Balinese character notes

Updated 1 September, 2017 • tags balinese, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For information about the Balinese script and its features in general, see the companion document Balinese Script Notes.

To view this page as intended, you need a Balinese font. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

This page comes with a Noto Sans Balinese webfont. In cases where that font shows significantly different shaping than the Aksara Bali font, a graphic is included after the textual example to show how the text is rendered in the Aksara Bali font. (If you have the Aksara Bali font on your system, this may look like a duplication.)

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

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You can also find characters for which there are annotations using UniView (switch on Show notes).

The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.

Various signs

U+1B00 BALINESE SIGN ULU RICEM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ardhacandra

Balinese combining character, ulu ricem

-m

When combined with certain syllables this sign becomes part of the Aksara Modre, or holy letters, which are used to write words in Sanskrit, usually part of prayers. This character only appears in Sanskrit texts, eg. ᬰᬶᬤ᭄ᬥᬀ siddham.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B01 BALINESE SIGN ULU CANDRA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= candrabindu

Balinese combining character, ulu candra

When combined with certain syllables this sign becomes part of the Aksara Modre, or holy letters, which are used to write words in Sanskrit, usually part of prayers, eg. ᬫᬁ mang (holy letter).

-m Over ulu candra this creates the letter ongkara, which is the symbol of God, ᬒᬁ and is transcribed om, eg. ᬒᬁᬲ᭄ᬯᬲ᭄ᬢ᭄ᬬᬲ᭄ᬢᬸ om swastiastu (God bless you).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B02 BALINESE SIGN CECEK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= anusvara

Balinese combining character, cecek

ŋ

Only appears at the end of a word, eg. ᬩᬗ᭄ᬓᬸᬂ bangkung (pig), unless the word involves repetition, eg. ᬘᬾᬂᬘᬾᬂ cengceng (musical instrument).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B03 BALINESE SIGN SURANG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= repha

Balinese combining character, surang

-r

Unlike most Brahmi-derived scripts, to represent a Balinese ra that starts a sequence of consonants without intervening vowels this character is used over the preceding syllable, eg. ᬓᬃᬡ karna (ear).

The Kawi form of the script used a repha glyph in the same way as many Brahmic scripts do. However, because many syllables end in -r in the Balinese language, this written form was changed.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B04 BALINESE SIGN BISAH

Description in the Unicode standard:

= visarga

Balinese combining character, bisah

h

Only appears at the end of a word, eg. ᬫᬦᬄ manah (logic), unless the word involves repetition.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B34 BALINESE SIGN REREKAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nukta

Balinese combining character, rerekan

The combining mark rerekan is used, as is a similar sign in Javanese, to extend the character repertoire for foreign sounds. Attested in Library of Congress transliterations and in earlier Sasak orthography are: ᬓ᬴ x, ᬕ᬴ ɣ, ᬗ᬴ ʕ, ᬚ᬴ z, ᬧ᬴ f, ᬯ᬴ v, and ᬳ᬴ ħ. The combination ᬤ᬴ could be used for one-to-one transliteration for Javanese .

Refs: [1] Proposal for encoding the Balinese script in the UCS [Everson et al.]

U+1B44 BALINESE ADEG ADEG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= virama

Balinese virama, adegadeg

This is the Balinese virama. It is usually invisible when used between two characters to indicate an absence of intervening vowels. It is visible, however, at the end of a word that does not finish with a vowel and is not followed by anything else, eg. ᬓᬧᬮ᭄ kapal (ship), or sometimes to clarify the distinction between a word-final consonant and a medial consonant, eg. ᬧᬓ᭄ᬭᬫᬦ᭄ pakraman (membership) vs. eg. ᬧᬓ᭄‌ᬭᬫᬦ᭄ Pak Raman (Mr. Raman).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

Consonants

Basic consonants

U+1B13 BALINESE LETTER KA

Balinese consonant

ka

Conjunct form: ◌᭄ᬓ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B14 BALINESE LETTER KA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= kha

Balinese consonant

?

Very rare in Balinese. This letter is apparently borrowed from Javanese.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬔ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B15 BALINESE LETTER GA

Balinese consonant

ga

Conjunct form: ◌᭄ᬕ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B16 BALINESE LETTER GA GORA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= gha

Balinese consonant, ga gora

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:  ◌᭄ᬖ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B17 BALINESE LETTER NGA

Balinese consonant

ŋa

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬗ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B18 BALINESE LETTER CA

Balinese consonant

ca

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬘ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B19 BALINESE LETTER CA LACA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= cha

Balinese consonant

?

Very rare in Balinese. This letter is apparently borrowed from Javanese. Only the subjoined form of this letter is used, and it is always paired with the normal form of ca.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬙ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B1A BALINESE LETTER JA

Balinese consonant

ʤa

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬚ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B1B BALINESE LETTER JA JERA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= jha

Balinese consonant

ʤa

Seems to be known from only one word, ᬦᬶᬃᬛᬭ nirjhara (pond). (It is possible that an original ai may have been lost in Balinese, to be replaced by the glyph for this character.)

Sudewa says that this is identical to the independent vowel airsania, but in the Unicode charts and elsewhere the top right of airsania airsania and jha is slightly different.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B1C BALINESE LETTER NYA

Balinese consonant

ɲa

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬜ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B1D BALINESE LETTER TA LATIK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tta

Balinese consonant, ta latik

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬝ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B1E BALINESE LETTER TA MURDA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ttha

U+1B1F BALINESE LETTER DA MURDA ALPAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= dda

U+1B20 BALINESE LETTER DA MURDA MAHAPRANA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ddha

U+1B21 BALINESE LETTER NA RAMBAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nna

Balinese consonant, na rambat

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬡ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B22 BALINESE LETTER TA

Balinese consonant

ta

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬢ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B23 BALINESE LETTER TA TAWA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tha

Balinese consonant, ta tawa

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬣ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B24 BALINESE LETTER DA

Balinese consonant

da

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬤ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B25 BALINESE LETTER DA MADU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= dha

Balinese consonant, da madu

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬥ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B26 BALINESE LETTER NA

Balinese consonant

na

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬦ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B27 BALINESE LETTER PA

Balinese consonant

pa

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬧ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B28 BALINESE LETTER PA KAPAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pha

Balinese consonant, pa kapal

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬨ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B29 BALINESE LETTER BA

Balinese consonant

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬩ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B2A BALINESE LETTER BA KEMBANG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= bha

Balinese consonant, ba kembang

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬪ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B2B BALINESE LETTER MA

Balinese consonant

ma

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬫ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B2C BALINESE LETTER YA

Balinese consonant

ja

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬬ

This character is also used for the semi-vowel / medial consonant nania.

When used medially, it can also follow another medial ra or la, eg. ᬩ᭄ᬭ᭄ᬬᬕ᭄ (ᬩ᭄ᬭ᭄ᬬᬕ᭄) briag (laughter).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B2D BALINESE LETTER RA

Balinese consonant/semi vowel/medial consonant, ra / guwung

ra

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬭ .

This character is also used for the semi-vowel / medial consonant guwung, eg. ᬘᬓ᭄ᬭ cakra (disk).

When used medially, it can also be followed by another medial ya or wa, eg. ᬩ᭄ᬭ᭄ᬬᬕ᭄ (ᬩ᭄ᬭ᭄ᬬᬕ᭄) briag (laughter).

Ra is not used with   ᭂ [U+1B42 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET] or   ᭃ [U+1B43 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET TEDUNG]. Instead use [U+1B0B BALINESE LETTER RA REPA], eg. ᬓᭂᬋᬂ , kereng (eat a lot), or [U+1B0C BALINESE LETTER RA REPA TEDUNG], respectively.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B2E BALINESE LETTER LA

Balinese consonant

la

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬮ

This character is also used for the semi-vowel / medial consonant gantungan la.

When used medially, it can also be followed by another medial ya or wa.

La is not used with   ᭂ [U+1B42 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET] or   ᭃ [U+1B43 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET TEDUNG]. Instead use [U+1B0D BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA], eg. ᬢᬍᬃ, taler (therefore), or [U+1B0E BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA TEDUNG], respectively.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B2F BALINESE LETTER WA

Balinese consonant

wa

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬯ

This character is also used for the semi-vowel / medial consonant suku kembung.

When used medially, it can follow another medial ra or la.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B30 BALINESE LETTER SA SAGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= sha

Balinese consonant, sa saga

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬰ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B31 BALINESE LETTER SA SAPA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ssa

Balinese consonant, sa sapa

?

Used for writing Kawi, rather than ordinary Balinese words.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬱ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B32 BALINESE LETTER SA

Balinese consonant

sa

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬲ , eg. ᬧᬓ᭄ᬲ paksa (force).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B33 BALINESE LETTER HA

Balinese consonant

ha

- when used as a support for a vowel. It is used as a support for a vowel sign when an independent vowel is used within a word, eg. ᬤᬳᬾᬭᬄ ᬤᬳᬾᬭᬄ daerah (development). The vowels pepet and pepet tedong have no independent form, so they are represented with ha plus vowel sign at the start of a word, too.

Conjunct form:   ◌᭄ᬳ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

Additional consonants

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+1B05 BALINESE LETTER AKARA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= a

Balinese independent vowel, a kara

a

This represents the same sound that is the inherent vowel.

Sometimes this vowel can be found as a support for vowel signs, but this is incorrect usage according to Sudewa, and should be avoided.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B06 BALINESE LETTER AKARA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= aa
≡ 1B05 1B35

Balinese independent vowel, a kara tedong

ɑː

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B07 BALINESE LETTER IKARA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= i

Balinese independent vowel, i kara

i

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B08 BALINESE LETTER IKARA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ii
≡ 1B07 1B35

Balinese independent vowel, i kara tedong

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B09 BALINESE LETTER UKARA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= u

Balinese independent vowel, u kara

u

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B0A BALINESE LETTER UKARA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= uu
≡ 1B09 1B35

Balinese independent vowel, u kara tedong

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B0B BALINESE LETTER RA REPA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic r

Balinese consonant, ra repa

Balinese does not use ra + pepet to represent the sound . Instead it uses this ra repa character. Ra repa at the beginning of a syllable, such as in ᬓᭂᬋᬂ kěrěng (eat a lot), is treated as a consonant.

Ra repa has a postfixed form and a subjoined form. The postfixed form ◌᭄ᬭᭂ is seen where the consonant form of ra repa follows a word which ends in a consonant, such as ᬧᬓ᭄ᬋᬋᬄ Pak Rěrěh (Mr Rereh). The sequence of characters to be used for this is <consonant, adeg-adeg, ra repa> (ie. not using  ᬺ [U+1B3A BALINESE VOWEL SIGN RA REPA]).

The subjoined form ◌ᬺ is used to represent the original vocalic r. In such cases, it follows a syllable-initial consonant, as in ᬓᬺᬰ᭄ᬡ Krěsna (Krishna). This is where U+1B3A BALINESE VOWEL SIGN RA REPA is used. The sequence of characters to be used here is <consonant, vowel sign ra repa>.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia] [3] Southeast Asian Scripts [Unicode]

U+1B0C BALINESE LETTER RA REPA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic rr
≡ 1B0B 1B35

U+1B0D BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic l

U+1B0E BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic ll
≡ 1B0D 1B35

U+1B0F BALINESE LETTER EKARA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= e

Balinese independent vowel, e kara

e, ɛ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B10 BALINESE LETTER AIKARA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ai

Balinese independent vowel, airsania

aːi

Sudewa says that this is identical to the consonant jha, but in the Unicode charts and elsewhere the top right of airsania and jha is slightly different.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B11 BALINESE LETTER OKARA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= o

Balinese independent vowel, o kara

o, ɔ

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B12 BALINESE LETTER OKARA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= au
≡ 1B11 1B35

Balinese independent vowel, o kara tedong

aːu

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

Dependent vowel signs

U+1B35 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= aa

Balinese vowel sign, tedong

ɑː

Pronounced longer than the inherent vowel. It is often used with prefixes, eg. ‘ma’ + ‘adep’ becoming mādep. If it appears in the holy texts, that are meant to be recited, this vowel can be pronounced even longer than the normal reading.

This vowel sign typically ligates with the preceding consonant, eg. ha, tedong is ᬳᬵ and consonant, adeg-adeg, ya, tedong is   ◌᭄ᬬᬵ (◌᭄ᬬᬵ).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B36 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN ULU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= i

Balinese vowel sign, ulu

i

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B37 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN ULU SARI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ii

Balinese vowel sign, ulu-sari

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B38 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN SUKU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= u

Balinese vowel sign, suku

u

The glyph changes when this appears after conjoined consonants, eg. kyu looks like ᬓ᭄ᬬᬸ (ᬓ᭄ᬬᬸ ).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B39 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN SUKU ILUT

Description in the Unicode standard:

= uu

Balinese vowel sign, suku-ilut

The glyph changes when this appears after conjoined consonants, eg. kyū looks like ᬓ᭄ᬬᬹ (ᬓ᭄ᬬᬹ ).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B3A BALINESE VOWEL SIGN RA REPA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic r

Balinese vowel sign/semi-vowel/medial consonant, guwung macelek

In Balinese the combination [U+1B2D BALINESE LETTER RA] +  ᭂ [U+1B42 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET] is not used. Instead [U+1B0B BALINESE LETTER RA REPA] is used. This can be used for what was originally a vocalic r.

This subjoined form of ra repa follows a syllable-initial consonant, as in ᬓᬺᬰ᭄ᬡ Krěsna (Krishna).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B3B BALINESE VOWEL SIGN RA REPA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic rr
≡ 1B3A 1B35

Balinese vowel sign/semi-vowel/medial consonant, guwung macelek tedong

rəː

In Balinese the combination [U+1B2D BALINESE LETTER RA] +  ᭃ [U+1B43 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET TEDUNG] is not used. Instead [U+1B0C BALINESE LETTER RA REPA TEDUNG] is used.

This subjoined form of ra repa tedong follows a syllable-initial consonant.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B3C BALINESE VOWEL SIGN LA LENGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic l

Balinese vowel sign

In Balinese the combination [U+1B2E BALINESE LETTER LA] +  ᭂ [U+1B42 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET] is not used. Instead [U+1B0D BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA] is used.

This subjoined form of la lenga follows a syllable-initial consonant.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B3D BALINESE VOWEL SIGN LA LENGA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= vocalic ll
≡ 1B3C 1B35

Balinese vowel sign

ləː

In Balinese the combination [U+1B2E BALINESE LETTER LA] +  ᭃ [U+1B43 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET TEDUNG] is not used. Instead [U+1B0E BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA TEDUNG] is used.

This subjoined form of la lenga tedong follows a syllable-initial consonant.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B3E BALINESE VOWEL SIGN TALING

Description in the Unicode standard:

= e

Balinese vowel sign, taleng

e, ɛ

This vowel sign appears before the consonant it modifies.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

ᬿ

U+1B3F BALINESE VOWEL SIGN TALING REPA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ai

Balinese vowel sign, taleng-repa

aːi

This vowel sign appears before the consonant it modifies.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B40 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN TALING TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= o
≡ 1B3E 1B35

Balinese vowel sign, taleng tedong

o, ɔ

The two parts of this vowel sign appear on either side of the consonant it modifies.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B41 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN TALING REPA TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= au
≡ 1B3F 1B35

Balinese vowel sign, taleng-repa tedong

aːu

The two parts of this vowel sign appear on either side of the consonant it modifies.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B42 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ae

Balinese vowel sign, pepet

ə

This vowel sign is not used with [U+1B2D BALINESE LETTER RA] or [U+1B2E BALINESE LETTER LA]. Instead use [U+1B0B BALINESE LETTER RA REPA], eg. ᬓᭂᬋᬂ, kereng (eat a lot), or [U+1B0D BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA], eg. ᬢᬍᬃ, taler (therefore).

There is no independent vowel corresponding to this. Instead use pepet with [U+1B33 BALINESE LETTER HA], ie. ᬳᭂ.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B43 BALINESE VOWEL SIGN PEPET TEDUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= oe
≡ 1B42 1B35

Balinese vowel sign, pepet tedong

əː

This vowel sign is not used with [U+1B2D BALINESE LETTER RA] or [U+1B2E BALINESE LETTER LA]. Instead use [U+1B0C BALINESE LETTER RA REPA TEDUNG] or [U+1B0E BALINESE LETTER LA LENGA TEDUNG], respectively.

There is no independent vowel corresponding to this. Instead use pepet tedong with [U+1B33 BALINESE LETTER HA], ie. ᬳᭃ (ᬳᭃ).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

Digits

U+1B50 BALINESE DIGIT ZERO

Balinese digit, bindu/windu

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B51 BALINESE DIGIT ONE

Balinese digit, siki/besik

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B52 BALINESE DIGIT TWO

Balinese digit, kalih/dua

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B53 BALINESE DIGIT THREE

Balinese digit, tiga/telu

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B54 BALINESE DIGIT FOUR

Balinese digit, papat

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B55 BALINESE DIGIT FIVE

Balinese digit, lima

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B56 BALINESE DIGIT SIX

Balinese digit, nem

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B57 BALINESE DIGIT SEVEN

Balinese digit, pitu

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B58 BALINESE DIGIT EIGHT

Balinese digit, kutus

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B59 BALINESE DIGIT NINE

Balinese digit, sanga/sia

Refs: [1] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

Punctuation

U+1B5A BALINESE PANTI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= section

Balinese punctuation, panten

Used at the beginning of a letter, story or verse.

(At the end of a letter, story or verse you find pasalinan ᭟᭜᭟.)

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B5B BALINESE PAMADA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= honorific section

Balinese punctuation, pamada

Used at the beginning of religious texts. This symbol is a ligature of the letters in the word mangajapa, which roughly means "praying for safety".

Also used at the end of the same text as part of carik agung ᭛᭜᭛.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B5C BALINESE WINDU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= punctuation ring

Balinese punctuation

Used at the end of religious texts as part of carik agung ᭛᭜᭛ and at the end of letters, stories and verse as part of pasalinan ᭟᭜᭟.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B5D BALINESE CARIK PAMUNGKAH

Description in the Unicode standard:

= colon

Balinese punctuation, carik pamungkah

Equivalent to a colon.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B5E BALINESE CARIK SIKI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= danda
→ (devanagari danda - 0964)

Balinese punctuation, carik

Equivalent to a comma.

This is also used for acronyms, eg. Bank Pembangunan Daerah Bali (Development Bank of Bali Province) can be abbreviated to ᬩ᭞ᬧᭂ᭞ᬤ᭞ᬩᬮᬶba pe da bali.

It is also used to surround numbers, since many digits cannot be distinguished from letters, eg. ᬩᬮᬶ᭞᭓᭞ᬚᬸᬮᬶ᭞᭑᭙᭘᭒᭟ (Bali, 3 July 1982).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B5F BALINESE CARIK PAREREN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= double danda
→ (devanagari double danda - 0965)

Balinese punctuation, carik pareren

Equivalent to a period.

Also used as part of pasalinan ᭟᭜᭟ which indicates the end of a letter, story or verse that began with panten ( [U+1B5A BALINESE PANTI]).

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

U+1B60 BALINESE PAMENENG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= line-breaking hyphen

Balinese punctuation, pameneng

In lontar texts where a word must be broken at the end of a line (always after a full syllable), the sign pameneng is inserted. This sign is not used as a word-joining hyphen; it is used only in linebreaking.

Refs: [1] The Balinese Alphabet [Sudewa] [2] Balinese Script [Wikipedia]

Musical symbols

Musical symbols for notes

Diacritical marks for musical symbols

More musical symbols

Further reading

  1. [Sudewa] The Balinese Alphabet
  2. [Everson et al.] Proposal for encoding the Balinese script in the UCS
  3. [Wikipedia] Balinese script
  4. [Unicode] The Unicode Standard v6.0
  5. [Omniglot] Balinese
  6. [ScriptSource] Balinese
First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2017-09-01 8:55 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.