Khmer character notes

Updated 27 June, 2020

This page lists characters in the following Unicode blocks and gathers information about them from various sources.

See also the companion document, Khmer, for a summary of the Khmer script and its use for the Cambodian language.

The level of detail in the phonetic transcriptions shown below may vary according to the source. The transcriptions are generally intended to merely give an idea of the pronunciation.

Related pages.
Other character notes.
About this page

Consonants

U+1780 KHMER LETTER KA

Khmer kɑː

k with inherent vowel ɑː or followed by a vowel, eg. ក៏.

k before a subscript consonant.

when followed by a subscript or , eg. ក្មូយ k͓m̱ūy̱ kʰmuəj.

k in final position, eg. លើក.

ʔ in final position after one of these vowels a, aː, ɑ, ɑː, eə̆, uə̆, iə, ɨə, uə.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1782 KHMER LETTER KO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1781 KHMER LETTER KHA

Khmer kʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ខាង.

k before a subscript consonant.

k in final position, eg. មុខ.

ʔ in final position after one of these vowels a, aː, ɑ, ɑː, eə̆, uə̆, iə, ɨə, uə, eg. ពិសាខ.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1783 KHMER LETTER KHO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1782 KHMER LETTER KO

Khmer kɔː

k with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. គេ.

k before a subscript consonant.

k in final position, eg. រោគ.

when followed by a subscript or , eg. គ្នា ḵ͓ṉā kʰniə.

ʔ in final position after one of these vowels a, aː, ɑ, ɑː, eə̆, uə̆, iə, ɨə, uə, eg. នាគ.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+1780 KHMER LETTER KA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1783 KHMER LETTER KHO

Khmer kʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ឃត់.

k before a subscript consonant, eg. ឃ្លាន.

k in final position, eg. មេឃ. Not common.

ʔ in final position after one of these vowels a, aː, ɑ, ɑː, eə̆, uə̆, iə, ɨə, uə, eg. មាឃ.

* Subscript consonant seldom used.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+1781 KHMER LETTER KHA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1784 KHMER LETTER NGO

Khmer ŋɔː

ŋ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ងងឹត. (Note that this sound appears in syllable initial position in Khmer.)

Not used before a subscript consonant.

ŋ in final position, eg. ដឹង.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Combinations. The combination ង៉ [U+1784 KHMER LETTER NGO + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. ង៉ាវ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1785 KHMER LETTER CA

Khmer cɑː

c with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ចង់.

c before a subscript consonant.

c in final position. [c] according to Huffman, eg. តូច.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1787 KHMER LETTER CO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1786 KHMER LETTER CHA

Khmer cʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ឆា cʰaː stir fry.

c before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

* Subscript consonant seldom used.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1788 KHMER LETTER CHO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1787 KHMER LETTER CO

Khmer cɔː

c with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ជា.

c before a subscript consonant.

c in final position. [c] according to Huffman., eg. រាជ.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+1785 KHMER LETTER CA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1788 KHMER LETTER CHO

Khmer cʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ឈឺ.

c before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

* Subscript consonant seldom used.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+1785 KHMER LETTER CA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1789 KHMER LETTER NYO

Khmer ɲɔː

ɲ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ញី.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

ɲ in final position, eg. ទាញ.

ŋ in final position after , eg. រីញ.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Shape. The bottom of this character is dropped when followed by a subscript consonant, eg. បញ្ឆោត.

There are two shapes used for the subscript. When this character appears twice in a cluster, the full form is used. Elsewhere a reduced form is used. For example, compare កញ្ញា and ប្រាជ្ញា.

Combinations. The combination ញ៉ [U+1789 KHMER LETTER NYO + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. ញ៉ាំ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+178A KHMER LETTER DA

Khmer ɗɑː

ɗ with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ដុល្លារ.

ɗ before a subscript consonant.

t in final position, eg. ប្រាកដ.

The subscript consonant is the same shape as the subscript of tɑː .

Combinations. The syllable-final combination ដ្ឋ [U+178A KHMER LETTER DA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+178B KHMER LETTER TTHA] is also pronounced simply ast.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+178C KHMER LETTER DO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+178B KHMER LETTER TTHA

Khmer tʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ឋាន.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position, eg. បាឋ.

This consonant is only used in a few words of Pali or Sanskrit origin.

* Subscript is seldom used: often a silent final subscript.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+178D KHMER LETTER TTHO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+178C KHMER LETTER DO

Khmer ɗɔː

ɗ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ឌុន.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

t in final position, eg. គ្រុឌ.

This consonant is rare and is only used in a few words of Pali or Sanskrit origin.

* Subscript is seldom used

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+178A KHMER LETTER DA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+178D KHMER LETTER TTHO

Khmer tʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ឍាល.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

t in final position, eg. អាសាឍ.

This consonant is only used in a few words of Pali or Sanskrit origin.

* Subscript consonant is obsolete, or rarely, if ever, used.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+178B KHMER LETTER TTHA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+178E KHMER LETTER NNO

Khmer nɑː

n with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ណាស់.

n before a subscript consonant.

n in final position, eg. បូរាណ.

* Subscript consonant is seldom used: often a silent final subscript.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+178F KHMER LETTER TA

Khmer tɑː

t with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. តា.

ɗ at the beginning of two syllable words where the first syllable ends with final nasal, eg. តង្វាយ.

t before a subscript consonant, eg. ត្រី.

t in final position, eg. កាត់.

Subscript consonant is the same shape as the subscript of ɗɑː .

The pronunciation when a subscript in medial position is unpredictable, sometimes t and sometimes ɗ. As a general rule, but not always, it is pronounced t when a subscript to nɔː , and ɗ when a subscript to nɑː , eg. បន្តុះ, and បណ្តុះ.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1791 KHMER LETTER TO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1790 KHMER LETTER THA

Khmer tʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ថា.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position, eg. ប្រមាថ.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1792 KHMER LETTER THO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1791 KHMER LETTER TO

Khmer tɔː

t with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ទម្ងន់.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position, eg. បាទ.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+178F KHMER LETTER TA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1792 KHMER LETTER THO

Khmer tʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ភំ.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position, eg. អាវុធ.

* Subscript consonant is seldom used: often a silent final subscript.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+1790 KHMER LETTER THA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO

Khmer nɔː

n with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. នឹង.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

n in final position, eg. មាន.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Combinations. In some words, the combination ហ្ន [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. ហ្នឹង.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+178E KHMER LETTER NNO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1794 KHMER LETTER BA

Khmer ɓɑː

ɓ with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. បន្ទប់.

p when followed by a subscript consonant, eg. ម្រាំ m̱͓ṟām̽ pram.

p in final position, eg. ឈប់.

p in some words just by convention, eg. បច្ច័យ.

Shape. A ligature បា is used when this character is followed by sra-aː, to avoid similarity with hɑː , eg. បាយ. The same applies when followed by sra-ao បោ and sra-aw បៅ.

Combinations. The combination ប៊ [U+1794 KHMER LETTER BA + U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP] produces the ɔ-series equivalent, eg. ប៊ុត.

p in the combination ប៉ [U+1794 KHMER LETTER BA + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN], eg. ប៉ា.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1795 KHMER LETTER PHA

Khmer pʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː, eg. ផាយ.

p before a subscript consonant, eg. ផ្សារ.

p in final position. Not common.

* Subscript consonant is obsolete, or rarely, if ever, used.

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+1797 KHMER LETTER PHO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1796 KHMER LETTER PO

Khmer pɔː

p with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ពី.

p before a subscript consonant.

p in final position, eg. រៀប.

Combinations. The combination ព៉ [U+1796 KHMER LETTER PO + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. ព៉ី.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1797 KHMER LETTER PHO

Khmer pʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ភាសា.

p before a subscript consonant.

p in final position, eg. លោភ.

The ɑ-series equivalent is [U+1795 KHMER LETTER PHA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1798 KHMER LETTER MO

Khmer mɔː

m with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. មុខ.

m before a subscript consonant.

m in final position, eg. តាម.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Combinations. The combination ម៉ [U+1798 KHMER LETTER MO + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN] produces the ɔ-series equivalent, eg. ម៉ែ.

It may also be produced by the combination ហ្ម [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+1798 KHMER LETTER MO], eg. ហ្មត់.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO

Khmer

j with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. យល់.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

in final position. Huffman says j, eg. បាយ.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Combinations. The combination យ៉ [U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. យ៉ាង.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+179A KHMER LETTER RO

Khmer rɔː

r with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. រូប.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

Silent in final position, eg. ខ្មែរ. There is no final -r sound in Cambodian, but this letter can sometimes disambiguate homonyms, eg. កា and ការ; ពី and ពីរ.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Combinations. The combination រ៉ [U+179A KHMER LETTER RO + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. រ៉ូង.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+179B KHMER LETTER LO

Khmer lɔː

l with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. លុយ.

l before a subscript consonant.

l in final position, eg. កាល.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Combinations. In some words, the combination ហ្ល [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+179B KHMER LETTER LO] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. ហ្លួង.

The ɑ-series equivalent letter is [U+17A1 KHMER LETTER LA].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+179C KHMER LETTER VO

Khmer ʋɔː

ʋ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. វៃ.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

w in final position, eg. អាវ.

As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

Combinations. The combination វ៉ [U+179C KHMER LETTER VO + U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN] produces the ɑ-series equivalent, eg. វ៉ៃ.

In some words the same effect is produced using the combination ហ្វ [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+179C KHMER LETTER VO], eg. ហ្វូង.

f is also produced by the combination ហ្វ [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+179C KHMER LETTER VO], eg. ហ្វឹក; កាហ្វេ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+179F KHMER LETTER SA

Khmer sɑː

s with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. សី.

s before a subscript consonant.

h in final position, eg. ចាស់.

s in final position in very formal reading style, eg. សូមទោស.

Combinations. The combination ស៊ [U+179F KHMER LETTER SA + U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP] produces the ɔ-series equivalent, eg. ស៊ី.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA

Khmer hɑː

h with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ហាង.

Silent before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

Combinations. f is produced by the combinations:

The following combinations with ɔː class subscripts make the following vowel behave as if they were ɑː class consonants:

ហ្វ [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+179C KHMER LETTER VO], eg. ហ្វូង h͓v̱ūŋ ʋouŋ

ហ្ម [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+1798 KHMER LETTER MO], eg. ហ្មត់

ហ្ន [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO], eg. ហ្នឹង

ហ្ល [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+179B KHMER LETTER LO], eg. ហ្ល h͓ḻ lɑː.

Combinations. The combination ហ៊ [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP] produces the ɔ-series equivalent, eg. ហ៊ាន.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17A1 KHMER LETTER LA

Khmer lɑː

l with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ឡេង.

Not found before a subscript consonant or in final position.

** Subscript consonant not used in Cambodia (only in Khmer spoken in Thailand).

The ɔ-series equivalent is [U+179B KHMER LETTER LO].

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17A2 KHMER LETTER QA

Khmer ʔɑː

ʔ with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. អី.

ʔ before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

When used as a subscript at the beginning of a word this adds an extra syllable after the initial consonant, eg. ផ្អែម pʰ͓ʔæm̱ pʰaʔaem; ស្អាត s͓ʔāt saʔaːtʰ.

Combinations. The combination អ៊ [U+17A2 KHMER LETTER QA + U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP] produces the ɔ-series equivalent, eg. អ៊ី.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+17A5 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QI

Khmer

ʔə eg. ឥត.

ʔɨ eg. ឥន្ទុ.

ʔəj eg. ឥឡូវ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17A7 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QU

Khmer

u, eg. ឧបម៉ា.

o, eg. ឧកញ៉ា.

ao, eg. ឧបាសក.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17A9 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QUU

Khmer ស្រៈឩ sraʔ ʔou

ou eg. ឩដ្ឋ.

eg. ឩន.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17AB KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL RY

Khmer

eg. ឬស្សី

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17B0 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAI

Khmer

aj, eg. ឰរាវ័ណ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17B2 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QOO TYPE TWO

Khmer ស្រៈឲ sraʔ ʔao

ao, eg. ឲ្យ.

This is a variant of [U+17B1 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QOO TYPE ONE] that is only used, according to Unicode, in two words, one of which, ឲ្យ, is very common however.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Vowel signs

U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA

Khmer

ɑː class. after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ណា

ɔː class. after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ជា.

Combinations. In the combination ាំ [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT] this is regarded as a letter of the Khmer alphabet. Sounds are:

  • am after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ចាំ.
  • oə̯m after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ជាំ.

The combination ាំង [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT + U+1784 KHMER LETTER NGO] gives:

  • after an ɑː class consonant, eg. តាំង.
  • ɛaŋ after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ទាំង.

The combination ា​់ [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC], where the bantoc sits over a following consonant, gives:

  • eə̯ before a velar consonant, eg. ពាក់ (cf. ពាក្យ).
  • oə̯ elsewhere, eg. មាន់ (cf. មាន).

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I

Khmer

ɑː class. e after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ចិត្ដ. It is followed by a glottal stop in stressed syllables, eg. មតិ, but not in unstressed, eg. កិរិយា.

ɔː class. i after an ɔː class consonant, eg. វិញ. Followed by glottal stop in stressed syllables, eg. លទ្ធិ, but not in unstressed, eg. និទាន.

Combinations. The combination ិះ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK] is regarded as a letter of the Khmer alphabet. (The combination produces the same sounds as above, but followed by h), eg. ជិះ. This combination has the same sound as េះ [U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], but is much less common.

əj for the combination –ិយ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I + U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO] after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ចេតិយ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17B8 KHMER VOWEL SIGN II

Khmer ស្រៈ អី sraʔ ʔəj

ɑː class. əj after an ɑː class consonant, eg. បី.

ɔː class. after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ពីរ.

Combinations. Also pronounced when it occurs in the combination ិយ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I + U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO], eg. ឥន្ត្រិយ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17B9 KHMER VOWEL SIGN Y

Khmer ស្រៈ អឹ sraʔ ʔə

ɑː class. ə after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ដឹក.

ɔː class. ɨ after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ទឹក.

Combinations. əh in the combination –ឹះ [U+17B9 KHMER VOWEL SIGN Y + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. ឆ្កឹះ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17BA KHMER VOWEL SIGN YY

Khmer ស្រៈ អឺ sraʔ ʔəɨ

əɨ after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ដឺ.

ɨː after an ɔː class consonant, eg. គឺ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U

Khmer ស្រៈ អុ sraʔ ʔo

ɑː class. o after an ɑː class consonant. It is followed by a glottal stop in open stressed syllables, eg. វត្តុ, but not in unstressed, eg. កុមារ.

ɔː class. u after an ɔː class consonant. It is followed by a glottal stop in stressed syllables, eg. វិទ្យុ, but not in unstressed, eg. គុលិកា.

Combinations. The combination ុះ [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK] is regarded as a letter of the Khmer alphabet, and is pronounced:

  • oh after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ចុះ.
  • uh after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ពុះ.

The combination ុំ [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT] is pronounced:

  • om after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ដុំ.
  • um after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ទុំ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17BC KHMER VOWEL SIGN UU

Khmer

ɑː class. ou after an ɑː class consonant, eg. កូរ.

ɔː class. after an ɔː class consonant, eg. គូ.

Combinations. ɨw in the combination ូវ [U+17BC KHMER VOWEL SIGN UU + U+179C KHMER LETTER VO], eg. នូវ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17BD KHMER VOWEL SIGN UA

Khmer ស្រៈ អួ sraʔ ʔua

after any class of consonant, eg. កួរ and គួរ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17BE KHMER VOWEL SIGN OE

Khmer ស្រៈ អើ sraʔ ʔaə

ɑː class. after an ɑː class consonant, eg. បើ.

ɔː class. əː after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ឈើ.

Combinations. əh in the combination –ើះ [U+17BE KHMER VOWEL SIGN OE + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. ចង្កើះ (normally spelled ចង្កឹះ cŋ͓kɨh̽).

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17BF KHMER VOWEL SIGN YA

Khmer ស្រៈ អឿ sraʔ ʔɨə

ɨə after any class of consonant, eg. តឿ and ជឿ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C0 KHMER VOWEL SIGN IE

Khmer ស្រៈ អៀ sraʔ ʔiə

after any class of consonant, eg. តៀប and ទៀប.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E

Khmer ស្រៈ អេ sraʔ ʔei

ɑː class. ei after an ɑː class consonant, eg. កេរ្តិ៍.

ɔː class. after an ɔː class consonant, eg. គេ, but ɨ before palatals, eg. ពេញ.

Combinations. The combination េះ [U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK] is pronounced:

  • eh after an ɑː class consonant, eg. សេះ.
  • ih after an ɔː class consonant, eg. នេះ.

This combination has the same sound as ិះ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], but is much more common.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C2 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AE

Khmer ស្រៈ អែ sraʔ ʔae

ɑː class. ae after an ɑː class consonant, eg. កែ.

ɔː class. ɛː after an ɔː class consonant, eg. គែ.

Combinations. eh for the combination ែះ [U+17C2 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AE + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK] after an ɔ-class consonant.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C3 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AI

Khmer ស្រៈ អៃ sraʔ ʔaj

ɑː class. aj after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ប្រៃ.

ɔː class. ɨj after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ព្រៃ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C4 KHMER VOWEL SIGN OO

Khmer ស្រៈ អោ sraʔ ʔao

ɑː class ao after an ɑː class consonant, eg. កោរ.

oː class after an ɔː class consonant, eg. គោ.

Combinations. The combination ោះ [U+17C4 KHMER VOWEL SIGN OO + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK] is pronounced:

  • ɑh after an ɑː class consonant, eg. នៅណោះ.
  • uəh or uh after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ឈ្មោះ, នោះ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C5 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AU

Khmer ស្រៈ អៅ sraʔ ʔaw

ɑː class aw after an ɑː class consonant, eg. តៅ.

ɔː class ɨw after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ទៅ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT

Khmer និគ្គហិត nikkɔːhet

Although it can be equated with the anusvara in Sanskrit, this is usually regarded as a vowel sign or a part of a vowel sign in Khmer.

ɑː class ɑm after an ɑː class consonant, eg. កំពុង.

ɔː class um after an ɔː class consonant, eg. រំភើប.

Combinations. The combination ុំ [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT] is pronounced:

  • om after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ធំ.
  • um after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ខ្លាឃ្មុំ.

The combination ាំ [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT] is:

  • am after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ដាំ.
  • oə̯m after an ɔː class consonant, eg. នាំ.

The combination ាំង [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT + U+1784 KHMER LETTER NGO] is:

  • after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ម្ហូបបារាំង.
  • eə̯ŋ after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ទាំង.

In some words of Sanskrit origin, the niʔkəhət represents or an, eg. សំស្ក្រិត and សំយោគសញ្ញា.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK

Khmer រះមុខ reə̆hmuk

Although it can be equated with the visarga in Sanskrit, this is regarded as a vowel sign or part of a vowel sign in Khmer.

ɑː class ah with an ɑː class inherent vowel, eg. ខ្លះ.

ɔː class eə̆h with an ɔː class inherent vowel or an ɔː class sra-aː អា, eg. ផ្ទះ pteə̆h house, home.

h after the normal sounds of short vowels sra-e អិ, sra-ə អឹ, and sra-o អុ, eg. ជិះ, កឹះ, ពុះ.

ih with sra-ei អេ as an ɔː class vowel, eg. នេះ.

eh with sra-ei អេ or sra-aj អៃ as an ɑː class vowel, eg. សេះ, កែះ.

əh with sra-aə អើ as an ɑː class vowel, eg. ចង្កើះ.

ɑh with sra-ao អោ as an ɑː class vowel, eg. កោះ.

uə̆h with sra-ao អោ as an ɔː class vowel, eg. គោះ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C8 KHMER SIGN YUUKALEAPINTU

Khmer យុគលពិន្ទុ juʔkɔluə̆ʔpintuʔ

Used as a vowel after consonants that are to be used as stressed syllables at the end of a word, or preceding an internal juncture in compounds.

as an ɑː class vowel, eg. ស្រៈ.

eə̆ʔ as an ɔː class vowel, eg. ធុរៈ.

This character is a modern innovation. It is also used in the official Cambodian Dictionary to mark any consonant symbol which is pronounced independently.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Coeng

U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG

Khmer ជើង cəːŋ

Serves to indicate in Unicode text that the following consonant should be rendered as a subscript. The shape is arbitrary, since it is never visible in Khmer (unlike Devanagari etc.).

cəːŋ (transcribed in Unicode as COENG) is actually the name given to the subscripted consonants themselves, and this should more accurately be called a cəːŋ generator.

This virama-based model used by Unicode is consistent with the approach to other Indic scripts, however Cambodian people regard the subscripted consonants as different entities to the normal consonant characters, and need to be taught to use a cəːŋ sign to type in Unicode.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Diacritics

U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC

Khmer បន្តក់ ɓɑntɑk

Always placed above the final consonant. Basically shortens the preceding vowel. Affects the preceding vowel sound in one of the following ways:

  • After an inherent vowel
    • ɑ after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ចប់ (cf. ចប).
    • u after an class consonant and before a labial consonant, eg. លប់ (cf. លប).
    • uə̯ otherwise after an ɔː class consonant, eg. លក់ (cf. លក).
  • After following an ɔː class consonant
    • eə̯ before a velar consonant, eg. ពាក់ (cf. ពាក្យ).
    • oə̯ elsewhere, eg. មាន់ (cf. មាន).
  • Otherwise, shortens a long vowel, eg. ចាប់ (cf. ចាប).

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17CC KHMER SIGN ROBAT

Khmer របាទ rɔɓaːt

Not a very common mark. It silences final consonants, eg. បរិបូណ៌.

Over a word-medial syllable-initial consonant it introduces the sound before the syllable, eg. ទុគ៌ត.

It can also convert the vowel sound of the previous consonant from ɔː to ɔə as well as silencing the consonant it appears over, eg. ពណ៌.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17CD KHMER SIGN TOANDAKHIAT

Khmer ទណ្ឌឃាត tɔnɗɔkʰiət

Used over a consonant, particularly in loan words, to silence it and any attached vowels or subscripts, eg. សាសន៍, and សប្ដាហ៍; រេហ៍ពល.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17CE KHMER SIGN KAKABAT

Khmer កាកបាទ kaːkɑɓaːt

Very rare, but used over the final consonant of a word like an exclamation mark, to convey excited emphasis, eg. ណែ៎; នុ៎ះន៎

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17CF KHMER SIGN AHSDA

Khmer លេខអស្ដា leːk ʔahsɗaː

Used over two consonants to indicate that they represent two specific words:

  • ក៏ k⁎ kɑː meaning auxiliary: also, then, therefore
  • ដ៏ ɗ⁎ ɗɑː means pronoun which; very

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA

Khmer

ɑː class. a over an ɑː class consonant, eg. ស័កិ្ត; ស័ក.

eə̆ before velar finals, eg. ល័ខ and វ័ង

ɔː class. oə̯ over an ɔː class consonant, in general, eg. ទ័ព.

ɔə over a consonant followed by [U+179A KHMER LETTER RO] (these are always ɔː class consonants), eg. ជ័រ.

(Note that all of the above are the same as if a sra-aː plus niʔkəhət had been used.)

Combinations.The combination ័យ [U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA + U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO] is pronounced:

aj after an ɑː class consonant, eg. សម័យ.

ɨj after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ជ័យ.

Gilbert & Hang say that the sound is e usually, when over ʋɔː or nɔː .

ɔə in the combination –័រ [U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA + U+179A KHMER LETTER RO], eg. ជ័រ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17D1 KHMER SIGN VIRIAM

Khmer វិរាម ʋiriəm

The sanskrit virama, sometimes used in Sanskrit words to indicate that a final consonant has no vowel sound, eg. អាត្មន៑.

Sometimes this appears as a bar over the consonant, sometimes as a wide, inverted v-shape under the consonant.

The Cambodian way of spelling such words uses the sanjoːksaɲɲaː អ័.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17DD KHMER SIGN ATTHACAN

Khmer

A rarely used sign that indicates that the consonant retains its inherent vowel sound.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN

Khmer មូសិកទន្ត museʔkətoə̯n

Changes the register of a consonant from ɔː to ɑː, affecting the inherent vowel and any other vowel following the consonant, eg. ម៉ត់ចត់, រ៉ាប់. It is used for the following consonants that don't have equivalents in the ɑː class: ង ញ ម យ រ វ. It is usually written over the right-hand side of the consonant glyph. This is also especially useful for spelling foreign names. Eg. យ៉ាង (cf. យាង).

Changes the sound of ɓɑː from ɓ to p, eg. ប៉ះ. This is the only way to write an ɑː register p. Eg. ប៉ាន (cf. បាន).

When a vowel sign appears above the consonant, the ក្បៀសក្រោម kɓiəhkraom form of this character is used. This looks exactly like sra-o អុ, eg. ម៉ឺន; ញ៉ាំ.

You can prevent this behaviour using a zero-width non-joiner between this character and the following one, eg. ញ៉‌ាំ ɲ″‌ām̽.

tmɨɲ kɑnɗao means "rat's teeth".

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP

Khmer ត្រីសព្ទ trəisaɓ

Changes the class of a consonant from ɔː to , affecting the inherent vowel and also any other vowel following the consonant, eg. ក្រុមហ៊ុន; ហ៊ាន (cf. ហាន); អ៊ូ (cf. អូ). This is especially useful for spelling foreign names.

When this appears with a vowel sign above the consonant, the ក្បៀសក្រោម kɓiəhkraom form is used. This looks exactly like sra-o អុ, eg. in ស៊ី.

You can prevent this behaviour using a zero-width non-joiner between this character and the following one, eg. ស៊‌ី s′‌ī.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Punctuation

U+17D4 KHMER SIGN KHAN

Khmer ខ័ណ្ឌ kʰan

Equivalent of a period, placed at the end of a sentence.

Also used in the combination ។ល។ .ḻ. lanəŋla to mean etcetera.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17D5 KHMER SIGN BARIYOOSAN

Khmer បរិយោសាន ɓɑːrijaosaːn

Used at the end of a chapter or an entire text.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17D6 KHMER SIGN CAMNUC PII KUUH

Khmer ចំណុចពីរគូស cɑmnoc piː kuːh

Used much like a colon in English.

It is typically used after the quotative particle ថា and the copulative .

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17D7 KHMER SIGN LEK TOO

Khmer ស្ទួន / លេខទោ stuən / leːktoː

Repetition sign. Repeats the word directly before. A common way of providing emphasis, eg. ខ្លាំង ៗ; គាត់មានផ្ទះថ្មី ៗ.

Sometimes repeats a phrase rather than a word, eg. បន្តិចម្ដង ៗ.

It is also occasionally used to repeat the word at the end of a sentence for the beginning of a new sentence (Huffman), eg. ខ្ញុំទៅផ្ទះខ្ញុំ ។ នៅជិតផ្សារ kɲomtɨwpteə̆hkɲom pteə̆hkɲom nɨwcɨtpsaː .

The sign is usually separated from the text by a space.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17D9 KHMER SIGN PHNAEK MUAN

Khmer ភ្នែកមាន់ pnɛːkmoə̆n

Marks the beginning of literary and religious texts.

Forms a pair with , which ends a text.

Means cock's eye. It is said to represent the trunk of the elephant-god Ganesha.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17DA KHMER SIGN KOOMUUT

Khmer គោមូត្រ koːmout

Marks the absolute end of a text. Usually used for poetic or religious texts.

Forms a pair with , which starts a text.

Sometimes used in combination as ។៚.

Means cow's urine.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Currency symbol

U+17DB KHMER CURRENCY SYMBOL RIEL

Khmer សញ្ញារៀល saɲ ɲaː riəl

Placed after the amount, eg. ៣០០០ ៛.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Digits

U+17E0 KHMER DIGIT ZERO

Khmer សូន soun

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E1 KHMER DIGIT ONE

Khmer មួយ muəj

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E2 KHMER DIGIT TWO

Khmer ពីរ piː

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E3 KHMER DIGIT THREE

U+17E4 KHMER DIGIT FOUR

Khmer បួន ɓuən

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E5 KHMER DIGIT FIVE

Khmer ប្រាំ pram

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E6 KHMER DIGIT SIX

Khmer ប្រាំមួយ prammuəj

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E7 KHMER DIGIT SEVEN

Khmer ប្រាំពីរ prampiː / prampɨl

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E8 KHMER DIGIT EIGHT

Khmer ប្រាំបី pramɓəj

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+17E9 KHMER DIGIT NINE

Khmer ប្រាំបួន pramɓuən

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Deprecated or obsolete

Consonants

U+179D KHMER LETTER SHA

Khmer

Used only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+179E KHMER LETTER SSO

Khmer

Used only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Inherent vowels

Independent vowels

U+17A3 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAQ

Khmer

This should be considered an error in the encoding. Use of this character is strongly discouraged; [U+17A2 KHMER LETTER QA] should be used instead.

Originally intended only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration, but not actually a separate character in Khmer.

U+17A4 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAA

Khmer

This should be considered an error in the encoding. Use of this character is discouraged; the sequence + ◌ា [U+17A2 KHMER LETTER QA + U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA​] should be used instead.

Originally intended only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration, but not actually a separate character in Khmer.

Punctuation

U+17D8 KHMER SIGN BEYYAL

Khmer ។ល។ / ល៉ៈ lanəŋla / laʔ

Means et cetera. Use of this character is discouraged. The preferred representation uses the individual characters, eg. ។ល។ .ḻ..

Other spellings for et cetera also exist. These include:

  • ។បេ។
  • –បេ–
  • –ល–

Pronounced lɑʔ.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Symbols

U+17D3 KHMER SIGN BATHAMASAT

Khmer

Use discouraged in favor of the complete set of lunar date symbols.

General sources: Huffman, Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

References

  1. [ d ] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  2. [ g ] Richard Gilbert & Sovandy Hang, Cambodian for Beginners, Paiboon Publishing, ISBN 1-887521-35-6
  3. [ h ] Franklin Huffman, Cambodian System of Writing
  4. [ s ] SIL, The order of components in Khmer orthographical syllables
  5. [ u ] The Unicode Standard, Version 11, pp637-648
  6. [ w ] Wikipedia, Khmer alphabet