Myanmar character notes

Updated 20 July, 2017 • tags burmese, myanmar, scriptnotes.

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered or copied from various places.

For information about Myanmar script and its features in general, see the companion document Myanmar Script Notes.

You can obtain fonts for this page free from the Web, but you must use fonts compatible with Unicode 5.1. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply webfonts downloaded with this page, or other fonts if you have them on your system. For the IPA transcriptions, I recommend downloading the free Doulos Sil or Gentium Plus fonts.

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

Find

You can also find characters for which there are annotations using UniView (switch on Show notes).

The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.

Consonants

Basic consonants

က

U+1000 MYANMAR LETTER KA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1000 FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

k, eg. ကား car.

ʔ in final position in native syllables, eg. ဘက် bɛʔ side.

g where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), eg. တကယ်ပါ da̰gɛ̀bà certainly, really.

in combination with a following  ျ [U+103B MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL YA] or  ြ [U+103C MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL RA], eg. ကျောင်း tɕáʊɴ school, ကြိုက် tɕaɪʔ like.

U+1001 MYANMAR LETTER KHA

Burmese consonant

, eg. ခေါက်ဆွဲ kʰaʊʔ sʰwɛ́ noodles.

g where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), eg. ပြီးခဲ့တဲ့လ pjígɛ̰dɛ̰la̰ last month.

tɕʰ in combination with a following  ျ [U+103B MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL YA] or  ြ [U+103C MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL RA], eg. ချယ် tɕʰɛ̀ cook.

U+1002 MYANMAR LETTER GA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1002 FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

g, eg. ဂဏန်း ga̰náɴ crab.

in combination with a following  ျ [U+103B MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL YA] or  ြ [U+103C MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL RA], eg. ဂျပန် dʑa̰pàɴ Japan.

U+1003 MYANMAR LETTER GHA

Burmese consonant

g

Rarely used in modern Burmese. Primarily used in words of Pali origin.

U+1004 MYANMAR LETTER NGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1004 FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

ŋ , eg. ငါး ŋá fish.

Vowel nasalisation in final position in native syllables, eg. ဝင် wɪ̀ɴ enter.

When this is the first consonant in a consonant cluster and non-word-final, it rises over the second letter and keeps its virama, rather than pushing the second consonant below it, eg. အင်္ဂလန် ʔɪ̀ɴga̰làɴ England. This is called 'kinzi' ကင်းစီး kɪ́ɴzí.

Before Unicode 5.1 it was occasionally difficult to automatically detect whether a kinzi followed by a medial consonant spans two syllables or not. This was fixed in Unicode 5.1. The required sequence of characters to represent a kinzi is:

[U+1004 MYANMAR LETTER NGA]
 ် [U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT]
 ္ [U+1039 MYANMAR SIGN VIRAMA]
[U+1002 MYANMAR LETTER GA] (or whatever else follows the kinzi)  

U+1005 MYANMAR LETTER CA

Burmese consonant

s , eg. စာအှပ် sàʔoʊʔ book.

ʔ in final position in native syllables, eg. ရစ် jɪʔ pheasant.

z where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), but also, irregularly, in word-initial position, eg. စေတီ zèdì table.

z in combination with  ျ [U+103B MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL YA], eg. စျေး market.

U+1006 MYANMAR LETTER CHA

Burmese consonant

, eg. ဆိုင် sʰàɪɴ shop.

z where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), eg. ထမင်းဆိုင် tʰa̰mɪ́ɴzàɪɴ restaurant (but တစ်ဆယ် ten is pronounced tɪʔsʰɛ̀ not tɪʔzɛ̀).

U+1007 MYANMAR LETTER JA

Burmese consonant

z, eg. ဇွန်း zʊ́ɴ spoon.

U+1008 MYANMAR LETTER JHA

Burmese consonant

z, eg. ဈေး market.

Rarely used.

U+1009 MYANMAR LETTER NYA

Burmese consonant

ɲ. Rare in initial position.

It is also uncommon in final position, but it has come to be used to produce nasalisation, whereas [U+100A MYANMAR LETTER NNYA] produces none, eg. လေယာဉ် lèjaɴ airplane. Compare ညဉ် ɲɪ̀ɴ, and ညည်း ɲí.

U+100A MYANMAR LETTER NNYA

Burmese consonant

ɲ, eg. ညာ ɲà right.

Unlike other nasals, this is silent in syllable final position, eg. အမည်း ʔa̰mɛ́ black. Compare with [U+1009 MYANMAR LETTER NYA], which does produce nasalisation at the end of a syllable, ie. ညဉ် ɲɪ̀ɴ, but ညည်း ɲí.

U+100B MYANMAR LETTER TTA

Burmese consonant

t

Rarely used in modern Burmese. Primarily used in words of Pali origin.

U+100C MYANMAR LETTER TTHA

Burmese consonant

t

This character is rotated in conjuncts, eg. က္ဌ to represent က်ဌ.

Rarely used in modern Burmese. Primarily used in words of Pali origin.

U+100D MYANMAR LETTER DDA

Burmese consonant

d, eg. ကဏ္ဍ kàɴda̰ section.

Rarely used in modern Burmese. Primarily used in words of Pali origin.

U+100E MYANMAR LETTER DDHA

Burmese consonant

d

Rarely used in modern Burmese. Primarily used in words of Pali origin.

U+100F MYANMAR LETTER NNA

Burmese consonant

n, eg. ဂဏန်း ga̰náɴ crab.

Rarely used. Primarily used in words of Pali origin.

U+1010 MYANMAR LETTER TA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1010 FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

t, eg. တက် tɛʔ to be able to.

ʔ in final position in native syllables, eg. အိတ် ʔeɪʔ bag.

d where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), eg. သတင်းစာ θa̰dɪ́ɴzà farmer, but also, irregularly, in word-initial position.

U+1011 MYANMAR LETTER THA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1011 FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

, eg. ထီး tʰí umbrella.

d where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), eg. အကျဉ်းထောင် ʔa̰dʑɪ́ɴdàʊɴ prison, but also, irregularly, in word-initial position, eg. ထားဝယ် dáwɛ̀ Tavoy/Dawei.

U+1012 MYANMAR LETTER DA

Burmese consonant

d, eg. ဒေါ်လေး dɔ̀lé aunt.

U+1013 MYANMAR LETTER DHA

Burmese consonant

d, eg. ဓာတ် daʔ electric.

U+1014 MYANMAR LETTER NA

Burmese consonant

n, eg. နာရီ nàjì hour.

Nasalises the vowel in final position in native syllables, eg. ပန်း páɴ flower.

U+1015 MYANMAR LETTER PA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1015 FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

p, eg. ပိုက်ဆံ paɪʔsʰàɴ money.

ʔ in final position in native syllables, eg. သိပ် θeɪʔ very.

b where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), but also, irregularly, in word-initial position, eg. ပုဂံ bəgàɴ Pagan/Bagan.

U+1016 MYANMAR LETTER PHA

Burmese consonant

, ဖိနပ် pʰənaʔ shoe.

This is used to represent the foriegn sound f.

b where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), eg. ပြောင်းဖူး pjáʊɴbú corn.

U+1017 MYANMAR LETTER BA

Burmese consonant

b, eg. ဗိုက်ဆာတယ် baɪʔsʰàdɛ̀ to be hungry.

Also used to represent the foriegn sound v or occasionally in the combination ဗွ bw̱, eg. တီဗွီ tìbwì.

U+1018 MYANMAR LETTER BHA

Burmese consonant

b, eg. ဘဲ bɛ́ duck.

sometimes at the beginning of words or particles, eg. ဘုရား pʰəjá pagoda.

U+1019 MYANMAR LETTER MA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1019 FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

m, eg. မာ hard.

Nasalises the vowel in final position in native syllables, eg. အိမ် ʔèɪɴ house, home.

U+101A MYANMAR LETTER YA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 101A FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

j, eg. ယောက်ျား jaʊʔtɕá man, husband.

ɛ in final position with  ် [U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] this indicates the low tone of the vowel အဲ , eg. ဘယ် bɛ̀ which.

For the medial form see  ျ [U+103B MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL YA].

U+101B MYANMAR LETTER RA

Burmese consonant

j, eg. ရေ water.

r in loan words, eg. ရေဒီယို rèdìjò radio.

ʃ when followed by medial ha, eg. ရှိတယ် ʃḭdɛ̀ to have.

For the medial form see  ြ [U+103C MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL RA].

U+101C MYANMAR LETTER LA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 101C FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

l, eg. လွတ်လပ် lʊʔlaʔ independent.

ʃ or hlj in the combination လျှ, eg. လမ်းလျှောက်တယ် láɴʃaʊʔtɛ̀ to walk.

Silent at the end of some Pali words, eg. တက္ကသိုလ် təʔkəθò university; ဗိုလ် lieutenant.

U+101D MYANMAR LETTER WA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 101D FE00 dotted form

Burmese consonant

w, ဝန်ကြီး wʊ̀ɴtɕí minister.

For the medial form see  ွ [U+103D MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL WA].

U+101E MYANMAR LETTER SA

Burmese consonant

θ eg. သိုး θóʊɴ three.

ð where affected by sandhi (typically non-word-initial, and not preceded by a glottal stop or prefix), eg. ပန်းသီး páɴðí apple.

When doubled, the result is commonly the special character [U+103F MYANMAR LETTER GREAT SA], rather than သ္သ. သ်သ is used across word boundaries.

U+101F MYANMAR LETTER HA

Burmese consonant

h, eg. ဟုတ်ကဲ့ hoʊʔkɛ̰ yes.

For the medial form see  ှ [U+103E MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL HA].

U+1020 MYANMAR LETTER LLA

Burmese consonant

l, eg. စကြဝဠာ seja̰wə̰là universe, ဂဠုန် gəlòʊɴ Garuda.

Rarely used.

U+103F MYANMAR LETTER GREAT SA

Burmese consonant ligature

θ Used to represent a doubled [U+101E MYANMAR LETTER SA], eg. သဿ θa̰θθa̰ Pali corn, crop, rather than *သသ္သ.

In modern Burmese, appears within words, whereas သ်သ is used across word boundaries.

Refs: [Uniprop] 3

Dependent consonant signs

U+103B MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL YA

Burmese medial consonant

j, eg. ပျော် pjɔ̀ happy.

or tɕʰ in combination with an unvoiced velar stop, eg. ကျား tɕá tiger, ချက် tɕʰɛʔ cook.

in combination with a voiced velar stop, eg. ဂျပန် dʑəpàɴ Japan.

ʃ in the combinations သျှ and လျှ, eg. လမ်းလျှောက်တယ် láɴʃaʊʔtɛ̀ to walk.

Generally only used with bilabial and velar consonants (က ခ ဂ ဃ င ပ ဖ ဗ မ လ သ). All typical combinations with other medials (shown here on မ m) are မျှ မျွ မျွှ mj̥ mjw mjw̥.wpAlpha

U+103C MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL RA

Burmese medial consonant

j, eg. ပြည် pjɛ country.

or tɕʰ in combination with an unvoiced velar stop, eg. ကြက် tɕɛʔ chicken.

in combination with a voiced velar stop, eg. ကြား dʑá between.

ɲ in combination with a voiced velar nasal, eg. tbd.

Generally only used with bilabial and velar consonants (က ခ ဂ ဃ င ပ ဖ ဗ မ လ သ), (but in Pali and Sanskrit loanwords, can be used for other consonants as well e.g. ဣန္ဒြေ ʔḭɴdjè). All typical combinations with other medials (shown here on မ m) are မြှ မြွ မြွှ mj̥ mjw mjw̥.wpAlpha

U+103D MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL WA

Burmese medial consonant

w eg. သွား θwà to go.

All typical combinations with other medials (shown here on မ m) are မျွ မျွှ မြွ မြွှ မွှ mjw mjw̥ mjw mjw̥ m̥w.wpAlpha

U+103E MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL HA

Burmese medial consonant

Adds heavy aspiration to the preceding consonant, eg. နှာ n̥à nose. Used when there is no consonant that is aspirated in its own right.

Special combinations:

ʃ in combination with , eg. ရှိတယ် ʃḭdɛ̀ to have.

ʃ in the combinations သျှ and လျှ, eg. လျှာ ʃà tongue.

Occurs with the following consonants င ည ဉ န မ လ ဝ ယ ရ. All typical combinations with other medials (shown here on မ m) are မျှ မျွှ မြှ မြွှ မွှ mj̥ mjw̥ mj̥ mjw̥ mw̥.wpAlpha

Pali and Sanskrit extensions

Extensions for Mon

Extensions for S'gaw Karen

Extensions for Western Pwo Karen

Extensions for Eastern Pwo Karen

Extensions for Shan

U+1075 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN KA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1075 FE00 dotted form

U+1078 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN CA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1078 FE00 dotted form

U+107A MYANMAR LETTER SHAN NYA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 107A FE00 dotted form

U+1080 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN THA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1080 FE00 dotted form

Extension for Rumai Palaung

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+1021 MYANMAR LETTER A

Description in the Unicode standard:

• also represents the glottal stop as a consonant

Burmese consonant / initial vowel

ʔ as a vowel support sign. The combination of this character and a vowel sign is the normal native way of showing syllable initial vowels. For instance, အိ is the standard Burmese way to represent an initial i vowel. Examples: အိတ် ʔeɪʔ bag, အားကစား ʔágəzá sport,athletics, အုန်းသီး ʔóʊɴdʰí coconut, အောက်တိုဘာ ʔaʊʔtòbà October.

As a syllable initial vowel without any other vowel sign attached it sounds like:

a in open syllables, eg. အရိပ် ʔa̰jeɪʔ shadow, although this is often reduced to ə.

ɪ, ɛ, a, ɪɴ, aɴ in closed syllables, per the following table, where the end consonant in the rhyme is shown across the top:

  - + ့ + း example
က် ɛʔ     အက္ခရာ ʔɛʔkʰəjà character, script 
စ် ɪʔ      
တ်      
ပ်     အပ်ချုပ်သမား ʔaʔtɕʰoʊʔθəmá tailor
င် ɪ̀ɴ ɪ̰ɴ ɪ́ɴ အင်္ဂလန် ʔɪ̀ɴgə̰làɴ England
ည် ì, è, ɛ̀ ḭ, ḛ, ɛ̰ í, é, ɛ́  
ဉ် ɪ̀ɴ ɪ̰ɴ ɪ́ɴ  
န် àɴ a̰ɴ áɴ အန္တရာယ် ʔàɴdəje danger 
မ် àɴ a̰ɴ áɴ  
àɴ a̰ɴ áɴ  

U+1022 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN A

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1022 FE00 dotted form

U+1023 MYANMAR LETTER I

Burmese initial vowel

ʔḭ Alternative character for 'short' version of primary front vowel, used in syllable initial position, and indicating creaky tone, cf. အိ which uses the vowel support character and vowel-sign.

Used in a few words only (typically Indian loan words).

U+1024 MYANMAR LETTER II

Burmese initial vowel

ʔì, eg. ʔì this.

Alternative character for 'long' version of primary front vowel, used in syllable initial position, and indicating low tone, cf. အီ which uses the vowel support character and vowel-sign.

Used in a few words only (typically Indian loan words). Also used in Burmese literary form for 'this', shown above; alternative spelling is ဒီ.

U+1025 MYANMAR LETTER U

Burmese initial vowel

ʔṵ, eg. ʔṵ egg.

Alternative character for 'short' version of primary back vowel, used in syllable initial position, and indicating creaky tone, cf. အု which uses the vowel support character and vowel-sign.

Used in a few words only (typically Indian loan words).

U+1026 MYANMAR LETTER UU

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 1025 102E

Burmese initial vowel

ʔù, eg. ဦး ʔù uncle, Mr..

Alternative character for 'long' version of primary back vowel, used in syllable initial position, and indicating low tone, cf. အူ which uses the vowel support character and vowel-sign.

Used in a few words only (typically Indian loan words).

U+1027 MYANMAR LETTER E

Burmese initial vowel

ʔè, eg. ဧရာဝတီ ʔèjàwa̰dì Irawaddy river, ဧက ʔèka̰ acre.

Alternative character for high front mid vowel, used in syllable initial position, and indicating creaky tone. Cf. အေ့ which uses the vowel support character and vowel-sign.

Used in a few words only (typically Indian loan words).

U+1029 MYANMAR LETTER O

Burmese initial vowel

ʔɔ́, eg. ဩဂုတ် ʔɔ́goʊʔ August, ဩဇာသီး ʔɔ́zàðí custard apple.

Alternative character for low back mid vowel, used in syllable initial position, and indicating high tone. Cf. အော which uses the vowel support character and vowel-signs.

Used a few words only (typically Indian loan words).

U+102A MYANMAR LETTER AU

Burmese initial vowel

ʔɔ̀

Alternative character for low back mid vowel, used in syllable initial position, and indicating low tone. Cf. အော် which uses the vowel support character and vowel-signs.

Used in a few words only (typically Indian loan words).

Dependent vowel signs

U+102B MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN TALL AA

Burmese vowel sign

Shapes like ဝာ wa are hard to distinguish from shapes like ta, so this taller alternative to  ာ [U+102C MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN AA] is used where needed to avoid visual confusion. Whether alone or as part of a complex vowel, it is used after the following consonants: ဝ ခ ဂ င ဒ ပ, eg. ပေါင် pàʊɴ thigh. Where there is no ambiguity, however, the normal shape is used, eg. ပြောင်းဖူး pjáʊɴbú corn.

On its own:

a Used only in open syllables. Low tone by default, eg. တံဂါ təɴgà fisherman. High tone with visarga, eg. တံခါး dəgá door.

For creaky tone use inherent vowel, instead.

With  ေ [U+1031 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN E] (အေါ)

The vowel signs surround the base character.

ɔ in open syllables. High tone by default, eg. tbd; Creaky tone with low dot, eg. ပေါ့တယ် pɔ̰dɛ̀ bland, tasteless.

Use asat for low tone, eg. ဒေါ်လေး dɔlè aunt. Note how the asat combines in a special way with the shape.

in closed syllables. Usually combines with only the following finals, က င. Low tone by default, eg. သန်းခေါင် dəgàʊɴ midnight. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. ပေါ့တယ် pɔ̰dɛ̀ to be light. High tone with visarga, eg. ခေါင်း kʰáʊɴ head. (Stopped tone with the stop final, eg. ပြတင်းပေါက် bədɪ́ɴbaʊʔ window. )

As an initial vowel this is usually အေါ but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the following alternative single characters: [U+1029 MYANMAR LETTER O] for high tone, eg. ဩဂုတ် ʔɔ́goʊʔ August; [U+102A MYANMAR LETTER AU] for low tone.

U+102C MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN AA

Burmese vowel sign

Shapes like ဝာ wa are hard to distinguish from shapes like ta, so a taller alternative to this character,  ါ [U+102B MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN TALL AA], is used where needed to avoid visual confusion. Whether alone or as part of a complex vowel, it is used after the following consonants: ဝ ခ ဂ င ဒ ပ, eg. ပေါင် pàʊɴ thigh. Where there is no ambiguity, however, this normal shape is used, eg. ပြောင်းဖူး pjáʊɴbú corn.

On its own:

a Used only in open syllables. Low tone by default, eg. ဆရာ sʰəjà teacher. High tone with visarga, eg. နွား nwá cow.

For creaky tone use inherent vowel, instead.

With  ေ [U+1031 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN E] (အော)

The vowel signs surround the base character.

ɔ in open syllables. High tone by default, eg. ထောပတ်သီး tʰɔ́baʔdʰí banana. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. ပျော့တယ် pjɔ̰dɛ̀ to be soft.

Use asat for low tone, eg. ပျော်တယ် pjɔ̀dɛ̀ to be happy.

in closed syllables. Usually combines with only the following finals, က င. Low tone by default, eg. ကြောင် dʑàʊɴ cat. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. စောင့်တယ် sa̰ʊɴdɛ̀ to wait. High tone with visarga, eg. ကျောင်း dʑáʊɴ school. (Stopped tone with the stop final, eg. နောက်လ naʊʔla̰ next month. )

As an initial vowel this is usually အော but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the following alternative single characters: [U+1029 MYANMAR LETTER O] for high tone, eg. ဩဂုတ် ʔɔ́goʊʔ August; [U+102A MYANMAR LETTER AU] for low tone.

U+102D MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN I

Burmese vowel sign

On its own:

i in open syllables. Creaky tone only, eg. အဘိဓာန် ʔa̰bḭdaɴ dictionary.

For high and low tones use  ီ [U+102E MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN II].

in closed syllables. Usually combines with the nasal finals န မ (or the anusvara). Low tone by default, eg. အိမ် ʔèɪɴ house. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. tbd. High tone with visarga, eg. တစ်သိန်း təθéɪɴ hundred thousand. Stopped tone with the stop finals တ ပ, eg. အိတ် ʔeɪʔ bag.

As an initial vowel this is usually အိ, eg. အိန္ဒိယ ʔèɪɴdḭja̰ India, but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the following alternative single character: [U+1023 MYANMAR LETTER I], eg.ဣန္ဒြေ ʔḭɴdjè.

With  ု [U+102F MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN U] (အို)

The vowel signs surround the base character vertically.

o in open syllables. Low tone by default, eg. အညို ʔəɲò brown. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. နို့နဲ့ no̰nɛ̰ with milk. High tone with visarga, eg. ဆိုး sʰó bad.

in closed syllables. Usually combines with only the nasal final . Low tone by default, eg. ဆိုင် sʰàɪɴ store. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. tbd. High tone with visarga, eg. ထိုင်းနိုင်ဂံ tʰáɪɴnàɪɴgàɴ Thailand. Stopped tone only with final က, eg. လိုက် laɪʔ follow.

As an initial vowel this is အို.

U+102E MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN II

Burmese vowel sign

i Used only in open syllables. Low tone by default, eg. စေတီ zèdì table. High tone with visarga, eg. မီး fire.

For creaky tone, use  ိ [U+102D MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN I].

As an initial vowel this is usually အီ but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the following alternative single character: [U+1024 MYANMAR LETTER II], eg. ʔì this.

In the distant past, this letter represented a long vowel and  ိ [U+102D MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN I] represented a short vowel. Now, the only difference is tonal.

U+102F MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN U

Burmese vowel sign

When something else extends below the base consonant, the glyph for this character is usually drawn to the right of the stack, eg. လူမျိုး lùmjó nationality. An exception is လားရှိုး láʃó Lashio.

On its own:

u in open syllables. Creaky tone only, eg. ဟင်းနုနွယ် hɪ́ɴnṵnwɛ̀ amaranth.

For high and low tones use  ူ [U+1030 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN UU].

in closed syllables. Usually combines with the nasal finals န မ (or the anusvara). Low tone by default, eg. ရန်ကုန် jàɴgòʊɴ Rangoon. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. မုန့်ဆိုင် mo̰ʊɴzàɪɴ bakery. High tone with visarga, eg. သုံး tʰóʊɴ three. Stopped tone with the stop finals တ ပ, eg. စာအုပ် sàʔoʊʔ book.

As an initial vowel this is usually အု, eg. tbd, but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the alternative single character [U+1025 MYANMAR LETTER U], eg. မုန်လာဥနီ mòʊɴlàʔṵnì carrots, ဥစ္စာ ʔoʊʔsà property.

With  ိ [U+102D MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN I] (အို)

The vowel signs surround the base character vertically.

o in open syllables. Low tone by default, eg. အညို ʔəɲò brown. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. နို့နဲ့ no̰nɛ̰ with milk. High tone with visarga, eg. ဆိုး sʰó bad.

in closed syllables. Usually combines with only the nasal final . Low tone by default, eg. ဆိုင် sʰàɪɴ store. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. tbd. High tone with visarga, eg. ထိုင်းနိုင်ဂံ tʰáɪɴnàɪɴgàɴ Thailand. Stopped tone only with final က, eg. လိုက် laɪʔ follow.

As an initial vowel this is အို.

U+1030 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN UU

Burmese vowel sign

When something else extends below the base consonant, the glyph for this character is drawn to the right of the stack, eg. အဖြူ ʔa̰pʰjù white, ပသျှူး pa̰ʃú Malay.

u Used only in open syllables. Low tone by default, eg. တူ chopsticks. High tone with visarga, eg. ဗုဒ္ဓဟူးနေ့ boʊʔdəhúnḛ Wednesday.

For creaky tone, use  ု [U+102F MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN U].

As an initial vowel this is usually အူ but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the alternative single character: [U+1026 MYANMAR LETTER UU], eg ဦးလေး úlé uncle.

In the distant past, this letter represented a long vowel and  ု [U+102F MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN U] represented a short vowel. Now, the only difference is tonal.

U+1031 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN E

Description in the Unicode standard:

• stands to the left of the consonant
~ 1031 FE00 dotted form

Burmese vowel sign

Appears to the left of the consonant or consonant cluster.

On its own:

e Used only in open syllables. Low tone by default, eg. မြေပုံ mjèbòʊɴ map. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. ရှေ့ ʃḛ front. High tone with visarga, eg. ဆေးရုံ sʰéjòʊɴ hospital.

As an initial vowel this is usually အေ but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the alternative single character: [U+1027 MYANMAR LETTER E], eg. ဧက ʔèka̰ acre.

With  ာ [U+102C MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN AA] (အော)

The vowel signs surround the base character.

ɔ in open syllables. High tone by default, eg. ထောပတ်သီး tʰɔ́baʔdʰí banana. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. ပျော့တယ် pjɔ̰dɛ̀ to be soft.

Use asat for low tone, eg. ပျော်တယ် pjɔ̀dɛ̀ to be happy.

in closed syllables. Usually combines with only the following finals, က င. Low tone by default, eg. ကြောင် dʑàʊɴ cat. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. စောင့်တယ် sa̰ʊɴdɛ̀ to wait. High tone with visarga, eg. ကျောင်း dʑáʊɴ school. (Stopped tone with the stop final, eg. နောက်လ naʊʔla̰ next month. )

As an initial vowel this is usually အော but some words, particularly Indian loan words or words in the literary style, use the following alternative single characters: [U+1029 MYANMAR LETTER O] for high tone, eg. ဩဂုတ် ʔɔ́goʊʔ August; [U+102A MYANMAR LETTER AU] for low tone.

U+1032 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN AI

Burmese vowel sign

ɛ Used only in open syllables. High tone by default, eg. ခဲတံ kʰɛ́dàɴ pencil. Creaky tone with low dot, eg. ပြီခဲ့တဲ့လ pìgɛ̰dɛ̰la̰ last month.

For low tone, use [U+101A MYANMAR LETTER YA] with  ် [U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] (အယ်).

As an initial vowel this is အဲ, eg. အဲဒါ ʔɛ́dà that.

Pali and Sanskrit extensions

Extensions for S'gaw Karen

Extensions for Western Pwo Karen

Extension for Geba Karen

Extensions for Kayah

Extensions for Shan

Extensions for Aiton and Phake

Signs & symbols

Various signs

U+1036 MYANMAR SIGN ANUSVARA

Burmese combining mark

Used for the syllable-final nasal consonant, rather than the ordinary or consonant sign, eg. သိမ် θèɪɴ, but သုံး θóʊɴ.

U+1037 MYANMAR SIGN DOT BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

= aukmyit
• a tone mark

Burmese combining mark

Indicates the creaky tone, eg. မေ့ mḛ forget. Not always needed, since the rhyme sometimes produces the creaky tone by default, eg. la̰ month.

U+1038 MYANMAR SIGN VISARGA

Burmese combining mark

Indicates the high tone, eg. ကား car. Not always needed, since the rhyme sometimes produces the creaky tone by default, eg. ခဲတံ kʰɛ́dàɴ pencil.

U+104C MYANMAR SYMBOL LOCATIVE

Burmese symbol, ɛʔkʰəjanʰaɪʔ

n̥aiʔ An abbreviation meaning 'locative marker', ie. 'at, in, on', used in Burmese literary form. The corresponding low form is မှာ m̥à.

Derived from နှိုက် n̥aɪʔ.

U+104D MYANMAR SYMBOL COMPLETED

Burmese symbol, ɛʔkʰəjajwɛ

jwɛ An abbreviation meaning 'subordinate marker', used to connect two trains fo thought, ie. 'so / because'. Used in Burmese literary form. The corresponding low form is လို့ lo̰.

Derived from Old Burmese ရုယ် joʊʔ.

U+104E MYANMAR SYMBOL AFOREMENTIONED

Burmese symbol, ɛʔkʰəjajwɛ

Used in the sequence ‌၎င်း ‌ləɡàuɴ as a demonstrative noun (this or that) when it precedes a noun. It is also used as a connecting phrase (as well as) between two nouns within a clause.wpTrans

Derived from လည်းကောင်း ləgáʊɴ.

U+104F MYANMAR SYMBOL GENITIVE

Burmese symbol, ɛʔkʰəjaí

í Used in Burmese literary form as a genitive that is written at the end of a sentence ending with a verb. It also marks possession of a preceding noun. The corresponding low form is ရဲ့ jɛ̰. Used as a full stop if the sentence ends immediately with a verb.

Derived from Old Burmese အေ ʔè.

Virama & asat

္

U+1039 MYANMAR SIGN VIRAMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= killer (when rendered visibly)

Burmese virama

Kills the inherent vowel and produces a stacked conjunct cluster.

In many multi-syllabic words (mostly derived from Pali), consonants that have no intervening inherent vowel are arranged such that the consonant cluster is stacked. The second consonant appears below the first, eg. မန္တလေး màɴda̰lé Mandalay, and ဗုဒ္ဓ Buddha. The virama character is used between consonants to signal that they should combine in this way, but it is not visible in the end result.

Note that as of Unicode 5.1 this character is no longer used to indicate syllable final consonants with a visible asat character. For that use  ် [U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT].

U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

= killer (always rendered visibly)

Burmese mark, əθaʔ အသတ်

Used over any of the syllable-final consonants when no stacking takes place, eg. စပ် saʔ.

This character was introduced in Unicode 5.1 and replaces the former use of U+1039 MYANMAR SIGN VIRAMA plus U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER to achieve the same effect. For stacked consonant clusters use U+1039 MYANMAR SIGN VIRAMA.

This character is also used in combination with other characters to produce a vowel plus tone combination, eg. ဘယ် bɛ̀ which. When used this way it is called ʃḛtʰó ရှေ့ထိုး.

It is also sometimes used in Pali or Sanskrit words with characters other than those above.

Shan symbols

Extensions for Shan

Extensions for S'gaw Karen

Extensions for Western Pwo Karen

Extension for Rumai Palaung

Extensions for Khamti Shan

Digits

Myanmar digits

U+1040 MYANMAR DIGIT ZERO

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1041 MYANMAR DIGIT ONE

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1042 MYANMAR DIGIT TWO

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1043 MYANMAR DIGIT THREE

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1044 MYANMAR DIGIT FOUR

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1045 MYANMAR DIGIT FIVE

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1046 MYANMAR DIGIT SIX

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1047 MYANMAR DIGIT SEVEN

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1048 MYANMAR DIGIT EIGHT

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

U+1049 MYANMAR DIGIT NINE

Burmese number

Used just like Latin digits.

Shan digits

Punctuation

U+104A MYANMAR SIGN LITTLE SECTION

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (devanagari danda - 0964)

Burmese punctuation

Roughly corresponds to a comma, or semicolon.

U+104B MYANMAR SIGN SECTION

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (devanagari double danda - 0965)

Burmese punctuation

Roughly corresponds to a period.

References

  1. [Daniels] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  2. [Hosken] Martin Hosken & Maung Tuntunlwin, Unicode Technical Note #11, Representing Myanmar in Unicode: Details and Examples
  3. [Mesher] Gene Mesher, Burmese for Beginners , ISBN 1-887521-51-8
  4. [Unicode] The Unicode Standard v7.0, Myanmar.
  5. [Uniprop] Ireland (NSAI), United Kingdom (BSI), Myanmar Language Commission, Myanmar Unicode and Natural Language Processing Research Center, Myanmar Computer Federation, Proposal to encode seven additional Myanmar characters in the UCS
  6. [wpAlpha] Wikipedia, Burmese Alphabet
  7. [wpTrans] Wikipedia, MLC Transcription System
  8. [wpLang] Wikipedia, Burmese language
First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2017-07-20 9:01 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.