Javanese character notes

Updated 1 September, 2017 • tags scriptnotes, javanese

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For information about the general features of the Javanese script see the Javanese script summary.

To view this page as intended, you need a Javanese font. This page comes with a Noto Sans Javanese webfont, however there are other free fonts you might consider acquiring, including Tuladha Jejeg and Yokyakarta. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

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You can also find characters for which there are annotations using UniView (switch on Show notes).

The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.

Consonants

Basic consonants

U+A98F JAVANESE LETTER KA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦏ

Javanese consonant    k, (kh)

ka, kɔ

xa when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦏ꦳.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A990 JAVANESE LETTER KA SASAK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= qa

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦐ

Javanese consonant    q

qa, qɔ Used for transliteration of the sound q from the Sasak language.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A991 JAVANESE LETTER KA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= kha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦑ

Javanese murda consonant    k

ka, kɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A992 JAVANESE LETTER GA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦒ

Javanese consonant    g, (gh)

ɡa, ɡɔ

ɣa when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦒ꦳.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A993 JAVANESE LETTER GA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= gha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦓ

Javanese murda consonant    g

ɡa, ɡɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A994 JAVANESE LETTER NGA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦔ

Javanese consonant    ng, (')

ŋa, ŋɔ

ʔa when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦔ꦳.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A995 JAVANESE LETTER CA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦕ

Javanese consonant    c

ʧa, ʧɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A996 JAVANESE LETTER CA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= cha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦖ

Javanese murda consonant    c

ʧa, ʧɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details. It is only found in non-initial positions as a subjoined consonant.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A997 JAVANESE LETTER JA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦗ

Javanese consonant    j, (z)

ʤa, ʤɔ

za when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦗ꦳.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A999 JAVANESE LETTER JA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= jha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦙ

Javanese mahaprana consonant    j

ʤa, ʤɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

In old Javanese this was an aspirated consonant.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A99A JAVANESE LETTER NYA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦚ

Javanese consonant    ny

ɲa, ɲɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A998 JAVANESE LETTER NYA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= jnya

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦘ

Javanese murda consonant    ny

ɲa, ɲɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

This was originally ꦗ꧀ꦚ jnya, but later developed into a single letter.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A99B JAVANESE LETTER TTA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦛ

Javanese consonant    th

ʈa, ʈɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A99C JAVANESE LETTER TTA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ttha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦜ

Javanese mahaprana consonant    th

ʈa, ʈɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

In old Javanese this was an aspirated consonant.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A99D JAVANESE LETTER DDA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦝ

Javanese consonant    dh

ɖa, ɖɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A99E JAVANESE LETTER DDA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ddha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦞ

Javanese consonant    dh

ɖa, ɖɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

In old Javanese this was an aspirated consonant.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A0 JAVANESE LETTER TA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦠ

Javanese consonant    t

t̪a, t̪ɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A1 JAVANESE LETTER TA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦡ

Javanese consonant    t

t̪a, t̪ɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

A rare rekan usage, with other characters, represents the Chinese sound the, ie. ꦡ͜ꦌ̈.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A2 JAVANESE LETTER DA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦢ

Javanese consonant    d, (dz)

d̪a, d̪ɔ

ða when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦢ꦳.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A3 JAVANESE LETTER DA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= dha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦣ

Javanese consonant    d

d̪a, d̪ɔ eg. ꦣꦂꦩ darma dharma. Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A4 JAVANESE LETTER NA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦤ

Javanese consonant    n

na, nɔ

A rare rekan usage, with other characters, represents the Chinese sound nie, ie. ꦤ͜ꦌ̈.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A99F JAVANESE LETTER NA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nna

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦟ

Javanese murda consonant    n

na, nɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A5 JAVANESE LETTER PA

This letter has a special joining, rather than a subjoined, form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦥ

Javanese consonant    p, (f)

pa, pɔ

fa when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦥ꦳.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A6 JAVANESE LETTER PA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pha

This letter has a special joining, rather than a subjoined, form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦦ

Javanese murda consonant    p

pa, pɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A7 JAVANESE LETTER BA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦧ

Javanese consonant    b

ba, bɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A8 JAVANESE LETTER BA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= bha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦨ

Javanese consonant    b

ba, bɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9A9 JAVANESE LETTER MA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦩ

Javanese consonant    m

ma, mɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9AA JAVANESE LETTER YA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦪ

Javanese consonant    y

ja, jɔ

A rare rekan usage, with other characters, represents the Chinese sound yo, ie. ꦪ꦳ꦺꦴ.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9AB JAVANESE LETTER RA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦫ

Javanese consonant    r

ra, rɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9AC JAVANESE LETTER RA AGUNG

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦬ

Javanese consonant ra agung    r

ra, rɔ Not used in modern text. Used historically by some writers to address royal figures.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9AD JAVANESE LETTER LA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦭ

Javanese consonant    l

la, lɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9AE JAVANESE LETTER WA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦮ

Javanese consonant    w

wa, wɔ

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9B1 JAVANESE LETTER SA

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦱ

Javanese consonant    s, (sy)

sa, sɔ

ʃa when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦱ꦳.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9AF JAVANESE LETTER SA MURDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= sha

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦯ

Javanese consonant    s

sa, sɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

A rare rekan usage, with other characters, represents the Chinese sound se, ie. ꦯ͜ꦌ̈. Another represents the Chinese syo, ie. ꦯ꦳ꦾꦺꦴ.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9B0 JAVANESE LETTER SA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ssa

This letter has a special joining, rather than a subjoined, form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦰ

Javanese consonant    s

sa, sɔ Used for honorifics. See the script summary for details.

In old Javanese this was an aspirated consonant.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA

This letter has a special joining, rather than a subjoined, form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦲ

Javanese consonant    h

ha, hɔ when used as a consonant.

a, ∅ This letter is also used as the normal way to show independent vowels, in which case it is pronounced a when the inherent vowel is used, and unpronounced if any other vowel is used, eg. ꦲꦪꦸ ayu graceful.

Does this imply that ha and a are written the same way? Or that h is never really pronounced?

ħa when used as a rekan with ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​], to represent foreign sounds, ie. ꦥ꧀ꦲ꦳.

A rare rekan usage, with other characters, represents the Chinese sound hwe, ie. ꦲ꧀ꦮꦌ̈.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A989 JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic r

This letter has a special joining, rather than a subjoined, form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦉ

Javanese consonant pa cerek   

, eg. ꦲꦸꦧꦶꦉꦧꦸꦱ꧀ ubi rebus boiled tubers. Treated as a consonant in Javanese, this has a conjoint (pasangan) form, eg. ꦒꦼꦭꦱ꧀ꦉꦱꦶꦏ꧀ gelas resik clean glass, however it doesn't carry vowel signs.

In the early version of the script this represented the Sanskrit ɽ. In later developments it came to replace ꦭꦼ.

There is no separate long version of this letter. To create it you need to use + ◌ꦴ [U+A989 JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK + U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A98A JAVANESE LETTER NGA LELET

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic l

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦊ

Javanese independent vocalic vowel nga lelet   

, eg. ꦊꦩꦃꦊꦩ꧀ꦧꦸꦠ꧀ lemah lembut gentle. Treated as a consonant in Javanese.

This has a subjoined (pasangan) form which doesn't carry vowel signs, however, [Teguh] implies that it is not used in modern Javanese, saying that macul lembah is spelled ꦩꦕꦸꦭ꧀ꦭꦼꦩꦃ rather than ꦩꦕꦸꦭ꧀ꦊꦩꦃ.

In the early version of the script this represented the Sanskrit . In later developments it came to replace ꦫꦼ.

The long version of this letter is [U+A98B JAVANESE LETTER NGA LELET RASWADI].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A98B JAVANESE LETTER NGA LELET RASWADI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic ll

Subjoined form, here shown with pa, ꦥ꧀ꦋ

Javanese independent vocalic vowel nga lelet raswadi    leu

Treated as a consonant in Javanese, this has a subjoined (pasangan) form, however it doesn't carry vowel signs.

In the early version of the script this represented the Sanskrit l̪:. In later developments it came to replace ꦭꦼꦴ.

The short version of this letter is [U+A98A JAVANESE LETTER NGA LELET].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

medial consonants

U+A9BD JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN KERET

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic r

Javanese medial consonant kere    -re

Used to indicate a second consonant at the start of a syllable, eg. ꦕꦕꦶꦁꦏꦽꦩꦶ cacing kremi.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9BE JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN PENGKAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= medial ya

Javanese medial consonant pengkal    -y-

j Used to indicate a second consonant at the start of a syllable, eg. ꦏꦾꦲꦶꦏꦤ꧀ꦗꦼꦁ kyai kanjeng.

It's not always clear from a Latin transcription when this is used rather than the letter nya, eg. ꦭꦠꦲꦤ꧀ꦚꦚꦶ latihan nyanyi singing practice.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

ꦿ

U+A9BF JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN CAKRA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= medial ra

Javanese medial consonant cakra    -r-

r Used to indicate a second consonant at the start of a syllable, eg. ꦥꦿꦩꦸꦏ pramuka scout.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

Syllable-final consonants

U+A980 JAVANESE SIGN PANYANGGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= candrabindu

Javanese syllable-final consonant panyangga    -m

m Only used in the syllable om. Nasalises the vowel (like candrabindu).

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A981 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= anusvara

Javanese syllable-final consonant cecak    -ng

ŋ at the end of a syllable, eg. ꦥꦼꦠꦼꦁ peteng dark.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A982 JAVANESE SIGN LAYAR

Description in the Unicode standard:

= repha

Javanese syllable-final consonant layar    -r

r at the end of a syllable, eg. ꦥꦼꦫꦲꦸꦭꦪꦂ perahu layar sailboat.

In searching operations, this should be equivalent to [U+A9AB JAVANESE LETTER RA] , so that word-forms like ꦢꦲꦂ dahar eat and ꦢꦲꦫ dahara eaten will be found together.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A983 JAVANESE SIGN WIGNYAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= visarga

Javanese syllable-final consonant wignyan    -h

h at the end of a syllable, eg ꦱꦼꦏꦺꦴꦭꦃ sekolah school.

In searching operations, this should be equivalent to [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA] , so that word-forms like ꦒꦧꦃ gabah grain of rice and ꦒꦧꦲꦺ gabahe that grain of rice will be found together.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

Pangkon

U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON

Description in the Unicode standard:

= virama

Javanese vowel-killer pangkon   

Usually only visible at the end of a sentence or piece of text, where it suppresses the inherent vowel of the preceding consonant, eg. ꦏꦿꦸꦥꦸꦏ꧀ krupuk crackers.

Between words this character is not usually visible, but it changes the following consonant's glyph shape and/or produces a subjoined consonant to indicate that there is no intervening vowel.

Occasionally this may appear in the middle of a word, eg. ꦧꦶꦱ꧀ꦠꦿꦤ꧀​ꦱ꧀ꦗꦏꦂꦠ bis transjakarta transjakarta bus. It's not clear from the Unicode Standard how to achieve this, however a zero width space works, and so does a zero width non-joiner.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+A984 JAVANESE LETTER A

Javanese independent vowel    a

a This letter is used to differentiate proper nouns or foreign words from ordinary words. The more normal way to represent this independent vowel is to use [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA]. For example, compare ꦲꦪꦸ ayu graceful and ꦄꦪꦸ Ayu, a personal name.

Everson describes a long version of this vowel using ◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​], ie. ꦄꦴ ā. It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A985 JAVANESE LETTER I KAWI

Javanese independent vowel    ?

i

Modern Javanese uses [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I], and if a long vowel is needed [U+A987 JAVANESE LETTER II]. For Kawi, however, use [U+A985 JAVANESE LETTER I KAWI] and [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I] for short and long, respectively.1

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I

Javanese independent vowel    i

i This letter is used to differentiate proper nouns or foreign words from ordinary words. The more normal way to represent this independent vowel is to use + ◌ꦶ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA + U+A9B6 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN WULU​].

Modern Javanese uses [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I], and if a long vowel is needed [U+A987 JAVANESE LETTER II]. For Kawi, however, use [U+A985 JAVANESE LETTER I KAWI] and [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I] for short and long, respectively.1

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A987 JAVANESE LETTER II

Javanese independent vowel    ī

?

Modern Javanese uses [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I], and if a long vowel is needed [U+A987 JAVANESE LETTER II]. For Kawi, however, use [U+A985 JAVANESE LETTER I KAWI] and [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I] for short and long, respectively.1

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A988 JAVANESE LETTER U

Javanese independent vowel    u

u This letter is used to differentiate proper nouns or foreign words from ordinary words. The more normal way to represent this independent vowel is to use + ◌ꦸ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA + U+A9B8 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN SUKU​].

Everson describes a long version of this vowel using ◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​], ie. ꦈꦴ ū. It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A98C JAVANESE LETTER E

Javanese independent vowel    e, é

e, ɛ This letter is used to differentiate proper nouns or foreign words from ordinary words. The more normal way to represent this independent vowel is to use + ◌ꦺ    [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA + U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING​] .

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A98D JAVANESE LETTER AI

Javanese independent vowel    ai

It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A98E JAVANESE LETTER O

Javanese independent vowel    o

o This letter is used to differentiate proper nouns or foreign words from ordinary words. The more normal way to represent this independent vowel is to use + ◌ꦺ   + ◌ꦴ [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA + U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING​ + U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​].

Everson describes another vowel using this letter plus ◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​], ie. ꦎꦴ au. It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

Vowel signs

U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= aa

Javanese vowel sign/length mark tarung   

Used as a length mark, for example the long equivalent of [U+A989 JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK] is ꦉꦴ.

o when used with ◌ꦺ [U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING​]. Note that these two vowel signs have to be input separately, unlike many two-part vowels in Indic scripts, and unlike Balinese also. The corresponding independent vowel letter for o is [U+A98E JAVANESE LETTER O].

ā when used alone according to Everson, ie. ꦲꦴ ā. It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A9B5 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TOLONG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= o

Javanese vowel sign tolong    o, (eu)

It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

Everson lists two sounds associated with this symbol: eu when combined with ◌ꦼ [U+A9BC JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET​], ie. ꦲꦼꦵ, and o when used alone, ie. ꦲꦵ.

Refs: [1] Everson  

U+A9B6 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN WULU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= i

Javanese vowel sign wulu    i

i

The corresponding independent vowel letter is [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9B7 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN WULU MELIK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ii

Javanese vowel sign    ī

It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

The corresponding independent vowel letter is [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I].

Refs: [1] Everson  

U+A9B8 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN SUKU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= u

Javanese vowel sign suku    u

u

The corresponding independent vowel letter is [U+A988 JAVANESE LETTER U].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9B9 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN SUKU MENDUT

Description in the Unicode standard:

= uu

Javanese vowel sign    ū

It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

The corresponding independent vowel letter is + ◌ꦴ [U+A988 JAVANESE LETTER U + U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​].

Refs: [1] Everson  

U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING

Description in the Unicode standard:

= e

Javanese vowel sign taling    é, (o)

e when used alone. The corresponding independent vowel letter is [U+A98C JAVANESE LETTER E].

o when with ◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​]. The corresponding independent vowel letter for o is [U+A98E JAVANESE LETTER O].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9BB JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN DIRGA MURE

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ai

Javanese vowel sign dirga mure    ai, (au)

It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

When used alone, ie. to give ai, the corresponding independent vowel letter is [U+A98D JAVANESE LETTER AI].

When used with ◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​], ie for au, the correspondence is to + ◌ꦴ [U+A98E JAVANESE LETTER O + U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​].

Refs: [1] Everson  

U+A9BC JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ae

Javanese vowel sign pepet    e, (eu)

ə

There is no corresponding independent vowel letter.

Everson describes another vowel using this letter plus ◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​], ie. ꦲꦼꦴ eu. It doesn't appear to be used in modern Javanese.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

Diacritics

U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nukta

Javanese diacritic cecak telu

Used with consonants to represent foriegn sounds (typically sounds of Arabic).

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

Symbols & punctuation

Basic punctuation

U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG

Javanese punctuation pada adeg

Used as parentheses or quotation marks.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9CB JAVANESE PADA ADEG ADEG

Javanese punctuation para adeg adeg

Used to introduce a paragraph or section.

This is also used with [U+A9C6 JAVANESE PADA WINDU] to make ꧋꧆꧋ (pada guru), which introduces a letter without age or rank distinction.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH

Javanese punctuation pada piseleh

Used for parentheses or quotation marks. Paired with [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH

Javanese punctuation pada piseleh

Used for parentheses or quotation marks. Paired with [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= danda

Javanese punctuation pada lingsa

Similar to a comma, but not used as such after ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON​]. If it is used after that, it represents a full stop.

According to Everson [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] is used for acronyms, eg. ꧈ꦢꦺ꧈ꦲ꧈ꦌꦭ꧀꧈ DHL.

It is also used after initials in a name, eg. ꦫ꧈ꦩ꧈ꦯꦸꦭꦂꦠ R. M. Sularta.4

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= double danda

Javanese punctuation pada lungsi

Equivalent to a full stop.

It is also used with [U+A9C6 JAVANESE PADA WINDU] to make ꧉꧆꧉ (pada pancak), which ends a letter.

This combination may also involve just ꧆꧉, or may be repeated with spaces between to fill the line, eg. ꧉ ꧆ ꧉ ꧆ ꧉ ꧆ ꧉ .4

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A9C7 JAVANESE PADA PANGKAT

Javanese punctuation pada pangkat

Colon equivalent, or number indicator.

It is used as a number indicator because many of the digits in Javanese are identical to other letters. The pada pangkat is used on either side of a number to indicate that these are digits, eg. ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ selasa 19 maret 2013 Tuesday, 19 March 2013.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

Other symbols

U+A9CF JAVANESE PANGRANGKEP

Description in the Unicode standard:

• also used in Buginese
→ (arabic-indic digit two - 0662)

Javanese punctuation pada rangkep

Iteration mark, eg. ꦧꦸꦏꦸꧏ buku-buku books. It can be transcribed as buku2.

Derived from the Arabic digit ٢ [U+0662 ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT TWO].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480   [4] Everson  

U+A9C1 JAVANESE LEFT RERENGGAN

Javanese punctuation rerengan

Used around a title. Paired with [U+A9C2 JAVANESE RIGHT RERENGGAN].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9C2 JAVANESE RIGHT RERENGGAN

Javanese punctuation rerengan

Used around a title. Paired with [U+A9C1 JAVANESE LEFT RERENGGAN].

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9C5 JAVANESE PADA LUHUR

Javanese punctuation pada luhur

Used to introduce a letter to a person of older age or higher rank. The difference between this and [U+A9C4 JAVANESE PADA MADYA] and [U+A9C3 JAVANESE PADA ANDAP] is the length of the left-most swash.

This is also used for several other combinations of characters associated with poetry: ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ (purwapada) introduces a poem; ꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ (madyapada) introduces a new song within a poem; and ꧅ꦆ꧅ (wasanapada) indicates the end of a poem.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9C4 JAVANESE PADA MADYA

Javanese punctuation pada madya

Used to introduce a letter to a person of equal age or rank. The difference between this and [U+A9C5 JAVANESE PADA LUHUR] and [U+A9C3 JAVANESE PADA ANDAP] is the length of the left-most swash.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9C3 JAVANESE PADA ANDAP

Javanese punctuation pada andap

Used to introduce a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank. The difference between this and [U+A9C5 JAVANESE PADA LUHUR] and [U+A9C4 JAVANESE PADA MADYA] is the length of the left-most swash.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9DE JAVANESE PADA TIRTA TUMETES

Javanese correction mark pada tirta tumétés

Wikipedia explains that this mark is used in handwriting to indicate a correction in Yogyakarta, eg. where a scribe wanted to write pada luhur but actually wrote pada wu.. they would use this mark as follows: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ.

In Surakarta they would use the character [U+A9DF JAVANESE PADA ISEN-ISEN] instead.

Refs: [2] [Unicode] pp671-674   [3] Wikipedia: Javanese script  

U+A9DF JAVANESE PADA ISEN-ISEN

Javanese correction mark pada isèn-isèn

Wikipedia explains that this mark is used in handwriting to indicate a correction in Yogyakarta, eg. where a scribe wanted to write pada luhur but actually wrote pada wu.. they would use this mark as follows: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ.

In Yogyakarta they would use the character [U+A9DE JAVANESE PADA TIRTA TUMETES] instead.

Refs: [2] [Unicode] pp671-674   [3] Wikipedia: Javanese script  

U+A9C6 JAVANESE PADA WINDU

Javanese punctuation pada windu

This is only used alongside other punctuation marks.

With [U+A9CB JAVANESE PADA ADEG ADEG] to make ꧋꧆꧋ (pada guru), which introduces a letter without age or rank distinction.

With [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI] it is used to make ꧉꧆꧉ (pada pancak), which ends a letter.

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

Digits

U+A9D0 JAVANESE DIGIT ZERO

Javanese digit nol    0

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D1 JAVANESE DIGIT ONE

Javanese digit siji    1

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D2 JAVANESE DIGIT TWO

Javanese digit loro    2

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D3 JAVANESE DIGIT THREE

Javanese digit telu    3

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D4 JAVANESE DIGIT FOUR

Javanese digit papat    4

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D5 JAVANESE DIGIT FIVE

Javanese digit lima    5

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D6 JAVANESE DIGIT SIX

Javanese digit nem    6

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D7 JAVANESE DIGIT SEVEN

Javanese digit pitu    7

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D8 JAVANESE DIGIT EIGHT

Javanese digit wolu    8

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

U+A9D9 JAVANESE DIGIT NINE

Javanese digit sanga    9

Refs: [1] Unicode p661-664   [2] WP Javanese script  [3] Daniels pp477-480  

References

  1. Daniels, Peter T, Bright William, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  2. [Wikipedia] Javanese script
  3. [Unicode] The Unicode Standard v10.0
  4. [Teguh] Teguh Budi Sayoga, Proposal for encoding the Javanese Script in the UCS (A900-A97F)
  5. [Everson] Michael Everson, Proposal for encoding the Javanese script in the UCS
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