Mru (draft)

Mro orthography notes

Updated 27 January, 2024

This page brings together basic information about the Mro script and its use for the Mru language. It aims to provide a brief, descriptive summary of the modern, printed orthography and typographic features, and to advise how to write Mru using Unicode.

Referencing this document

Richard Ishida, Mru (Mro) Orthography Notes, 27-Jan-2024, https://r12a.github.io/scripts/mroo/mro

Sample

Select part of this sample text to show a list of characters, with links to more details.
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๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ—๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ‚๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ‚๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉฎ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ‡๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ“๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ… ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ๐–ฉฎ\n๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ‡๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ—๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ’ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉ…๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ˜ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ…๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ˜ ๐–ฉ—๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉ…๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ‚๐–ฉฏ

Source

Martin Hosken, Discussion of Mro Dandas

Usage & history

Mru (or Mro) is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken primarily in Bangladesh with a few speakers in India. According to the Unicode script proposal, literacy levels for this script among the 100,000 Mro exceed 80%.p Education in the script is available up to grade 3.@Scriptsource,https://scriptsource.org/cms/scripts/page.php?item_id=script_detail&key=Mroo

The script was invented by Menlay Murang (or Manley Mro) in the 1980s. Mro folklore says that an earlier script was sent with a cow by the god Turai, but the cow became hungry and ate the book it was carrying. Murang aimed to restore a writing system to the Mro people.

Basic features

The Mro script is an alphabet. Both consonants and vowels are indicated by letters, and the script is mostly quite straightforward. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the orthography used to write the Mro language.

Mru text runs from left to right in horizontal lines. Words are separated by spaces. The orthography is unicameral.

โฏ consonantSummary

Mru uses 25 consonant letters, but 6 of those are duplicates, representing the same sound as another letter. There are no combining marks or special forms for consonant clusters. Syllable medial and final consonants are represented using ordinary consonant letters.

โฏ basicV

The Mro orthography is an alphabet where vowel sounds are written using just 7 dedicated letters, and one digraph (which combines 2 of the 7).

Mru has no prebase glyphs. or circumgraphs. Multiple vowels may sometimes be used together. There are no letters or diacritics for tone, nasalisation, or vowel length.

Standalone vowel sounds are written using the normal vowel letters.

Punctuation is mostly that used for the Latin script, but Mro includes 2 native punctuation marks resembling dandas.

Mro has its own set of digits.

Line-breaking and justification are primarily based on inter-word spaces.

Character index

Letters

Show

Consonants

๐–ฉ’โฃ๐–ฉ„โฃ๐–ฉ‹โฃ๐–ฉ…โฃ๐–ฉ‰โฃ๐–ฉœโฃ๐–ฉŒโฃ๐–ฉ™โฃ๐–ฉˆโฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉšโฃ๐–ฉ›โฃ๐–ฉŽโฃ๐–ฉƒโฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉ‡โฃ๐–ฉ“โฃ๐–ฉ”โฃ๐–ฉ€โฃ๐–ฉžโฃ๐–ฉ•โฃ๐–ฉ‚

Vowels

๐–ฉ†โฃ๐–ฉ–โฃ๐–ฉ˜โฃ๐–ฉŠโฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉ‘โฃ๐–ฉ—

Punctuation

Show
โ€˜โฃโ€™โฃโ€œโฃโ€โฃ๐–ฉฎโฃ๐–ฉฏ

ASCII

!โฃ(โฃ)โฃ,โฃ-โฃ.โฃ:โฃ;โฃ?

Numbers

Show
๐–ฉ โฃ๐–ฉกโฃ๐–ฉขโฃ๐–ฉฃโฃ๐–ฉคโฃ๐–ฉฅโฃ๐–ฉฆโฃ๐–ฉงโฃ๐–ฉจโฃ๐–ฉฉ

Other

Show

To be investigated

%โฃ[โฃ]โฃโ€“โฃโ€”โฃโ€ฆโฃโ€ฐ
Items to show in lists

Phonology

The following represents the general repertoire of the Mru language.

Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned.

Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. Source Wikipedia.

Vowel sounds

i ษฏ ษฏ u e o ษ™ ษ™ ษ› ษ” a a

Consonant sounds

labial dental alveolar post-
alveolar
palatal velar glottal
stop p b t d       k ส”
aspirated pสฐ tสฐ       kสฐ  
affricate     tอกs        
fricative     s สƒ     h
nasal m n       ล‹
approximant w   l   j  
trill/flap     r  

Tone

Mru is not a tonal language.

Structure

tbd

Vowels

Vowel summary table

The following table summarises the main vowel to character assigments.

โ“˜ represents the inherent vowel. Diacritics are added to the vowels to indicate nasalisation (not shown here).

All:
๐–ฉŠโฃ โฃ๐–ฉ—โฃ โฃ๐–ฉ‘
๐–ฉ˜โฃ โฃ๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–โฃ โฃ๐–ฉ‘
๐–ฉ–โฃ โฃ๐–ฉ
๐–ฉ†

For additional details see vowel_mappings.

Basic vowels

The standard vowel sounds for Mro are written using the following characters.

๐–ฉŠโฃ๐–ฉ—โฃ๐–ฉ‘โฃ๐–ฉ˜โฃ๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–โฃ๐–ฉ–โฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉ†

Mro doesn't indicate tones, nasalisation or long vowels.

No special mechanism is used to show the absence of a vowel.

Standalone vowels

Standalone vowel sounds are simply represented using ordinary vowel letters.

Vowel absence

No special mechanisms or rules are employed to indicate consonants that are not followed by a vowel. The vowel letter is simply omitted.

Vowel sounds to characters

This section maps Mru vowel sounds to common graphemes in the Mro orthography. Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.

i
 

๐–ฉŠ

u
 

๐–ฉ‘

e
 

๐–ฉ˜

รธ
 

๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–

o
 

๐–ฉ‘

ษ›
 
๐–ฉ–
ษ”
 

๐–ฉ

ษ™
 

๐–ฉ–

a
 

๐–ฉ†

Consonants

Consonant summary table

The following table summarises the main consonant to character assigments.

Stops
๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉ„โฃ๐–ฉ€โฃ๐–ฉžโฃ๐–ฉ…โฃ๐–ฉŒโฃ๐–ฉ™โฃ๐–ฉ’
๐–ฉ‡โฃ๐–ฉ•โฃ๐–ฉˆ
Affricate
๐–ฉ‹
Fricatives
๐–ฉ”โฃ๐–ฉ‰โฃ๐–ฉœ
Nasals
๐–ฉŽโฃ๐–ฉƒโฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉ
Other
๐–ฉ—โฃ๐–ฉ“โฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉšโฃ๐–ฉ›โฃ๐–ฉ‚
Syllables
๐–ฉžโฃ๐–ฉœ

For additional details see consonant_mappings.

Basic consonants

๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉ„โฃ๐–ฉ€โฃ๐–ฉžโฃ๐–ฉ…โฃ๐–ฉŒโฃ๐–ฉ™โฃ๐–ฉ’
๐–ฉ‡โฃ๐–ฉ•โฃ๐–ฉˆ
๐–ฉ‹
๐–ฉ”โฃ๐–ฉ‰โฃ๐–ฉœ
๐–ฉŽโฃ๐–ฉƒโฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉ
๐–ฉ—โฃ๐–ฉ“โฃ๐–ฉโฃ๐–ฉšโฃ๐–ฉ›โฃ๐–ฉ‚

Several consonants can be written with more than one letter. Typically the first letter in the list above is used for most words, but a few words use the following letter instead. Click on the letters above for examples.

Some sound sequences can be abbreviated to a single letter (see abbrev).

Onsets

Mru syllables can begin with a consonant cluster, but they are just written using the relevant letters.

๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉƒ๐–ฉŠ

๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†

Finals

Syllable-final consonants are also just represented by ordinary letters.

๐–ฉƒ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ

๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉŒ

Consonant clusters

Mru has no conjunct forms for consonant clusters.

๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ‘

Gemination

Consonant gemination doesn't appear to be common in Mru.

Consonant sounds to characters

This section maps Mru consonant sounds to common graphemes in the Latin orthography. Uppercase is not shown. Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.

Sounds listed as 'infrequent' are allophones, or sounds used for foreign words, etc.

Stops

p
 

๐–ฉ

b
 

๐–ฉ„

t
 

๐–ฉ€

๐–ฉž

d
 

๐–ฉ…

k
 

๐–ฉŒ

๐–ฉ™

ส”
 

๐–ฉ’

Aspirated

pสฐ
 

๐–ฉ‡

tสฐ
 

๐–ฉ•

kสฐ
 

๐–ฉˆ

Affricates

tอกs
 

๐–ฉ‹

Fricatives

s
 

๐–ฉ”

สƒ
 

๐–ฉ”

h
 

๐–ฉ‰

๐–ฉœ

Nasals

m
 

๐–ฉŽ

๐–ฉƒ

n
 

๐–ฉ

ล‹
 

๐–ฉ

Other

w
 

๐–ฉ—

r
 

๐–ฉ“

l
 

๐–ฉ

๐–ฉš

๐–ฉ›

j
 

๐–ฉ‚

Abbreviations

tek
 

๐–ฉž

hai
 

๐–ฉœ

ษ›i
 

๐–ฉœ

Numbers, dates, currency, etc

Digits

Mru has its own set of digits, with a decimal base.

๐–ฉ โฃ๐–ฉกโฃ๐–ฉขโฃ๐–ฉฃโฃ๐–ฉคโฃ๐–ฉฅโฃ๐–ฉฆโฃ๐–ฉงโฃ๐–ฉจโฃ๐–ฉฉ

Text direction

Mru text is written horizontally, with lines that flow from top to bottom.

Glyph shaping & positioning

You can experiment with examples using the Mru character app.

Context-based shaping & positioning

There appears to be no contextual shaping of letters, and there are no combining characters in Mro.

Graphemes

In Mru text, there are no combining marks, and each letter is a unit of text that corresponds to a grapheme cluster.

Punctuation & inline features

Word boundaries

Words are separated by spaces.

Phrase & section boundaries

See type samples.

,โฃ๐–ฉฎโฃ;โฃ:โฃ๐–ฉฏโฃ.โฃ?โฃ!

Basic phrase and section boundaries in Mru use ASCII punctuation.

phrase

,

๐–ฉฎ

;

:

sentence

.

๐–ฉฏ

?

!

Observation: The sources are not very clear about the relationship between the 2 danda-like characters. It may be that one represents a comma like pause and the other a sentence-final punctuation. Occasionally, ASCII punctuation can also be found in the same text for each of those functions.

๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ—๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ‚๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ‚๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ–, ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉฎ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ‡๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ“๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ๐–ฉฎ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ“๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ‡๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ’ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉ…๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ˜ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ…๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ˜ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ€ ๐–ฉ…๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ‚๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ‚๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉœ ๐–ฉ…๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ…๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ… ๐–ฉ˜ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ“๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ—๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ…๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ€ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ‰๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ’ ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ‰๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ๐–ฉฏ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ’๐–ฉ๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ˜ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ, ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ… ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ—๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ… ๐–ฉ˜ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ…๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ† ๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠ, ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉŠL๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉ–? ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŽ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉฏ

๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ: ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ

๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ: ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉฎ ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉฎ

๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ: ๐–ฉ‰๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ„๐–ฉ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉŠ, ๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ— ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ’.

๐–ฉ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ: ๐–ฉ‰๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ†๐–ฉ, L๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ, ๐–ฉŽ๐–ฉ‘๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ ๐–ฉˆ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉ… ๐–ฉ‹๐–ฉ– ๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉ ๐–ฉ”๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŒ ๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ“๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ๐–ฉ๐–ฉฏ

Hosken provides this example of text containing various punctuation marks.

Bracketed text

(โฃ)

Mru commonly uses ASCII parentheses to insert parenthetical information into text.

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standard

( [U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS]

) [U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS]

Quotations & citations

โ€œโฃโ€โฃโ€˜โฃโ€™

Mru texts may use quotation marks around quotations. Of course, due to keyboard design, quotations may also be surrounded by ASCII double and single quote marks.

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initial

[U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]
nested

[U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

Abbreviation, ellipsis & repetition

Two consonant letters may be used to represent an abbreviated sound sequence.

๐–ฉžโฃ๐–ฉœ

Compare the following pairs.

๐–ฉ€๐–ฉ˜๐–ฉŒ

๐–ฉž

๐–ฉŒ๐–ฉ–๐–ฉŠ

๐–ฉ—๐–ฉœ

๐–ฉ‰๐–ฉ†๐–ฉŠ-๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ

๐–ฉœ-๐–ฉ๐–ฉ๐–ฉ

Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

The principal line-break opportunities are inter-word spaces.

Baselines, line height, etc.

tbd

Mru uses the 'alphabetic' baseline.

Page & book layout

References