stacks and other times not. It's not obvious why, but both segment in the same way.
Words are not separated by spaces. (Though spaces may be used to separate phrases, see phrase).
As mentioned in the previous section, Javanese is one of a small number of scripts where an initial consonant for a word may be subjoined below the last consonant of a preceding word. Since stacks are never broken, typographic operations such as line-breaking therefore split the text at orthographic syllable boundaries rather than words (see graphemes).
Javanese uses a set of native punctuation marks.
꧈ [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA]
꧉ [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI]
꧈ [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] after ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON]
|paragraph||꧋ [U+A9CB JAVANESE PADA ADEG ADEG]|
|general divider||꧊ [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG]|
If the final word in a phrase ends with ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON], a space alone is sufficient to indicate a phrase boundary. Otherwise, ꧈ [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] is used.
꧇ [U+A9C7 JAVANESE PADA PANGKAT] is equivalent to a colon.
The sequence ꧀꧈ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON + U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] indicates a sentence boundary. If there is no pangkon, ꧉ [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI] is used.
All of the above punctuation marks are optionally followed by a space, if they occur inside a paragraph.
A paragraph and or a section typically begins with ꧋ [U+A9CB JAVANESE PADA ADEG ADEG]. This punctutation is also used before other short runs of text, such as subtitles, list items, etc.
꧊ [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] is a general divider. See also quotations.
Letters may begin with ꧋꧆꧋ if the writer doesn't want to indicate a distinction regarding age or rank between themselves and the reader. Otherwise, for more formal letters, they can choose one of three alternatives provided as single characters in the Javanese Unicode block.
The end of a letter can be signaled using ꧉꧆꧉ This combination may also involve just ꧆꧉or may be repeated with spaces between to fill the linee, eg.
꧉ ꧆ ꧉ ꧆ ꧉ ꧆ ꧉
In poetry ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ (purwapada) introduces a poem; ꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ (madyapada) introduces a new song within a poem; and ꧅ꦆ꧅ (wasanapada) indicates the end of a poem.
Optionally, ꧉ [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI] can be added to the above with some space around it. The spaces should be non-breaking, since there should be no line-breaks between the constituent partse, eg.
꧅ ꧉ ꦧ꧀ꦖ ꧉ ꧅
Titles may be marked by a pair of rerenggan characters, ie. ꧁...꧂ The glyphs for these characters may vary substantially.
Javanese commonly uses native punctuation to insert parenthetical information into text.
Typically a pair of ꧊ [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] characters are used.
Alternatively, the pair of characters ꧌ [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] and ꧍ [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH] may be used.
As for parentheses, Javanese text may use ꧊ [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] for quotation marks.
Alternatively, the pair of characters ꧌ [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] and ꧍ [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH] may be used.
To draw attention to text Javanese may use the same characters as are used for parentheses and quotations, ie. a paired set of ꧊ [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] characters around the relevant text, or the two characters ꧌ [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] and ꧍ [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH] can be used similarly.
Sometimes just ꧌ [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] is repeated.
According to Everson ꧈ [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] is used for acronyms, eg. ꧈ꦢꦺ꧈ꦲ꧈ꦌꦭ꧀꧈
It is also used after initials in a name,e eg. ꦫ꧈ꦩ꧈ꦯꦸꦭꦂꦠ
A repeated syllable can be represented by ꧏ [U+A9CF JAVANESE PANGRANGKEP], which is derived from the arabic-indic digit for 2, eg. ꦧꦸꦏꦸꧏ buku-buku books It can be transcribed as buku2.
For 'ditto' marks in vertical lists, Javanese uses ꧉ [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI] .
According to Wikipedia ꧟ [U+A9DF JAVANESE PADA ISEN-ISEN] is used in handwriting to indicate a correction in Yogyakarta, eg. where a scribe wanted to write pada luhur but actually wrote pada wu.. they would use this mark as follows: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ
In Yogyakarta they would use the character ꧞ [U+A9DE JAVANESE PADA TIRTA TUMETES] instead.
Like Tibetan, line breaking can occur after any full orthographic syllable, however no conjuncts are split during line breaking.
Observation: Does a 'full' orthographic syllable include a syllable coda written as a normal consonant letter followed by pangkon? Does that need to be wrapped with the syllable onset and nucleus?
Because there are no spaces between words, and because the end of one word and the beginning of another often form conjuncts (see fig_pangandika), Javanese doesn't wrap at word boundaries. Instead, it wraps at syllable boundaries where no conjuncts are involved.
Unfortunately, modern browsers are often unable to detect appropriate break points for Javanese. In the sample text at the beginning of this page U+200B ZERO WIDTH SPACE] is used at places where the line could be broken. Otherwise, the line would continue, unbroken off the right side of the page. [
Hyphenation, per se, is not used. See an interesting discussion about Javanese & Balinese line-breaking on GitHub.
In some materials, when a new line begins with ꦺ [U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING], an additional spacing taling is placed at the end of the previous line.
In online use, an application would need to create the extra taling, rather than the content author. As line-length is changed by stretching a window, or as content is added earlier in the same paragraph, the location of the word relative to the line edge will change. The insertion of an extra taling is only appropriate at those instants when the taling happens to appear at the line start.
As in almost all writing systems, certain punctuation characters should not appear at the end or the start of a line. The Unicode line-break properties help applications decide whether a character should appear at the start or end of a line.
Show line-breaking properties for characters in the modern Javanese orthography.
The following list gives examples of typical behaviours for some of the characters used in modern Javanese. Context may affect the behaviour of some of these and other characters.
Click/tap on the Javanese characters to show what they are.
Observation: Articles in the Kajawen publication are fully justified. The justification algorithm appears to stretch spaces, which generally occur on each line, and also to slightly stretch inter-character spaces. In the latter case, stacks and super-/subscript diacritics are not affected, but space is added between pre-base vowel signs and base characters, and between base characters and conjoined characters.
Observation: One of the articles in the Kajawen publication uses paragraph indents. See an example.
This section looks at ways in which spacing is applied between characters over and above that which is introduced during justification.
Javanese uses the so-called 'alphabetic' baseline, which is the same as for Latin and many other scripts.
Javanese requires far more vertical space than Latin text. To give an approximate idea, fig_baselines compares Latin and Javanese glyphs from Noto fonts. The basic height of Javanese letters is typically around the Latin x-height, but the overall height is 2 to 3 times that of the Latin letters, creating a need for much larger line spacing.
fig_baselines_other shows similar comparisons for the Tuladha Jejeg and Javanese Text fonts.
This section is for any features that are specific to Javanese and that relate to the following topics: general page layout & progression; grids & tables; notes, footnotes, etc; forms & user interaction; page numbering, running headers, etc.