Lepcha (draft)

Orthography notes

Updated 24 January, 2024

This page brings together basic information about the Lepcha (Róng) script and its use for the Lepcha language. It aims to provide a brief, descriptive summary of the modern, printed orthography and typographic features, and to advise how to write Lepcha using Unicode.

Referencing this document

Richard Ishida, Lepcha Orthography Notes, 24-Jan-2024, https://r12a.github.io/scripts/lepc/lep

Sample

Select part of this sample text to show a list of characters, with links to more details. Source
Change size:   24px

ᰣᰦᰣᰤᰧᰳᰶᰀᰦ ᰣᰫᰵᰀᰤᰩᰵ ᰣᰦᰛᰬ ᰝᰪᰉᰧ ᰣᰦᰓᰪ ᰣᰪ ᰣᰦᰕᰩ ᰚᰴ ᰋᰧᰀᰫᰵ ᰉᰧᰀᰫᰵᰠᰍᰪᰰ ᰜᰧᰓᰦᰮ ᰕ᰻

᱁᰿ ᰝᰦᰰᰕᰫᰛᰬ ᰃᰨ ᰣᰦᰛᰬ ᰕᰫᰵ ᰕᰬ ᰚᰴᰠᰦ ᰣᰦᰛᰧᰵᰶᰛᰬ ᰃᰦ ᰇᰬᰳ ᰓᰦᰡᰦ ᰿᱂᰿ ᰀᰦᰚᰫ ᰛᰩᰵᰍᰪᰛᰬ ᰕᰫᰵ ᰕᰬ ᰚᰴ ᰜᰧᰰᰶᰓᰫᰛᰬ ᰀᰦᰚᰫ ᰕᰪᰙᰪᰀᰦ ᰋᰧ ᰙᰩᰭᰌᰨᰭ ᰀᰦᰚᰫ ᰕᰦᰭᰛᰬ ᰕᰫᰵᰛᰬ ᰙᰨ ᰕᰬ ᰜᰧ ᰿᱃᰿ ᰡᰬᰰᰜᰦ ᰕᰫᰵ ᰜᰧᰰᰶᰓᰫ ᰀᰦᰚᰫᰠᰦ ᰣᰦᰛᰧᰵᰶᰛᰬ ᰛᰴᰠᰲᰶᰌᰨᰮ ᰜᰦ ᰀᰦᰚᰫ ᰕᰫᰵ ᰚᰴ ᰜᰧ ᰿᱄᰿ ᰝᰪᰌᰨᰠᰦ ᰡᰫ ᰂᰪᰳ ᰉᰧᰶᰢᰦᰮᰓᰫ ᰝᰪᰌᰨᰢᰦ ᰝᰪ ᰑᰦᰳᰓᰦ ᰑᰦᰳ ᰂᰪᰳᰡᰨᰓᰫ ᰡᰧᰓᰦ ᰡᰧ ᰂᰪᰳᰡᰨᰓᰫ ᰣᰨᰙᰴ ᰂᰪᰳ ᰉᰧᰶᰢᰦᰮᰓᰫ ᰝᰪᰌᰨᰮ ᰜᰦ ᰀᰦᰚᰫ ᰕᰫᰵ ᰚᰴ ᰜᰧᰢᰧᰮᰓᰫ

Usage & history

The Lepcha language (natively referred to as Róng) is spoken in Sikkim and in the Darjeeling district of the West Bengal state of India by around 53,000 people@Ethnologue,https://www.ethnologue.com/language/lep/. It is an official language of Sikkim, and is currently taught in schools. The Sikkim Herald is published in various scripts, including Lepcha.

ᰛᰩᰵᰛᰧᰵᰶ

The script was derived from Tibetan writing, with rotated glyphs. It is thought to have been invented around 1720 by the Sikkim king Phyag-rdor rNam-rgyal (“Chakdor Namgyal”). Recent innovations added 3 letters for retroflex sounds, which had previously been written using a sequence of characters.

Basic features

The Lepcha script is an abugida, ie. each consonant is followed by an inherent vowel sound. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the modern Lepcha orthography.

The orthography is syllable-based, and each written syllable typically contains one base consonant letter followed by one or more combining characters to express vowel sounds and medial and final consonant sounds.

Lepcha text runs from left to right in horizontal lines. Words are separated by spaces. The orthography is unicameral.

❯ consonantSummary

Modern Lepcha uses 39 basic consonant letters as syllable onsets. Three retroflex sounds (introduced via Tibetan) used to be written using a sequence of characters that include a medial RA and an optional nukta, but dedicated letters were recently introduced for these sounds.

Lepcha represents medial consonants using diacritics, for -r and -j, but onset clusters that involve -l are represented by 7 dedicated letters.

There are 9 syllable-final consonants, all combining marks. Two of the final consonants (both representing the sound ŋ) are rendered to the left of all other syllable components.

Lepcha has no conjuncts and no virama.

❯ basicV

Lepcha is an abugida with one inherent vowel, pronounced ə.

Other post-consonant vowels are written using 7 combining marks (vowel signs), all single combining marks. There are no vowel letters.

Lepcha has 3 pre-base glyphs. but no circumgraphs (although, one vowel sign wraps around the left and top sides of the base consonant).

There are no multipart vowels, however another diacritic, , is commonly added after all other syllable elements, even though its semantic value is disputed.

Vowel length is not distinctive in Lepcha and not indicated in the written form.

Standalone vowel sounds are written using the vowel-carrier and a vowel sign. There are no independent vowel letters.

Punctuation includes that used for the Latin script, but older texts include some extras. Lepcha has its own set of digits.

Line-breaking and justification are primarily based on inter-word spaces.

Character index

Letters

Show

Consonants

ᰀ␣ᰁ␣ᰂ␣ᰃ␣ᰄ␣ᰅ␣ᰆ␣ᰇ␣ᰈ␣ᰉ␣ᰊ␣ᰋ␣ᰌ␣ᰍ␣ᰎ␣ᰏ␣ᰐ␣ᰑ␣ᰒ␣ᰓ␣ᰔ␣ᰕ␣ᰖ␣ᰗ␣ᰘ␣ᰙ␣ᰚ␣ᰛ␣ᰜ␣ᰝ␣ᰞ␣ᰟ␣ᰠ␣ᰡ␣ᰢ␣ᰣ␣ᱍ␣ᱎ␣ᱏ

Combining marks

Show

Medials

ᰤ␣ᰥ

Finals

ᰭ␣ᰮ␣ᰯ␣ᰰ␣ᰱ␣ᰲ␣ᰳ␣ᰴ␣ᰵ

Vowels

ᰦ␣ᰧ␣ᰨ␣ᰩ␣ᰪ␣ᰫ␣ᰬ

Other

ᰶ␣᰷

Punctuation

Show
‘␣’␣“␣”␣᰻␣᰼␣᰽␣᰾␣᰿

ASCII

;␣:␣,␣.␣?␣!␣(␣)

Numbers

Show
᱀␣᱁␣᱂␣᱃␣᱄␣᱅␣᱆␣᱇␣᱈␣᱉

Other

Show

To be investigated

%␣[␣]␣§␣‌␣‍␣–␣—␣†␣‡␣…␣‰␣′␣″
Items to show in lists

Phonology

The following represents the general repertoire of the Sunwar language.

Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned.

Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. Source Wikipedia.

Vowel sounds

i ɯ ɯ u e o ə ə ɛ ɔ a a

i is shorter in closed syllables than open ones.p,10

e occurs in open syllables and before and -k; there is free variation between e~ɛ~ɪ in most other closed syllables.p,11

a has the allophone ɑ.p,11

o and ɔ distinctions are often lost, especially among Nepali speakers.p,12

Consonant sounds

labial dental alveolar post-
alveolar
retroflex palatal velar glottal
stop p b t d     ʈ ɖ c k ɡ ʔ
aspirated     ʈʰ  
affricate     t͡s d͡z          
aspirated     t͡sʰ          
fricative f v   s z ʃ ʒ       h
nasal m n       ɲ ŋ
approximant w   l     j  
trill/flap     r    

Before i and e velar k and ɡ become palatalised and ɡʲ.p,13

Before i, fricatives s and ʃ are merged.wl,#Phonology

The sounds z and ʒ are realised as one of z~d͡z~ʒ.wl,#Phonology

Under Nepali influence, some Lepcha speakers merge with f, and v with w.wl,#Phonology

Tone

Lepcha has no tones.

Structure

Only the following appear as syllable-final consonants, and the stops are unreleased and pronounced with a simultaneous ʔ.

-ʔp̚ -ʔt̚ -ʔk̚ -m -n -ŋ -r -l

Vowels

Vowel summary table

The following table summarises the main vowel to character assigments.

ⓘ represents the inherent vowel. Standalone vowels are written using the same combining marks, but preceded by the character shown in the bottom row.

Post-consonant:
ᰧ␣ ␣ᰪ␣ ␣ᰫ
ᰬ␣␣ᰨ
Standalone:

For additional details see vowel_mappings.

Inherent vowel

U+1C00 LETTER KA

ə following a consonant is normally not written, but is seen as an inherent part of the consonant letter, so is written by simply using the consonant letter.

Combining marks used for vowels

ᰀᰪ U+1C00 LETTER KA, U+1C2A VOWEL SIGN U

Lepcha uses the following dedicated combining marks for vowels.

ᰧ␣ᰪ␣ᰫ␣ᰬ␣ᰨ␣ᰩ␣ᰦ␣ᰶ

Six vowel signs are spacing marks, meaning that they consume horizontal space when added to a base consonant.

The sign RAN

Although 1C36 occurs commonly in Lepcha spelling, it's function appears to be a subject of debate. Plaisier describes it as follows:

Although the original function of the [RAN] sign is still unclear, it is often present in closed syllables, in which case the circumflex sign should be written above the final consonant sign. It has been suggested that the function of the [RAN] is to indicate stress or pitch, in order to distinguish stressable syllables from syllables that never appear in a stressed position, and this hypothesis may well be correct (Plaisier 2003: 28-29, Sprigg 1983: 316). However, because the function of the [RAN] sign is unclear to most writers, nowadays the sign is used by the Lepcha in a variety of ways and opinions vary strongly as to which is the correct usage.

It is only used over a consonant with an inherent vowel (including the vowel-carrier), or a consonant with . It is typed and stored after any final consonant in a syllable.

ᰌᰶ

ᰅᰭᰶ

ᰑᰧᰭᰶ

ᰣᰧᰳᰶ

Standalone vowels

Lepcha represents standalone vowels using the vowel-carrier combined with a vowel sign.

ᰣᰦᰀᰶ

ᰊᰣᰤᰪ

There are no independent vowels, but the vowel-carrier without any vowel sign represents ə, the sound of the inherent vowel.

Pre-base vowel signs

ᰀᰧ ki U+1901 LETTER KA + U+1927 VOWEL SIGN I

Three vowels are represented by a combining character that appears to the left of the consonant onset.

ᰧ␣ᰨ␣ᰩ

The combining mark is always stored after the base consonant. The rendering process places the glyphs relative the base consonant, as needed. Note that the vowel sign is also typed and stored after any medial consonant and before any final-consonant mark, regardless of the positions of those marks when rendered.

Vowel suppression

Lepcha has no virama. A consonant without a following vowel only occurs in syllable-final position, in which case a combining mark is used (see finals).

Vowel sounds to characters

This section maps Lepcha vowel sounds to common graphemes in the Lepcha orthography.

Standalone vowels are shown in the right-hand column. These are all preceded by a glottal stop. Gaps in that column don't necessarily indicate that the combination doesn't occur; it may be just that an example wasn't found.

Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.

Plain vowels

i
 

1C27

ᰎᰧ

1C27 1C36

ᰑᰧᰭᰶ

1C23 1C27 1C36

ᰣᰧᰭᰶ

ɯ
 

1C2A

ᰗᰪᰲᰗᰪᰲ

u
 

1C2B

ᰌᰫ

1C23 1C2B

ᰣᰫᰳ

e
 

1C2C in open syllables and before and -k.

ᰎᰬ

 

o
 

1C28

ᰆᰨ

1C23 1C28

ᰣᰨᰘᰩᰵ

ə
 

Inherent vowel

ᰊᰣᰤᰪ

1C36 This is a supplement to the inherent vowel. See ran for more details.

ᰅᰭᰶ

1C23 1C36

ᰠᰨᰣᰮᰶ

ɛ
 

1C2C in closed syllables that don't end in or -k.

ᰎᰬᰯ

 

ɔ
 

1C29

ᰃᰩ

1C23 1C29

ᰣᰩᰳ

a
 

1C26

ᰑᰦ

1C23 1C26

ᰣᰦᰝᰥᰬᰳ

Consonants

Consonant summary table

The following table summarises the main consonant to character assigments.

Plosives
ᰎ␣ᰓ␣ᰊ␣ᰌ␣ᰆ␣ᱍ␣ᱏ␣ᰀ␣ᰃ␣ᰣ
ᰐ␣ᰋ␣ᰇ␣ᱎ␣ᰂ
Affricates
ᰗ␣ ␣ᰘ
Fricatives
ᰑ␣ᰟ␣ᰠ␣ᰙ␣ᰡ␣ᰈ␣ᰝ
Nasals
ᰕ␣ᰍ␣ᰉ␣ᰅ
Other
ᰢ␣ᰛ␣ᰜ␣ᰚ
Onsets
ᰥ␣ᰤ␣ ␣ᰏ␣ᰔ␣ᰁ␣ᰄ␣ᰒ␣ᰞ␣ᰖ
Finals
ᰱ␣ᰳ␣ᰭ
ᰮ␣ᰰ␣ᰴ␣ᰵ
ᰲ␣ᰯ

For additional details see consonant_mappings.

Basic consonants

Whereas the table just above takes you from sounds to letters, the following simply lists the basic consonant letters (however, since the orthography is highly phonetic there is little difference in ordering).

ᰎ␣ᰓ␣ᰊ␣ᰌ␣ᰆ␣ᱍ␣ᱏ␣ᰀ␣ᰃ␣ᰣ␣ ␣ᰐ␣ᰋ␣ᰇ␣ᱎ␣ᰂ␣ ␣ᰏ␣ᰔ␣ᰁ␣ᰄ␣ᰒ␣ᰞ␣ᰖ␣ ␣ᰗ␣ᰘ␣ ␣ᰑ␣ᰟ␣ᰠ␣ᰙ␣ᰡ␣ᰈ␣ᰝ␣ ␣ᰕ␣ᰍ␣ᰉ␣ᰅ␣ ␣ᰢ␣ᰛ␣ᰜ␣ᰚ

Retroflex consonants

Retroflex sounds in Lepcha generally come from Tibetan loan words, and originally there were no dedicated letters for writing them. Nowadays they can be written using , , and , but previously there were written using combinations of characters.

The combinations involve 3 consonants followed by a medial -r: kr for ʈ, hr for ʈʰ, and gr for ɖ, but to distinguish them from the normal onset clusters they typically use to modify the initial consonant.

The following examples show alternative ways of writing these sounds.

ᰀ᰷ᰥᰬ

ᱍᰬ

ᰝ᰷ᰥᰧ

ᱎᰧ

ᰃ᰷ᰥᰧ

ᱏᰧ

The nukta must always be typed and stored immediately after the initial consonant.

Onsets

ᰥ␣ᰤ␣ ␣ᰏ␣ᰔ␣ᰁ␣ᰄ␣ᰒ␣ᰞ␣ᰖ

Lepcha syllables can begin with a consonant followed by -r-, -j-, or -l-. The combination -rj- is also possible. The first 2 sounds are written in Unicode by adding medial consonant combining marks to the initial consonant.

ᰀᰀᰤᰭ
A combining mark (highlighted) used to indicate a medial -y- sound.
show components

ᰀᰀᰤᰭ

ᰀᰥᰤ
Use of 2 combining marks (highlighted) to indicate a medial -ry- sound.

Lepcha is unusual in that combinations of an onset consonant followed by -l- are represented by a number of pre-formed ligature letters, rather than a consonant+combining mark.

ᰁᰬᰭ
A letter (highlighted) used to indicate the onset cluster kl- sound.
show components

ᰁᰬᰭ

Finals

ᰱ␣ᰳ␣ᰭ␣ᰮ␣ᰰ␣ᰴ␣ᰵ␣ᰲ␣ᰯ

Syllable codas are represented by the 8 small forms above, which are implemented as combining marks. Final stops are always unvoiced, unreleased and pronounced with a glottal stop.u

ᰀᰊᰪᰭ

ᰈᰬᰲ

ᰕᰩᰰ

The sound ŋ is represented by 2 different combining marks. Following an inherent vowel, is used. Otherwise, use . This latter mark is unusual in that it occurs on the left side of the syllable-initial consonant, and even to the left of any pre-base vowel sign. It is still typed and stored in order of pronunciation, and the placement is achieved during rendering.

ᰛᰬᰰᰈᰩᰵ ᰣᰫᰵ
Examples of placement of -ŋ relative to vowel signs. The vowel sign has a light coloured highlight, and the final consonant is shown in the darker highlight.
show componentsᰣᰫᰵ
show componentsᰛᰬᰰᰈᰩᰵ

Consonant clusters

Lepcha has no conjunct forms for consonant clusters.

Syllable-initial clusters are written using combining marks to represent the medial consonants (see onsets). Mid-word clusters are written using a syllable-final combining mark followed by a full-sized letter (see finals).

Consonant length

Consonant gemination doesn't appear to be common in Lepcha.

Consonant sounds to characters

This section maps Lepcha consonant sounds to common graphemes in the Latin orthography

The middle column shows medial consonants: in the stops section there are special characters for combinations with a medial -l-. The right-hand column shows syllable codas.

Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.

Stops

p
 

1C0E

ᰎᰧ

1C0F

ᰏᰭ

1C31

ᰜᰦᰱ

b
 

1C13

ᰓᰪ

1C14

ᰔᰦ

t
 

1C0A

ᰊᰃᰥᰤᰫ

1C33

ᰇᰬᰳ

d
 

1C0C

ᰌᰦᰲᰈᰫ

c
 

1C06

ᰆᰨ

ʈ
 

1C4D

ᱍᰬ

1C00 1C37 1C25 in older texts.

ᰀ᰷ᰥᰬ

ɖ
 

1C4F

ᱏᰧ

1C03 1C37 1C25 in older texts.

ᰃ᰷ᰥᰬ

k
 

1C00

ᰀᰈᰫ

1C01

ᰁᰨ

1C2D

ᰏᰭ

ɡ
 

1C03

ᰃᰦᰰ

1C04

ᰄᰧ

ʔ
 

1C23

ᰠᰨᰣᰮᰶ

Aspirated stops

 

1C10

ᰐᰨ

 

1C0B

ᰋᰫᰭ

 

1C07

ᰇᰨ

ʈʰ
 

1C4E

ᱎᰧ

1C1D 1C37 1C25 in older texts.

ᰝ᰷ᰥᰧ

 

1C02

ᰂᰫ

Affricates

t͡s
 

1C17

ᰗᰫᰭ

t͡sʰ
 

1C18

ᰘᰩ

d͡z
 

1C19

ᰙᰨ

Fricatives

f
 

1C11

ᰑᰦ

1C12

ᰒᰬᰳ

v
 

1C1F

ᰟᰧ

s
 

1C20

ᰠᰌᰪ

z
 

1C19

ᰙᰨ

ʃ
 

1C21

ᰡᰧ

1C20 before i.

ʒ
 

1C08

ᰈᰬᰲ

h
 

1C1D

ᰝᰦᰱ

Nasals

m
 

1C15

ᰕᰧ

1C16

ᰖᰤᰦ

1C2E

ᰓᰦᰮ

n
 

1C0D

ᰍᰦᰮ

1C30

ᰅᰫᰰ

ɲ
 

1C09

ᰉᰬᰳ

ŋ
 

1C05

ᰅᰫ

1C35

ᰠᰪᰵ

1C34 after the inherent vowel.

ᰆᰴ

Approximants & trills/flaps

w
 

1C22

ᰢᰨᰕᰫ

r
 

1C1B

ᰛᰪ

1C25

ᰀᰥᰰᰶ

1C32

ᰈᰬᰲ

 

1C1D 1C25

ᰝᰥᰨ

l
 

1C1C

ᰜᰧᰶ

See stops section.

1C2F

ᰚᰬᰯ

 

1C1E

ᰞᰨ

j
 

1C1A

ᰚᰶ

1C24

ᰃᰤᰫ

Encoding choices

This section offers advice about characters or character sequences to avoid, and what to use instead. It takes into account the relevance of Unicode Normalisation Form D (NFD) and Unicode Normalisation Form C (NFC).

Lepcha characters don't have any precomposed vs. decomposed alternatives, but ordering of combining marks is important.

Codepoint sequences

Letters should generally be typed in the order of pronunciation, but there are also ordering rules for additional characters. The order should be as follows.u,577

TypeExampleCode points
ConsonantsU+1C00..U+1C23, U+1C4D..U+1C4F
Nukta U+1C37
Medial RAU+1C25
Medial YAU+1C24
Dependent vowelsU+1C26..U+1C2C
Final consonantsU+1C2D..U+1C35
Ran signU+1C36

Note, in particular, that is typed and stored after all other combining marks, including the syllable final consonant marks, and is not treated like a vowel sign.

Numbers, dates, currency, etc

Digits

Lepcha has its own set of digits, with a decimal base.

᱀␣᱁␣᱂␣᱃␣᱄␣᱅␣᱆␣᱇␣᱈␣᱉

Text direction

Lepcha text is written horizontally, with lines that flow from top to bottom.

Glyph shaping & positioning

This section brings together information about the following topics: font/writing styles; cursive text; context-based shaping; context-based positioning; letterform slopes, weights, & italics; case & other character transforms.

You can experiment with examples using the Lepcha character app.

Context-based shaping & positioning

Since the letters are all the same height, there tends not to be much variation in height of combining marks, except for which fonts tend to move up and down depending on whether the base consonant also carries a final consonant mark as well.

Medial consonants tend to anchor to the preceding onset consonant in slightly different ways.

Special rendering rules are needed to place the pre-base vowel glyphs to the left of the syllable, and to place to the left of those. is also over the syllable onset consonant, even though it is encoded after vowels that extend to its right.

ᰝᰥᰫᰰ
An example of context-sensitive positioning of glyphs. The final consonant 'n', which is typed and stored last, is rendered over the syllable-initial consonant, even though the medial consonant mark and the vowel sign extend further to the right.
ᰕᰧᰵᰶᰙᰳᰶ
Another example of context-sensitive positioning of glyphs. The RAN sign, which is typed and stored last, is rendered over the syllable-initial consonant, and at different heights dependening on the presence or not of a final consonant mark.

Graphemes

In Lepcha text, grapheme clusters typically correspond to whole syllables. Where combining marks appear, the combination of base and combining mark still fits within the definition of a grapheme cluster.

Grapheme clusters

Base Mark?

Each syllable onset and following combining marks typically constitute a single grapheme cluster.

Punctuation & inline features

Word boundaries

Words are separated by spaces.

Phrase & section boundaries

See type samples.

,␣;␣:␣.␣?␣!␣᰻␣᰼␣᰽␣᰾␣᰿

Basic phrase and section boundaries in Lepcha use ASCII punctuation.

phrase

,

;

:

sentence

.

?

!

᰿

According to the Unicode Standard, the Lepchas use traditional punctuation marks only when copying the old books. In everyday writing they use common Western punctuation marks such as comma, full stop, and question mark.u,13.12

may be rendered by a font to look like །, the Tibetan shay character.

Observation: In Plaisier's sample texts, ᰿ is used to surround the numbers that introduce each glossed sentence, eg. ᰿᱃᰿.

Bracketed text

(␣)

Lepcha commonly uses ASCII parentheses to insert parenthetical information into text.

  start end
standard

( [U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS]

) [U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS]

Quotations & citations

See type samples.

“␣”␣‘␣’

Lepcha texts may use quotation marks around quotations. Of course, due to keyboard design, quotations may also be surrounded by ASCII double and single quote marks.

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initial

[U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]
nested

[U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

The principal line-break opportunities are inter-word spaces.

Text alignment & justification

See type samples.

Full justification may be achieved by altering the width of inter-word spaces.

Baselines, line height, etc.

tbd

Lepcha uses the 'alphabetic' baseline.

Page & book layout

Online resources

  1. Sikkim Herald
  2. Lepcha grammar, p139ff

References