Khmer

Updated 22 July, 2020

This page gathers together basic information about the Khmer script and its use for the Cambodian language. It aims (generally) to provide an overview of the orthography and typographic features, and (specifically) to advise how to write Khmer using Unicode.

See also the companion document, Khmer character notes, for detailed information about specific Unicode characters.

The level of detail in the phonetic transcriptions shown below may vary according to the source. The transcriptions are generally intended to merely give an idea of the pronunciation.

Related pages.
Other script summaries.
About this page

Sample (Khmer)

Select part of this sample text to show a list of characters, with links to more details.

មាត្រា ១ មនុស្សទាំងអស់ កើតមកមានសេរីភាព និងសមភាព ក្នុងផ្នែកសេចក្ដីថ្លៃថ្នូរនិងសិទ្ធិ។ មនុស្ស មានវិចារណញ្ញាណនិងសតិសម្បជញ្ញៈជាប់ពីកំណើត ហើយគប្បីប្រព្រឹត្ដចំពោះគ្នាទៅវិញទៅមក ក្នុង ស្មារតីភាតរភាពជាបងប្អូន។

មាត្រា ២ មនុស្សម្នាក់ៗ អាចប្រើប្រាស់សិទ្ធិនិងសេរីភាពទាំងអស់ ដែលមានចែងក្នុងសេចក្ដីប្រកាសនេះ ដោយគ្មានការប្រកាន់បែងចែកបែបណាមួយ មានជាអាទិ៍ ពូជសាសន៍ ពណ៌សម្បុរ ភេទ ភាសា សាសនា មតិនយោបាយ ឬមតិផ្សេងៗទៀត ដើមកំណើតជាតិ ឬសង្គម ទ្រព្យសម្បត្ដិ កំណើត ឬស្ថានភាព ដទៃៗទៀតឡើយ។ លើសពីនេះ មិនត្រូវធ្វើការប្រកាន់បែងចែកណាមួយ ដោយសំអាងទៅលើឋានៈខាងនយោបាយ ខាងដែនសមត្ថកិច្ច ឬខាងអន្ដរជាតិរបស់ប្រទេស ឬដែនដីដែលបុគ្គលណាម្នាក់រស់នៅ ទោះបីជាប្រទេស ឬដែនដីនោះឯករាជ្យក្ដី ស្ថិតក្រោមអាណាព្យាបាលក្ដី ឬគ្មានស្វ័យគ្រប់គ្រងក្ដី ឬស្ថិតក្រោមការដាក់ កម្រិតផ្សេងទៀតណាមួយ ដល់អធិបតេយ្យភាពក្ដី។

Usage & history

The Khmer script is used for writing the official language of Cambodia, and sometimes for Cambodian minority languages, such as Tampuan, Krung, Cham, Brao and Mnong. It is currently in widespread use, although it is estimated that 35% of the Khmer-speaking population aged 15 and over are illiterate in the script. It is also used to write Pali in the Buddhist liturgy of Cambodia and Thailand.

Name: អក្សរខ្មែរ ʔaʔsɑː kʰmaːe

The script is thought to be descended from the Brahmi Pallava script, and the Khmer literary tradition dates back to the 7th century. The modern Khmer script differs somewhat from precedent forms seen on the inscriptions of the ruins of Angkor. The Thai and Lao scripts are descended from an older form of the Khmer script.

Sources: Scriptsource, Wikipedia, Unicode13 p653

Basic features

The script is an abugida, ie. like most Brahmi-influenced scripts, each consonant carries with it an inherent vowel. The sound following a consonant can be modified by attaching vowel signs to the consonant when writing. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the modern Khmer orthography.

Direction of text is horizontal, left to right. However, glyphs constituting a single syllable can appear on any side of the base character, and multiple diacritics are often needed to create the vowel in a syllable.

A key feature of Khmer is that there are a large number of vowel sounds, and only a few vowel signs; and there are a large number of consonant letters for only a small number of consonant sounds. This lead to a system where there are generally two consonant signs for a given sound, each belonging to one of two classes (or registers). So to determine the pronunciation of a vowel sign you start by seeing which class of consonant it follows. For example, using the two symbols for the sound k, is kɑː neck, and is kɔː mute.

Consonants stack in Khmer, but not always in a predictable way. Multiple consonants at the start and (sometimes) end of a syllable are usually stacked. Consonant clusters in a multisyllabic word also tend to stack. But syllable-final consonants, which can be one of a number of characters, often don't stack with the onset consonant of the next syllable.

There are a number of distinct writing styles in Modern Khmer, including slanted (called អក្សរច្រៀង), which has an upright variant, and round (called អក្សរឈរ). The round style includes more ligated forms. The upright style is used here. For examples, see writing_styles.

Text direction

Khmer text runs left to right in horizontal lines.

Structure

The syllable is fundamental in Cambodian.

Many native Cambodian words are monosyllabic. These start with one or more consonants or an independent vowel (or a vowel sign attached to ʔɑː, which is a combination of both). Short vowels in stressed syllables are always followed by a consonant. Long vowels may not be. There are many monosyllabic words that begin with consonant clusters, and some monosyllabic words that end with clusters, although only one consonant is pronounced in syllable final position.

There are also many bisyllabic words. In many cases the first syllable in a bisyllabic word is unstressed, and the vowel is usually rendered in colloquial speech as a schwa. Some bisyllabic words are compounds, however, and this may not apply.

Polysyllabic words are usually of Sanskrit, Pali or French origin. These words tend to alternate stress across their syllables, but may not.

Order of syllable components

An orthographic syllable is slightly different from a morphological syllable, since an orthographic syllable may begin with the final consonant of the previous morphological syllable. Alternatively, an orthographic syllable may be just a final consonant or consonant cluster in a morphological syllable.

Components of an 'orthographic syllable'* should be composed in the following order:

  1. base consonant or independent vowel
  2. rɔɓaːt
  3. museʔkətoə̯n or trəisaɓ (register shifters)
  4. subscript (consonant or independent vowel)
  5. vowel sign
  6. zero-width joiner or non-joiner
  7. any other mark

This fixed ordering makes it easier to search for and collate text.

As mentioned above, although all combining characters follow the base in memory, the visual order of syllable components may not follow a linear progression from left to right. In the following example the order in which the glyphs are pronounced is far left, far right, down, left, left: កន្ត្រៃ. In the word ច្រៀង the spoken order of the separate visible parts, numbered left to right, is 3,2, 1+4, 5, Some vowel signs span two or three sides of the base consonant or cluster.

In character lists, show:

Vowels

The Khmer Unicode block has 16 vowel signs, and 15 independent vowels (not counting 2 that are deprecated).

Other diacritics also produce vowel sounds after or before the consonants they are attached to.

As mentioned above, an initial indicator of pronunciation is the class of the syllable-initial consonant. Additional factors include whether this is an unstressed vowel, vowel harmony, and whether any of the special diacritics have been used to change the sound. For an in-depth treatment of pronunciation see Huffman in the sources section.

Vowel sounds

Click on the sound groups to see where else in the document each of the sounds are referred to.

Plain vowels

i iː i iː ɨ ɨː ɨ ɨː u uː u uː e eː e eː o oː o oː ə əː ə əː ɛː ɛː ɔː ɔː a aː a aː ɑ ɑː ɑ ɑː

Sourcewp.

Diphthongs

ɨə ɨə uə ŭə uə ŭə ei ĕə ei ĕə ou ŏə ou ŏə əɨ əɨ ɔə ɔə ae aə ao ae aə ao

Sourcewp.

 

Vowel to script mapping

The following tables show how the above vowel sounds map to characters or sequences of characters. The dotted circle indicates the location of the consonant relative to the vowel-sign; if there are 2 circles, the vowel is used only in closed syllables.

Plain vowels

i
2

[U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I]. Followed by glottal stop in stressed syllables, eg. លទ្ធិ, but not in unstressed, eg. និទាន.

2

[U+17B8 KHMER VOWEL SIGN II], eg. ពីរ.

◌ិយ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I + U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO], eg. ឥន្ត្រិយ.

ɨ
2

ិ◌ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I, except before [U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO], eg. ជិត.

ឹ◌ [U+17B9 KHMER VOWEL SIGN Y], eg. ទឹក.

[U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E], before palatals, eg. ពេញ.

 
i

[U+17A5 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QI], eg. ឥន្ទុ

ɨː
2

[U+17BA KHMER VOWEL SIGN YY], eg. គឺ.

u
2

[U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U]. Followed by glottal stop in stressed syllables, eg. វិទ្យុ, but not in unstressed, eg. គុលិកា.

ុ◌ [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U], eg. គុណ.

[U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC] after an inherent, series 2 vowel and before a labial final, eg. ទប់.

 
i

[U+17A7 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QU, eg. ឧបម៉ា.

2

[U+17BC KHMER VOWEL SIGN UU], eg. គូ.

 
i
e
1

[U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I]. Followed by glottal stop in stressed syllables, eg. មតិ, but not in unstressed, eg. កិរិយា.

2

[U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E], eg. គេ.

o
1

[U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U]. Followed by glottal stop in stressed syllables, eg. វត្តុ, but not in unstressed, eg. កុមារ.

ុ◌ [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U], eg. កុន.

 
i

[U+17A7 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QU], eg. ឧកញ៉ា.

2

[U+17C4 KHMER VOWEL SIGN OO], eg. គោ.

Inherent vowel in syllables that end with [U+0E23 THAI CHARACTER RO RUA], eg. พร p̱ʰṟ poːn blessing.

ə
1

ិ◌ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I, eg. ចិត្ត.

ឹ◌ [U+17B9 KHMER VOWEL SIGN Y], eg. ដឹក.

[U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E], before palatals, eg. ម៉េច.

 
i
əː
2

[U+17BE KHMER VOWEL SIGN OE], eg. ឈើ.

ɛː
2

[U+17C2 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AE], eg. គែ.

ɔː
2

Inherent vowel for 2nd series consonants, eg. .

a
1

[U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA], eg. ស័ក

ា◌់ [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC], eg. កាត់.

1

Inherent vowel for 1st series consonants, eg. .

[U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA], តា.

ɑ
1

[U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC] after an inherent, series 1 vowel, eg. កត់.

ɑː
1

Inherent vowel for 1st series consonants, eg. .

Diphthongs and other combinations

2
 
1/2

[U+17C0 KHMER VOWEL SIGN IE], តៀប, ទៀប.

ɨə
1/2

[U+17BF KHMER VOWEL SIGN YA], eg. តឿ, ជឿ.

ɨj
2

័យ [U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA + U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO], eg. ជ័យ.

[U+17C3 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AI], eg. ព្រៃ.

ɨw
2

ូវ [U+17BC KHMER VOWEL SIGN UU + U+179C KHMER LETTER VO], eg. នូវ.

[U+17C5 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AU], eg. ទៅ.

1/2

[U+17BD KHMER VOWEL SIGN UA], eg. កួរ, គួរ.

uə̆
2

[U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC] after an inherent, series 2 vowel and before a non-labial final, eg. យល់.

uə̆h
2
uh
2
um
2

ុំ [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT], eg. ទុំ.

[U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT], eg. ទំ.

eə̆
2

[U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA], before velar finals, eg. ល័ខ

ា◌់ [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC] before velar finals, eg. ទាក់.

ei
1

[U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E], eg. កេរ្តិ៍.

eh
1
eə̆h
2

[U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. ទះ

ou
1

[U+17BC KHMER VOWEL SIGN UU], eg. កូរ.

 
i

[U+17A9 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QUU], eg. ឩដ្ឋ

oə̆
2

[U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA], before non-velar finals, eg. ទ័ព

ា◌់ [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC] before non-velar finals, eg. គាត់.

oə̆m
2
oh
1
om
1
əɨ
1

[U+17BA KHMER VOWEL SIGN YY], eg. ដឺ.

əj
1

[U+17B8 KHMER VOWEL SIGN II], eg. បី.

 
2

ិយ [U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I + U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO], eg. ចេតិយ.

 
i

[U+17A5 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QI], eg. ឥឡូវ.

[U+17A6 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QII], eg. ឦសាន

əw
1

ូវ [U+17BC KHMER VOWEL SIGN UU + U+179C KHMER LETTER VO], eg. ត្រូវ.

 
i

[U+17AA KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QUUV], eg. ឪពុក.

əh
1

ឹះ [U+17B9 KHMER VOWEL SIGN Y + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. ឆ្កឹះ.

ើះ [U+17BE KHMER VOWEL SIGN OE + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. ចង្កើះ (normally spelled ចង្កឹះ cŋ͓kɨh̽).

ɔə
2
ae
1

[U+17C2 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AE], eg. កែ.

 
i
1

[U+17BE KHMER VOWEL SIGN OE], eg. បើ.

ao
1

[U+17C4 KHMER VOWEL SIGN OO], eg. កោរ.

 
i
aj
1

័យ [U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA + U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO], eg. សម័យ.

[U+17C3 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AI], eg. ប្រៃ.

 
i

[U+17B0 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAI], eg. ឰរាវ័ណ.

aw
1

[U+17C5 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AU], eg. តៅ.

 
i

[U+17B3 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAU], eg. ឳទក.

ah
1

ោះ [U+17C4 KHMER VOWEL SIGN OO + U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. កោះ.

[U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. តះ

am
1
ɑm
1

[U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT], eg. ចំ.

Vowel harmony

In two-syllable words, where the second syllable begins with one of the following consonants the vowel class of the second syllable is the same as that of the first.

ង␣ញ␣ណ␣ន␣ម␣យ␣ឡ␣ល␣រ␣វ

For example, in ប្រយ័ត្ន, the second syllable starts with an class consonant but the class of the preceding syllable turns the vowel to an ɑː class sound. There are, however, exceptions to this rule.

Inherent vowels

Consonants carry an inherent vowel usually transcribed as a but pronounced as either ɑː or ɔː. The class of the consonant will initially dictate which sound is appropriate, eg. kɑː vs. kɔː.

The Unicode Khmer block has two characters that appear to be associated with the inherent vowel, but their use is not clear. They are U+17B4 KHMER VOWEL INHERENT AQ and U+17B5 KHMER VOWEL INHERENT AA.

Vowel signs

Other than the inherent vowel, vowel sounds that follow a consonant sound are represented using vowel-signs, eg. គិ ki ki. This includes several diphthongs (each represented by a single code point), 3 prescript signs, and 5 circumgraphs.

In most cases, vowel signs attached to a consonant are pronounced differently, depending on the register of the consonant letter, eg. កា kaː vs. គា kiə.

ា␣ៈ␣ិ␣ី␣ឹ␣ឺ␣ុ␣ូ␣ួ␣េ␣ែ␣ៃ␣ោ␣ៅ␣ើ␣ឿ␣ៀ

[U+17C8 KHMER SIGN YUUKALEAPINTU​] is a 20th century addition to the Khmer repertoire. It is used as a vowel after consonants that are pronounced as stressed syllables at the end of a word, or preceding an internal juncture in compounds.

Khmer vowel signs are all represented by combining characters. Around half are spacing marks, meaning that they consume horizontal space when added to a base consonant. A single combining character is used per base consonant, even where vowel signs appear on two sides of the consonant, but a few vowel signs are combined with niʔkəhət or reə̆hmuk diacritics to produce additional sounds (see anusvara_visarga).

All vowel-signs are typed and stored after the base consonant, whether or not they precede it when displayed. The font takes care of the glyph positioning.

niʔkəhət and reə̆hmuk

ំ␣ះ

The descendants of the anusvara and the visarga, [U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT​], called និគ្គហិត niʔkəhət, and [U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK​], called រះមុខ reə̆hmuk, are regarded as vowels in Khmer, even though they represent the sounds m and h, respectively.

Used on their own, they can change the inherent vowel. For example, ដំ is not equivalent to ដម, neither phonetically, nor in meaning. The same applies to ពាំ and ពាម. u643

They are also used in combination with other vowel signs.

ាំ␣ុំ␣ុះ␣េះ␣ោះ

The first two of these combinations are regarded as vowels in the Khmer alphabet but they are not encoded separately in Unicode (though they are named sequences), ie. អាំ am, oə̆m and អុំ om, um.

Using circumgraphs

Several vowels are produced by a single combining character with visually separate parts, eg. កើ kaᵊ kaw, which uses [U+17BE KHMER VOWEL SIGN OE). It is, however, possible to create something that looks the same using 2 code points eg. កេី keī using + [U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E + U+17B8 KHMER VOWEL SIGN II].

The Unicode Standard surprisingly makes no comment on this, although it does for other scripts, where it encourages use of the single code point.

For Khmer, single and multiple code point realisations do not normalise to be the same in NFC or NFD, so you are creating different content by using one approach or the other. This may affect various operations on the text.

Vowel-sign placement

The following list shows where vowel-signs are positioned around a base consonant to produce vowels, and how many instances of that pattern there are. The figure after the + sign represents combinations of vowel-sign and niʔkəhət/reə̆hmuk,

At maximum, vowel components can occur concurrently on 2 sides of the base.

Vowel absence

Inherent vowels are not pronounced after syllable final consonants, nor after initial consonants in a stack (see clusters).

Standalone vowels

There are two ways of representing vowel sounds that are not preceded by a consonant.

The most common way is to add a vowel-sign to the glottal consonant character [U+17A2 KHMER LETTER QA], eg. អី ʔəj.

There are also some independent vowel letters, but unlike most South Asian scripts, there are fewer independent vowels than vowel signs, and some do not have direct correspondences with a vowel sign, eg. corresponds phonetically to the vowel plus consonant combination ូវ. (See also vocalics.)

ឥ␣ឦ␣ឪ␣ឧ␣ឩ␣ឯ␣ឰ␣ឱ␣ឳ␣ឲ

Whether an standalone vowel sound is represented using an independent vowel letter or the glottal consonant plus vowel-sign varies from word to word. In Cambodian orthography the two are not interchangeable. The independent vowel letters appear in relatively few words, but some of those words are quite common, eg. ឪពុក, ឲ្យ and .

The Unicode Khmer block contains 3 more independent vowels that are either obsolete or strong deprecated.

The Unicode Standard regards the following 2 characters as errors in the encoding.

ឣ␣ឤ

Vocalics

Khmer represents vocalics only as independent vowel letters.

ឫ␣ឬ␣ឭ␣ឮ

Consonants

Consonant sounds

Click on the sounds to see where else in the document they are referred to.

labial dental alveolar retroflex palatal velar glottal
stop p ɓ~b

t ɗ~d
    c
k ɡ
ʔ
affricate              
fricative f   s z       h
nasal m   n   ɲ ŋ
approximant ʋ~w   l   j  
trill/flap     r  

Sourcewp.

Consonant sounds to characters

The following maps the above sounds to graphemes, grouped by register (class 1 or 2).

Initials

p
1
 
2

[U+1796 KHMER LETTER PO], eg. ពី.

b
1

[U+1794 KHMER LETTER BA], eg. ប្រុត.

 
2

ប៊ [U+1794 KHMER LETTER BA + U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP], eg. ប៊ុត.

1

[U+1795 KHMER LETTER PHA], eg. ផាយ.

 
2

[U+1797 KHMER LETTER PHO], eg. ភាយ.

t
1

[U+178F KHMER LETTER TA], eg. តា.

 
2

[U+1791 KHMER LETTER TO], eg. ទា.

d
1

[U+178A KHMER LETTER DA], eg. ដុន.

 
2

[U+178C KHMER LETTER DO], eg. ឌុន.

1

[U+1790 KHMER LETTER THA], eg. ថូ.

[U+178B KHMER LETTER TTHA], eg. ឋាន.

 
2

[U+1792 KHMER LETTER THO], eg. ធូរ.

[U+178D KHMER LETTER TTHO], eg. ឍាល.

k
1

[U+1780 KHMER LETTER KA], eg. .

 
2

[U+1782 KHMER LETTER KO], eg. .

1

[U+1781 KHMER LETTER KHA], eg. ខត់.

 
2

[U+1783 KHMER LETTER KHO], eg. ឃត់.

ʔ
1

[U+17A2 KHMER LETTER QA], eg. អី.

 
2
c
1

[U+1785 KHMER LETTER CA], eg. ចា.

 
2

[U+1787 KHMER LETTER CO], eg. ជា.

1

[U+1786 KHMER LETTER CHA], eg. ឆោង.

 
2

[U+1788 KHMER LETTER CHO], eg. ឈោង.

f
1
 
2
s
1

[U+179F KHMER LETTER SA], eg. សី.

 
2
h
1

[U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA], eg. ហាង

 
2

ហ៊ [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP], eg. ហ៊ាន.

 
2

[U+1798 KHMER LETTER MO], eg. មែ.

n
1

[U+178E KHMER LETTER NNO], eg. ណាយ.

ហ្ន [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO], eg. ហ្នឹង

 
2

[U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO], eg. នាយ.

ɲ
1
 
2

[U+1789 KHMER LETTER NYO], egញាំ.

ŋ
1
 
2

[U+1784 KHMER LETTER NGO], eg. ងាវ.

 
2

[U+179C KHMER LETTER VO], eg. វៃ.

r
1
 
2

[U+179A KHMER LETTER RO], eg. เรือ eṟɯ̄ʔ̯ rɯːa boat.

l
1

[U+17A1 KHMER LETTER LA], eg. ឡេង.

ហ្ល [U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+179B KHMER LETTER LO], eg. ហ្លួង

 
2

[U+179B KHMER LETTER LO], eg. លាង.

j
1
 
2

[U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO], eg. យាង.

Vocalics

 

[U+17AB KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL RY]. eg. ឬស្សី.

rɨː
 
 

[U+17AD KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL LY]. eg. រំឭក.

lɨː
 

Finals

p
f

[U+1794 KHMER LETTER BA], eg. រៀប.

[U+1796 KHMER LETTER PO], eg. ភាព.

[U+1797 KHMER LETTER PHO], eg. លោភ.

t
f

[U+178F KHMER LETTER TA], eg. កាត់.

[U+1791 KHMER LETTER TO], eg. បាទ.

[U+178A KHMER LETTER DA], eg. ប្រាកដ.

[U+178B KHMER LETTER TTHA], eg. បាឋ.

ដ្ឋ [U+178A KHMER LETTER DA + U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG + U+178B KHMER LETTER TTHA], eg. ឥដ្ឋ.

[U+178C KHMER LETTER DO], eg. គ្រុឌ.

[U+1790 KHMER LETTER THA], eg. ប្រមាថ.

  [U+1792 KHMER LETTER THO], eg. អាវុធ.

[U+178D KHMER LETTER TTHO], eg. អាសាឍ.

c
f

[U+1785 KHMER LETTER CA], eg. តូច.

[U+1787 KHMER LETTER CO], eg. រាជ.

k
f

[U+1780 KHMER LETTER KA], eg. ជីក.

[U+1782 KHMER LETTER KO], eg. រោគ.

[U+1781 KHMER LETTER KHA], eg. មុខ.

[U+1783 KHMER LETTER KHO], eg. មេឃ.

ʔ
f

All of the following occur after one of the following vowels: a, aː, ɑ, ɑː, eə̆, uə̆, iə, ɨə, uə.

[U+1780 KHMER LETTER KA], eg. នាគ.

[U+1782 KHMER LETTER KO], eg. នាគ.

[U+1781 KHMER LETTER KHA], eg. ពិសាខ.

[U+1783 KHMER LETTER KHO], eg. មាឃ.

s
f

[U+179F KHMER LETTER SA], only in very formal reading style, eg. សូមទោស.

h
f

[U+179F KHMER LETTER SA], eg. ចាស់.

[U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK], eg. ទះ. This represents -ah after a 1st class consonant, and  -eə̆h after a 2nd class consonant.

m
f

[U+1798 KHMER LETTER MO]. eg. តាម.

ុំ [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT], eg. ដុំ.

[U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT], eg. ចំ.

ាំ [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA + U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT], eg. ចាំ

n
f

[U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO], eg. មាន.

[U+178E KHMER LETTER NNO], eg. បូរាណ.

ɲ
f

[U+1789 KHMER LETTER NYO], eg. ទាញ.

ŋ
f

[U+1784 KHMER LETTER NGO]. eg. ដឹង.

[U+1789 KHMER LETTER NYO], after , eg. រីញ.

w
f

[U+179C KHMER LETTER VO]. eg. អាវ.

[U+17C5 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AU], eg. ហៅ.

l
f

[U+179B KHMER LETTER LO]. eg. កាល.

j
f

[U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO]. eg. បាយ.

[U+17C3 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AI], eg. ព្រៃ.

Consonant registers

Khmer is not tonal, but each consonant character belongs to one of two classes. The class of a consonant determines the vowel sound in a syllable. For example, kɑː vs. kɔː, and កី kəj vs. គី kiː.

Two diacritics, [U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN​] and [U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP​], are used to change the class of a consonant. These are particularly useful when a given sound has only one character associated with it, such as the letters , and etc.

Basic consonants

The list just below shows consonants in use in modern Khmer, although some are not widely used.

In the panels that follow, the 2 registers are shown separately for the plosives, and the remainder are mixed. A superscript ɑ or ɔ indicates which register the consonant belongs to. Forms such as p- indicate pronunciation at the start of a consonant cluster, when it differs. The form -p indicates pronunciation at the end of a syllable.

ផ␣ប␣ត␣ថ␣ឋ␣ដ␣ច␣ឆ␣ក␣ខ␣អ
ព␣ភ␣ទ␣ធ␣ឍ␣ឌ␣ជ␣ឈ␣គ␣ឃ
វ␣ស␣ហ
ម␣ន␣ណ␣ញ␣ង
រ␣ឡ␣ល␣យ

The following 3 consonants are obsolete, and used only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration.

ឝ␣ឞ␣ៜ

Final consonants

Not all Khmer consonants can appear in syllable-final position. The most common syllable-final consonants include the following:

ប␣ត␣ក␣ម␣ន␣ញ␣ង␣ល

The pronunciation of the consonant in final position may differ from it's normal pronunciation, but it is not followed by a vowel sound.

Because ordinary letters are used in word-final position, it is difficult to parse Khmer. For example, the sequence កក could equally represent two syllables kɑːkɑː with inherent vowels, or one syllable with a final -k sound kɑːʔ.

Two final consonant sounds m and h can also be produced using combining characters. See anusvara_visarga for details.

Consonant clusters

In Khmer, word-internal clusters are very common at the beginning of a word, but clusters also occur medially in multisyllable words, and occasionally at the end of a word.

The absence of a vowel sound between two or more consonants is visually indicated by stacking consonants, where the non-initial consonant appears below the initial, typically with a different shape from normal.

In Unicode, the stacking behaviour is achieved by adding [U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG] between the consonants. This character has no visual representation.

Consonant clusters formed by the end of one word and the beginning of the next do not lead to stacking in Khmer.

Subscript consonants

Subscript consonant forms are called ជើងអក្សរ (or 'coeng', pronounced cəːŋ).

Cambodians see these subscripts as distinct letter forms, but, unlike Tibetan, they are produced in Unicode by inserting U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG​ before the consonant that will become a subscript. This character, which has no visual form in Cambodian, is called the coeng in Unicode, although it should rightly be called the coeng generator.

This list shows consonant characters with their subjoined forms.

ក្ក␣ខ្ខ␣គ្គ␣ឃ្ឃ␣ង្ង␣ច្ច␣ឆ្ឆ␣ជ្ជ␣ឈ្ឈ␣ញ្ញ␣ដ្ដ␣ឋ្ឋ␣ឌ្ឌ␣ឍ្ឍ␣ណ្ណ␣ត្ត␣ថ្ថ␣ទ្ទ␣ធ្ធ␣ន្ន␣ប្ប␣ផ្ផ␣ព្ព␣ភ្ភ␣ម្ម␣យ្យ␣ឡ្ឡ␣ល្ល␣រ្រ␣វ្វ␣ស្ស␣ហ្ហ␣អ្អ

All the shapes are simplified and reduced in size compared to the non-subscript form. Many have significantly different shapes. Note also that [U+179A KHMER LETTER RO] produces a subjoined form that wraps to the left and under the preceding consonant. Several others wrap below and to the right of the consonant. [U+17A1 KHMER LETTER LA] doesn't normally appear in subscript form.

Where the two consonants involved in the cluster are in different classes or registers, the pronunciation of any following vowel is normally determined by the register of the subscript consonant. For the following exceptions, however, the vowel pronunciation is determined by the register of the first consonant:

ង␣ញ␣ន␣ម␣យ␣រ␣ល␣វ

Some subscripts change the sound of the preceding consonant.

Subscript consonants that appear at the end of a word, are silent, eg. ពេទ្យ; រដ្ឋ.

In some multisyllabic words a medial cluster may contain a final consonant for the first syllable and the initial consonant of the next syllable, eg. កម្មករ.

There are some clusters involving two subscripts. These are, with three exceptions, composed of a final nasal, followed by a stop and r, eg. កន្ត្រៃ kṉ͓t͓ṟaʲ kɑːntraj scissors , កញ្ជ្រេង. The three exceptions are the loan words, អង្គ្លេស, សងស្ក្រិត, and សាស្ត្រាចារ្យ.

Subscript consonants after vowels

It is rare but possible to find subscripts used after independent vowels. One common word spelled this way is ឲ្យ.

It is also possible to find subscript forms of independent vowels. Four of these are named sequences in Unicode.

Other letters

In addition to those mentioned above, the Unicode Khmer block has one other character with a general category of letter.

[U+17D7 KHMER SIGN LEK TOO] is used to indicate repetition (see repetition).

Combining marks

The Khmer block contains 33 combining marks, 16 of which are vowel-signs, and 3 vowel-like signs – these are described above. Eliminating 2 deprecated inherent vowel marks, and one astrological mark who's use is discouraged, brings the remaining total to 11.

These are the more common combining characters.

្␣៍␣់␣័␣៉␣៊

Five more are rarely used.

៑␣៌␣៝␣៎␣៏

U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG​, used to create stacked consonants, is described earlier (see subscript_consonants), as are [U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN​] and [U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP​] (see modification).

Other diacritics are described here in general terms. For the detail, click on the character above and follow the links to the character notes document.

Silencing marks

Two diacritics, [U+17CC KHMER SIGN ROBAT​] and [U+17CD KHMER SIGN TOANDAKHIAT​], are used to silence written characters. The former is not very common and silences final consonants, eg. បរិបូណ៌ (although it also introduces or affects sound in some cases in multisyllabic words). The latter is used over a consonant, particularly in loan words, to silence it and any attached vowels or subscripts, eg. សប្ដាហ៍ or រេហ៍ពល.

[U+17D1 KHMER SIGN VIRIAM], the sanskrit virama, is sometimes used in Sanskrit words to indicate that a final consonant has no vowel sound, eg. អាត្មន៑.

[U+17DD KHMER SIGN ATTHACAN], on the other hand, is a rarely used sign that indicates that a final consonant retains its inherent vowel sound. 

 

Vowel modifier marks

[U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC] is always placed above the final consonant, and basically shortens the preceding vowel.

[U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA​] is used in some Pail and Sanskrit loan words (although alternative spellings exist) and indicates that the syllable has a particular vowel. 

Other marks

[U+17CF KHMER SIGN AHSDA​] is used over two consonants to indicate that they represent two specific words: ក៏, and ដ៏.

[U+17CE KHMER SIGN KAKABAT​] is very rare, but used over the final consonant of a word like an exclamation mark, to convey excited emphasis, eg. ណែ៎, or នុ៎ះន៎.

Use of [U+17D3 KHMER SIGN BATHAMASAT] is discouraged in favor of the complete set of lunar date symbols.

Punctuation

The following non-ASCII punctuation marks are in regular use (see quotations).

“␣”␣‘␣’

The Khmer block has 5 non-deprecated punctuation marks, and a currency symbol.

៖␣។␣៕␣៙␣៚

These are described elsewhere on this page.

[U+17D8 KHMER SIGN BEYYAL], meaning et cetera, is deprecated by the Unicode Standard. Use the component parts individually, instead, ie. ។ល។.

Numbers, dates, currency, etc.

Khmer has its own set of decimal digits, although western digits are also used sometimes.

០␣១␣២␣៣␣៤␣៥␣៦␣៧␣៨␣៩

The thousands separator is . [U+002E FULL STOP], and decimal separator is , [U+002C COMMA].

Ranges and dates use the ASCII hyphen.w

Currency

The symbol [U+17DB KHMER CURRENCY SYMBOL RIEL] (សញ្ញារៀល sɲ͓ɲāṟiᵊḻ saɲ ɲaː riəl) is placed after the amount, eg. ៣.០០០ ៛ ɓej poan riəl 3,000 riel. Sometimes [U+179A KHMER LETTER RO] is used instead.

Other

The Unicode Khmer block contains a set of numeric symbols for divination lore.

៰␣៱␣៲␣៳␣៴␣៵␣៶␣៷␣៸␣៹

The Khmer Symbols block is entirely composed of Lunar date symbols.

᧠␣᧡␣᧢␣᧣␣᧤␣᧥␣᧦␣᧧␣᧨␣᧩␣᧪␣᧫␣᧬␣᧭␣᧮␣᧯␣᧰␣᧱␣᧲␣᧳␣᧴␣᧵␣᧶␣᧷␣᧸␣᧹␣᧺␣᧻␣᧼␣᧽␣᧾␣᧿

Glyph shaping & positioning

The Khmer script is not cursive, and there are no requirements for transforming characters (such as case conversion).

You can experiment with examples using the Khmer picker.

Writing styles

There are several distinct styles of font in Modern Khmer.

Most modern typefaces are set in an upright style (called អក្សរឈរ ʔk͓sṟc̱ʰṟ ʔɑːksɑː cʰɔː or អក្សរត្រង់ ʔk͓sṟt͓ṟŋ˘ ʔɑːksɑː trɑŋ).w This is the style used for this page.

The text អក្សរខ្មែ in an âksâr chôr font style.

The slanted style (អក្សរជ្រៀង ʔk͓sṟc̱͓ṟiᵊŋ ʔɑːksɑː criəŋ) is used for whole documents or novels. The oblique styling has no affect on the semantics of the text.w

The text អក្សរខ្មែ in an âksâr chriĕng font style.

The round style (អក្សរមូល ʔk͓sṟm̱ūḻ ʔɑːksɑː muːl) includes more ligated forms, and is used for titles and headings in Cambodian documents, books, or currency, as well as on shop signs or banners. It may also be used to emphasise important names or nouns.w

The text អក្សរខ្មែ in an âksâr mul font style.

Another style (អក្សរខម ʔk͓sṟkʰm̱ ʔɑːksɑː kʰɑːm), characterized by sharper serifs and angles and retainment of some antique characteristics, is used for yantra text in Cambodia as well as in Thailand.w

Context-based shaping

There is very little in the way of interaction between characters other than the subscript shapes used after the coeng generator.

Some small joining features occur in relation to [U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA] and similarly shaped vowels. Unicode provides the following list of common forms:

  1. ក + ា = កា
  2. ប +  ា = បា (avoids confusion with )
  3. ប +  ៅ = បៅ
  4.  ្ស +  ា = ្សា

Some reshaping of glyphs is needed to cope with stacking of characters. Compare for example the length of the final element in ង្យ and ង្ខ្យ.

Also, when [U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN​] museʔkətoə̯n or [U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP​] trəisaɓ appears with a vowel sign above the consonant, the ក្បៀសក្រោម kɓiəhkraom form is used. This looks exactly like [U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U​], eg. compare យ៉ាង and ម៉ឺន məɨn 10,000 or ញ៉ាំ.

This behaviour can be modified using U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER.

Another common feature is that [U+1789 KHMER LETTER NYO] drops the swash below the baseline when followed by a subscript consonant, eg. បញ្ឆោត. Also, when it appears as a subscript under itself it uses a special full form subscript. Compare កញ្ញា and ប្រាជ្ញា.

Context-based positioning

tbd

Baselines & inline alignment

tbd

Font styles

tbd

Structural boundaries & markers

Grapheme boundaries

tbd

Word boundaries

Khmer words are not separated by spaces.

Phrase & section boundaries

Although Khmer words are not separated by spaces, the space (ឃ្លា kliə) is used, and is regarded as punctuation, similar to the comma. Huffman lists the following uses:

  1. between clauses within a sentence
  2. between sentences in a cohesive group of sentences
  3. after preposed adverbial phrases, such as 'usually', 'today', 'in that town', etc.
  4. before and after proper names
  5. before and after numbers
  6. before and after the symbols and and the terms ។ល។ and ។ប។
  7. between coordinate words in lists

Huffman gives the following example to show the use of the space:

ថ្ងៃនេះ ខ្ញុំទៅផ្សារ ទិញក្រច អង្ករ ហើយនឹងអីវ៉ាន់ផ្សេង ៗ
tŋajnih kɲomtɨwpsaː tiɲkrouc ʔɑŋkɑː haəjnɨŋʔəjʋanpseiŋ pseiŋ
Today ( ) I'm going to the market ( ) to buy oranges ( ) rice ( ) and various things.

Phrasal punctuation marks. Khmer also uses [U+17D4 KHMER SIGN KHAN] to mark the end of sentences, although a series of sentences on a related topic tend to be separated by space instead.

[U+17D6 KHMER SIGN CAMNUC PII KUUH] is used in much the same way as a western colon. 

Question & exclamation marks. Khmer uses Western punctuation marks, eg. ហេត៊អ្វី? haetʰ aʋəi, and កុំ! kom.

Very rarely, the combining character [U+17CE KHMER SIGN KAKABAT​] can be used over the final consonant of a word like an exclamation mark, to convey excited emphasis, eg. ណែ៎ nɛː Hey!, or នុ៎ះន៎ nuhnɔː Over there!.

Section boundaries. [U+17D5 KHMER SIGN BARIYOOSAN] can be used to close a chapter, or an entire text.

Text start and end. Poetic and religious texts typically start with [U+17D9 KHMER SIGN PHNAEK MUAN] and end with [U+17DA KHMER SIGN KOOMUUT].

Bracketing & range markers

tbd

Quotations

According to CLDR, the default quote marks for Khmer should be, reading right to left, “...”. When an additional quote is embedded within the first, the quote marks should be ‘...’.

Emphasis

tbd

Abbreviation, ellipsis & repetition

Ellipsis

The word ។ល។ (pronounced laʔ) is used as the equivalent of 'etc.' A character exists that represents that sequence, [U+17D8 KHMER SIGN BEYYAL], but the Unicode Standard recommends the use of the three separate characters instead.u

Other spellings for et cetera also exist. These include:

  • ។បេ។
  • –បេ–
  • –ល–

Repetition

It is common to repeat words or sometimes phrases in Khmer, particularly to provide emphasis. [U+17D7 KHMER SIGN LEK TOO] (called លេខទោ leːktoː) can be used for this, eg. ខ្លាំង ៗ klaŋklaŋ very strong; គាត់មានផ្ទះថ្មី ៗ kaːtʰ miən pʰteə̯h tʰməitʰməi he has a brand new house.

Sometimes this sign repeats a phrase rather than a word, eg. បន្តិចម្ដង ៗ ɓɑntecmɗɑːŋ ɓɑntecmɗɑːŋ little by little.

It is also occasionally used to repeat the word at the end of a sentence for the beginning of a new sentenceh, eg. ខ្ញុំទៅផ្ទះខ្ញុំ ។ នៅជិតផ្សារ kɲomtɨwpteə̆hkɲom pteə̆hkɲom nɨwcɨtpsaː.

The sign is usually separated from the text by a space.

Other punctuation

Names

- [U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS] (called សហសញ្ញា sɑːhɑː sɑːɲɲiə) is used between the parts of a person's name. Typically the family name (written first) and following names, but often all names for Chinese Cambodians, eg. ញ៉ុក-ថែម ɲok tʰaem, លី-ធាម-តេង liː tʰiəm teiŋ.

Inline notes & annotations

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Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

Although Khmer doesn't use spaces or dividers between words, the expectation is that line-breaks occur at word boundaries.

There are three basic types of Khmer word:

  1. Single, indivisible words: eg. ជាតិ c̱āti national, វិទ្យាល័យ v̱iṯ͓ȳāḻăȳ highschool, កម្ម km̱͓m̱ mission.
  2. Words with prefixes and suffixes: eg. អន្តរជាតិ ʔṉ͓tṟc̱āti international, មហវិទ្យាល័យ m̱hv̱iṯ͓ȳāḻăȳ high school and កម្មករ km̱͓m̱kṟ workers.
  3. Compound words (combining 2, 3, or more single words): eg. ជាតិសាសន៍ c̱ātisāsṉ˟ race, កម្មផល km̱͓m̱pʰḻ karma, សកលវិទ្យាល័យ skḻv̱iṯ͓ȳāḻăȳ university.

The first two types cannot be broken, but the third type can. For example, |ជាតិ|សាសន៍|, |កម្ម|ផល|, and |សកល|វិទ្យាល័យ|. (Hong)

Text is not broken at sub-word syllable boundaries. In fact, this is particularly difficult to do algorithmically in Khmer, because syllable-final consonants are indistinguishable from consonants with an inherent vowel that constitute a new syllable. Some kind of morphological analysis is needed.

Character properties

Characters used for the Khmer language have the following assignments related to line-break properties.

BA 3។ ៕ ៚
NS 1
NU10០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩
PR1
QU4‘’“”
SA 78ក ខ គ ឃ ង ច ឆ ជ ឈ ញ ដ ឋ ឌ ឍ ណ ត ថ ទ ធ ន ប ផ ព ភ ម យ រ ល វ ស ហ ឡ អ ឥ ឦ ឧ ឩ ឪ ឫ ឬ ឭ ឮ ឯ ឰ ឱ ឲ ឳ ា ិ ី ឹ ឺ ុ ូ ួ ើ ឿ ៀ េ ែ ៃ ោ ៅ ំ ះ ៈ ៉ ៊ ់ ៌ ៍ ៎ ៏ ័ ៑ ្ ៗ ៝
Show legend u

BA (break after) indicates that it is normal to break after that character. 

NS (nonstarters) cannot start a line, but unlike CL they may allow a break in some contexts when they follow one or more space characters.

NU (number) behaves like ordinary characters (AL) in the context of most characters but activate the prefix and postfix behavior of prefix and postfix characters.

PR (numeric prefix) may not be separated from following numeric characters or following opening characters, even if a space character intervenes. For example, there is no break opportunity in “฿ (100.00)”.

QU (quotation) characters can be opening or closing, or even both, depending on usage. The default is to treat them as both opening and closing.

SA (Southeast Asian) require morphological analysis to determine break opportunities, in a way similar to a hyphenation algorithm. No break opportunities will be found otherwise. Complex context analysis, often involving dictionary lookup of some form, is required to determine non-emergency line breaks. If such analysis is not available, it is recommended to treat them as AL.

Text alignment & justification

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Letter spacing

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Counters, lists, etc.

Ready-made Counter Styles lists 2 counter styles for use with the Khmer language: one numeric and 1 alphabetic style. You can experiment with these styles using the Counter styles converter.

  1 2 3 4
khmer
(numeric)
khmer-consonant
(alphabetic)
  11 22 33 44
khmer
(numeric)
១១ ២២ ៣៣ ៤៤
khmer-consonant
(alphabetic)
កដ
  111 222 333 444
khmer
(numeric)
១១១ ២២២ ៣៣៣ ៤៤៤
khmer-consonant
(alphabetic)
គឋ ចភ ញគ ឌណ
Comparative counters produced by Khmer counter styles.

Numeric

The khmer numeric style for the Cambodian language is decimal-based and uses the digits shown below.

០␣១␣២␣៣␣៤␣៥␣៦␣៧␣៨␣៩

Alphabetic

The khmer-consonant alphabetic style for the Khmer language uses the letters shown below.

ក␣ខ␣គ␣ឃ␣ង␣ច␣ឆ␣ជ␣ឈ␣ញ␣ដ␣ឋ␣ឌ␣ឍ␣ណ␣ត␣ថ␣ទ␣ធ␣ន␣ប␣ផ␣ព␣ភ␣ម␣យ␣រ␣ល␣វ␣ស␣ហ␣ឡ␣អ

Styling initials

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Page & book layout

General page layout & progression

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Grids & tables

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Notes, footnotes, etc

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Forms & user interaction

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Page numbering, running headers, etc

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Character lists

Version 12.0 of the Unicode Standard has the following blocks dedicated to the Khmer script (numbers in lists are non-ASCII only):

The modern Khmer orthography described here uses characters from the following Unicode blocks.

General Punctuation4‘ ’ “ ”Copy to clipboard
Khmer89ក ខ គ ឃ ង ច ឆ ជ ឈ ញ ដ ឋ ឌ ឍ ណ ត ថ ទ ធ ន ប ផ ព ភ ម យ រ ល វ ស ហ ឡ អ ឥ ឦ ឧ ឩ ឪ ឫ ឬ ឭ ឮ ឯ ឰ ឱ ឲ ឳ ា ិ ី ឹ ឺ ុ ូ ួ ើ ឿ ៀ េ ែ ៃ ោ ៅ ំ ះ ៈ ៉ ៊ ់ ៍ ័ ្ ។ ៕ ៖ ៗ ៙ ៚ ៛ ០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩Copy to clipboard

The infrequently used characters come from these blocks.

Khmer5៌ ៎ ៏ ៑ ៝Copy to clipboard

See also the Character usage lookup page, and the Script Comparison Table.

Languages using the Khmer script

According to ScriptSource, the Khmer script is used for the following languages:

References

  1. [ d ] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  2. [ g ] Richard Gilbert & Sovandy Hang, Cambodian for Beginners, Paiboon Publishing, ISBN 1-887521-35-6
  3. [ h ] Franklin Huffman, Cambodian System of Writing
  4. [ u ] The Unicode Standard, Version 13, pp653-664
  5. [ w ] Wikipedia, Khmer alphabet
  6. [ wp ] Wikipedia, Khmer phonology
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