Javanese

Updated 1 August, 2019 • tags scriptnotes, javanese

This page provides basic information about the Javanese script, as used for the modern Javanese language. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered or copied from various places as I learned. For character-specific details follow the links to the Javanese character notes.

See also the Javanese picker.

For similar information related to this and other scripts, see the script links pages.

Clicking on red text examples, or highlighting part of the sample text shows a list of characters, with links to more details. Click on the vertical blue bar (bottom right) to change font settings for the sample text. Colours and annotations on panels listing characters are relevant to their use for the Javanese language.

Note: There are currently difficulties in finding a workable Unicode font for Javanese. The original Noto Sans Javanese font uses shapes that are over-simplified for some Javanese users but the latest version is better, and the often recommended font, Tuladha Jejeg, is based on Graphite technology, and so only works on Firefox with Graphite rendering enabled (ie. not on iOS). The default webfont for this page is a Tuladha Jejeg webfont. If not using Firefox, you can switch between fonts using the vertical blue bar, bottom right.

Sample (Javanese)

ꦧꦧ꧀꧇꧑꧇​꧋ꦱ​ꦧꦼ​ꦤ꧀ꦲꦸ​ꦮꦺꦴꦁ​ꦏ​ꦭ​ꦲꦶ​ꦫ​ꦏꦺ​ꦏ​ꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ​ꦩꦂ​ꦢꦶ​ꦏ​ꦭ​ꦤ꧀ꦢꦂ​ꦧꦺ​ꦩꦂ​ꦠ​ꦧ​ꦠ꧀ꦭ​ꦤ꧀ꦲ​ꦏ꧀ꦲ​ꦏ꧀ꦏꦁ​ꦥ​ꦝ꧉​ꦏ​ꦧꦺꦃ​ꦥꦶ​ꦤ​ꦫꦶ​ꦔ​ꦤ꧀ꦲ​ꦏ​ꦭ꧀ꦭ​ꦤ꧀ꦏ​ꦭ꧀ꦧꦸ​ꦱꦂ​ꦠ​ꦏ​ꦲ​ꦗ​ꦧ꧀ꦥ​ꦱꦿ​ꦮꦸꦁ​ꦔ​ꦤ꧀ꦲꦁ​ꦒꦺꦴ​ꦤꦺ​ꦩꦼ​ꦩꦶ​ꦠꦿ​ꦤ꧀ꦱꦶ​ꦗꦶ​ꦭ​ꦤ꧀ꦱꦶ​ꦗꦶ​ꦤꦺ​ꦏ​ꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ​ꦗꦶ​ꦮꦺꦴ​ꦱꦸ​ꦩ​ꦢꦸ​ꦭꦸꦂ꧉

ꦧꦧ꧀꧇꧒꧇​꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦢꦂ​ꦧꦺꦲꦏ꧀ꦠꦸꦩꦿꦥ꧀ꦲ​ꦏ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦏꦧꦼꦧꦱ꧀ꦱꦤ꧀ꦏꦧꦼꦧ​ꦱ꧀ꦱꦤ꧀ꦏꦁꦠꦶꦤꦸ​ꦭꦶꦱ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦥꦿꦚꦠꦤ꧀ꦲꦸ​ꦩꦸꦩ꧀ꦲꦶ​ꦏꦶꦠꦤ꧀ꦥꦥꦶ​ꦭꦶꦃꦏꦱꦶꦃ꧈​ꦏꦧꦺꦃꦮꦫꦠꦭꦤ꧀ꦲ​ꦢꦶꦭ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦱꦩꦸꦧꦫꦁ꧈​ꦏꦪꦠꦧꦺꦢꦧꦺꦢ​ꦤꦶꦁꦫꦱ꧀​ ꦮꦂꦤꦤꦶꦁꦲꦮꦏ꧀​ ꦧꦺꦢꦧꦺꦢ​ꦤꦶꦁꦭꦤꦁꦭꦤ꧀ꦮꦢꦺꦴꦤ꧀​ ꦧꦱ꧈​ꦄꦒꦩ꧈​ꦥꦸꦭꦶꦠꦶꦏ꧀ ꦭꦤ꧀ꦥꦤꦼꦩꦸ​ꦭꦶꦪꦤꦺ꧈​ꦲꦱꦭ꧀ꦲꦸꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦱꦸ​ꦏꦸꦧꦁꦱꦭ​ꦤ꧀ꦧꦼꦧꦿꦪꦤ꧀​ ꦲꦏ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺ꧈​ꦠꦠꦭꦲꦶꦂꦭꦤ꧀ꦏ​ꦭꦸꦁꦒꦸꦃꦲꦤ꧀ꦭꦶꦪꦤꦺ꧉

Note: ZWSP has been added between orthographic syllables in the above text in order to allow the text to wrap. The major browsers don't wrap it automatically.

Usage & history

From Scriptsource:

Javanese is Indonesia's oldest literary language, its literary history being traceable to the C4th. Since that time, it has been written in several different scripts - Pallava, Old Javanese, and an Arabic variant known as gundil script - before arriving at its present form in the C17th and 18th. The present Javanese script is a modern variant of Old Kawi, an ancient Brahmic script from which many scripts in the Indonesian archipelago are derived. It is the pre-colonial script of the Javanese language spoken on the Indonesian islands of Java and Bali and is used to write the Tengger and Osing languages, also spoken in Java and Bali. Historically it was also used to write the Bali language, which is now written largely in the Latin and Balinese scripts, and the Sunda language, which is now written in the Latin and Arabic scripts. The Javanese script is closely related to the Balinese script, although Javanese contains 4 consonant letters which are absent in the Balinese. ...

The first Javanese upright-style font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Early in the C20th, two other cursive type fonts were also produced. Further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script was prohibited under the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script, although it is still taught in most elementary schools and some junior high schools in Javanese speaking areas.

From Wikipedia:

The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script is a descendant of the Brahmi script and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.

The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet.

Distinctive features

Javanese is an abugida, ie. consonants carry an inherent vowel sound that is overridden, where needed, using vowel signs. In Javanese, consonants carry an inherent vowel, which can be a or o. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features, taken from the Script Comparison Table.

The following list describes some distinctive characteristics of the Javanese script.

Character lists

The Javanese script characters in Unicode 10.0 are in a single block:

The following links give information about characters used for languages associated with this script. The numbers in parentheses are for non-ASCII characters.

For character-specific details see Javanese character notes.

Structure

An orthographic syllable in Javanese can be described as {C F} C {{R}Y} {V{A}} {Z}, where:

The initial consonant cluster may represent a word-initial cluster such as mb, nd, ndh, nj or nng,c eg. ꦩꦧꦸꦫꦸ mburu hunting, or it may represent the final consonant of a preceding syllable and the initial consonant of another, eg. ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ hk͓sr (aksara) characters.

Root words are typically disyllables of the form Cˡ V Cˡ V Cˡ, where Cˡ represents an optional consonant or consonant cluster, and V represents a vowel. Most commonly, this represents CVCVC, followed by CVCCVC.c

Show transcriptions

Text direction

Javanese script is written horiztonally, left to right.

Vowels

Inherent vowels

Each Javanese consonant carries an inherent vowel, unless it is explicitly modified or removed, or this is one of the four final consonants.

There are two possible inherent vowel sounds: a and ɔ. The choice of inherent vowel can depend on the speaker's dialect: speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as a, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer ɔ.w So is pronounced ka/kɔ.

Wikipedia describes the following rules by Wewaton Sriwedari for determining the inherent vowel of a letter:w

Vowel absence

Where no letter follows the consonant and the vowel is silent, for example at the end of a sentence or isolated word or before a number, a visible ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON​] is used, eg. ꦏ꧀ explicitly represents just the sound k. .

ꦏꦿꦸꦥꦸꦏ꧀

A visible pangkon at the end of a word.

The pangkon is visible at the end of a word that ends in consonant, but is usually hidden (with occasional exceptions) when the consonant is part of a consonant cluster (see clusters).

No pangkon is needed between an onset consonant and a medial consonant, or after a dedicated final consonant.

Vowel signs

To produce a different vowel than the inherent one, Javanese attaches vowel signs to the preceding consonant, eg. ꦏꦶ ki.

Javanese vowel signs are all combining characters. About half of them are spacing marks, meaning that they consume horizontal space when added to a base consonant.

All vowel-signs are typed and stored after the base consonant, whether or not they precede it when displayed. The font takes care of the glyph positioning.

ꦴ␣ꦶ␣ꦸ␣ꦺ␣ꦼ

◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​] is really a length mark, although it can be used alone to represent the long sound. Elsewhere it is used to lengthen not only dependent but also independent vowels, it is also used to produce a qualitative difference.

Four more vowel-signs are not used in modern Javanese.

ꦵ␣ꦷ␣ꦹ␣ꦻ

When a vowel-sign follows a subjoined consonant it appears above the stack.

ꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ

The word kanthi, where the i appears above the n.

It is perhaps worth noting also, that a two-part vowel associated with a consonant cluster involving a conjoined (rather than subjoined) second consonant appears before and after the whole cluster.

ꦩꦔꦤ꧀ꦱꦺꦴꦠꦺꦴ

The o surrounds the ns in mangan soto.

Two-part vowels

Unlike many other scripts, including Balinese, when vowels are created by adding multiple glyphs to a base character Javanese requires the user to type the parts separately. For example, the sound ko is represented by + ◌ꦺ + ◌ꦴ [U+A98F JAVANESE LETTER KA + U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING​ + U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​], eg.

ꦏꦺꦴ

The sound ko is written with three characters.

Two vowel sounds are produced using such combinations of vowel signs, however only the first in the list below is common in modern Javanese.

ꦺꦴ␣ꦼꦵ

Vowel-sign placement

The following list shows where vowel-signs are positioned around a base consonant to produce vowels, and how many instances of that pattern there are. The figure after the + sign represents combinations of Unicode characters,

Standalone vowels

Standalone vowels are not preceded by a consonant, and may appear at the beginning or in the middle of a word.

Javanese has two ways to represent standalone vowels.

The normal way is to combine a vowel sign with [U+A9B2 JAVANESE LETTER HA], eg. ꦲꦪꦸ hyu (ayu) graceful.

The independent vowel letters are used in Javanese to distinguish proper nouns or foreign words from ordinary words, eg. compare ꦄꦪꦸ ạyu Ayu, a personal name, with the previous example.u

There are 8 independent vowel letters, of which 6 are used in modern text.

ꦄ␣ꦆ␣ꦇ␣ꦈ␣ꦌ␣ꦎ

Modern Javanese uses [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I], and if a long vowel is needed [U+A987 JAVANESE LETTER II]. For Kawi, however, use [U+A985 JAVANESE LETTER I KAWI] and [U+A986 JAVANESE LETTER I] for short and long, respectively.d

Long versions of u and o vowels are written using ◌ꦴ [U+A9B4 JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TARUNG​], ie. ꦈꦴ and ꦎꦴ.

One standalone vowel letter appears to be archaic.

Vocalic letters

Vocalics are letters derived from Sanskrit that generally behave like vowels, but represent r/l followed by a vowel. They are often available both as vowel-signs and independent vowel letters.

ꦉ␣ꦊ␣ꦋ

These three characters are treated as vowels in other scripts, such as Balinese, but as consonants in Javanese. They represent the sounds , and , eg. ꦊꦩꦃꦊꦩ꧀ꦧꦸꦠ꧀ l̥mh̽l̥m͓but͓ (lemah lembut) gentle.d

Javanese vocalics have no corresponding vowel-signs. They do, however, have conjoint forms.

Consonants

Basic (nglegéna) consonants

ꦏ␣ꦒ␣ꦔ␣ꦕ␣ꦗ␣ꦚ␣ꦛ␣ꦝ␣ꦠ␣ꦢ␣ꦤ␣ꦥ␣ꦧ␣ꦩ␣ꦪ␣ꦭ␣ꦫ␣ꦱ␣ꦮ␣ꦲ

The basic (nglegéna) set includes two special letters: [U+A990 JAVANESE LETTER KA SASAK] for writing the Kawi language; and [U+A9AC JAVANESE LETTER RA AGUNG] which is not used in modern text, but was used historically by some writers to address royal figures.

There are also 7 combining characters used for syllable medial and final consonants (described below).

Murda letters

ꦑ␣ꦓ␣ꦖ␣ꦘ␣ꦡ␣ꦟ␣ꦦ␣ꦨ

Murda forms can be viewed as a kind of capital letter for proper nouns (not sentence initial letters), used as honorifics. They are used to replace an ordinary letter form in the first syllable of the name. However, not all letters have a murda form, so if there is no letter in the first syllable that has a murda form, one is used for the next syllable in the name that has one.

Highly respected names may be all 'capitalized' if the corresponding murda are available.

One other rare letter, when used with other characters, represents the Chinese sound se, ie. ꦯ͜ꦌ̈. Another represents the Chinese syo, ie. ꦯ꦳ꦾꦺꦴ.

Mahaprana letters

ꦰ␣ꦣ␣ꦞ␣ꦙ␣ꦜ

Mahaprana forms were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit and Kawi transliterations (mahaprana means aspirated). They are rarely, if ever, found in modern text.

Repertoire extension

Javanese uses ◌꦳ [U+A9B3 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU​] with a similar consonant to represent most foriegn sounds, particularly those from Arabic.

When consonants are subjoined there can be some ambiguity about which consonant the cecak telu applies to. For example, ꦏ꦳꧀ꦗ kˑ͓ʤ (kza) and ꦏ꧀ꦗ꦳ k͓ʤˑ (xja) look identical.

Wikipedia has a set of Chinese sounds that are represented using some combining characters from a non-Javanese block.→w

Medial (wyanjana) consonants

Three combining characters represent medial consonants.

ꦾ␣ꦿ␣ꦽ

These indicate that the consonant doesn't start a new syllable, eg. ꦥꦿꦩꦸꦏ pr̆muk pramuka scout, ꦏꦾꦲꦶꦏꦤ꧀ꦗꦼꦁ ky̆hikn͓ʤəŋ̽ kyai kanjeng, ꦕꦕꦶꦁꦏꦽꦩꦶ ʧʧiŋ̽kr̥̆mi cacing kremi.

Word-final (seisigeg) diacritics

Four syllable-final consonant sounds are represented using combining characters.

ꦀ␣ꦁ␣ꦂ␣ꦃ

Examples: ꦱꦼꦏꦺꦴꦭꦃ səkeːlh̽ (sekolah) school, ꦥꦼꦫꦲꦸꦭꦪꦂ pərhulyr̽ (perahu layar) sailboat, ꦥꦼꦠꦼꦁ pətəŋ̽ (peteng) dark.

Consonant clusters

The absence of a vowel sound after a letter (ie. not involving medial or final consonant diacritics) is shown visually in the script in one of the following ways:

Before combining marks used for medial consonants, and after those used for final consonants, there is no visual indication of missing vowel sounds.

In Unicode, the stacking and conjoining behaviour is achieved by adding ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON​] between the consonants. The font hides the glyph automatically.

Because there are no spaces between words, consonants at the end of one word and the beginning of the next behave as consonant clusters. When this leads to stacks or conjoined sequences, the joined words are not typically split at line ends.

In the following example, which can be transliterated as hak-hak-kang-pa-da, we see the combination k-h, which alters the form of the second consonant without subjoining, and k-k, which subjoins the second k with a slightly different shape.

ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ

Subjoining and non-subjoining consonant clusters.

Note, however, that the combination ng-p near the end does not involve subjoining or shape changing, since the ng is expressed using the diacritic ◌ꦁ [U+A981 JAVANESE SIGN CECAK​].

Stacking

To represent consonants without intervening vowels, the non-initial consonant is typically drawn below the initial consonant.

The following table shows consonants in their normal and subjoined forms.

ꦏ꧀ꦏ␣ꦑ꧀ꦑ␣ꦒ꧀ꦒ␣ꦓ꧀ꦓ␣ꦔ꧀ꦔ␣ꦕ꧀ꦕ␣ꦖ꧀ꦖ␣ꦗ꧀ꦗ␣ꦚ꧀ꦚ␣ꦘ꧀ꦘ␣ꦠ꧀ꦠ␣ꦡ꧀ꦡ␣ꦛ꧀ꦛ␣ꦢ꧀ꦢ␣ꦤ꧀ꦤ␣ꦟ꧀ꦟ␣ꦧ꧀ꦧ␣ꦨ꧀ꦨ␣ꦝ꧀ꦝ␣ꦩ꧀ꦩ␣ꦪ꧀ꦪ␣ꦫ꧀ꦫ␣ꦭ꧀ꦭ␣ꦊ꧀ꦊ␣ꦯ꧀ꦯ␣ꦮ꧀ꦮ

Many of the subjoined forms are just slightly smaller versions of the original, some with small additions, but several have very different shapes altogether, most of which ligate with the cluster initial consonant by joining strokes. 

Some fonts may produce more conjuncts than others. Use the control behind the vertical blue bar to apply a different font.

Conjoined consonants

Some consonants in non-initial positions in a cluster remain side by side, but the non-initial consonant uses a special conjoined form, eg. the s, which is normally shaped , loses some shaping to its left side in ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ hk͓sr (aksara) alphabet, which is characteristic of all these conjoined forms.

ꦥ꧀ꦥ␣ꦦ꧀ꦦ␣ꦉ꧀ꦉ␣ꦱ꧀ꦱ␣ꦲ꧀ꦲ

Again, some fonts may produce more conjoined pairs than others. Use the control behind the vertical blue bar to apply a different font.

Visible pangkon

Occasionally ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON​] may be visible in the middle of a word, eg. ꦧꦶꦱ꧀ꦠꦿꦤ꧀​ꦱ꧀ꦗꦏꦂꦠ bis͓tr̆n͓␣s͓ʤkr̽t (bis transjakarta) Transjakarta Bus.

It's not clear from the Unicode Standard how to achieve this, however a zero width space works, and so does a zero width non-joiner.

Combining marks

The Javanese block contains 18 combining characters, of which 3 are medial consonants, 4 final consonants, and 9 vowel signs.

The other two are the pangkon, which works like a virama, and the cecak telu, which is used to create non-javanese sounds.

꧀␣꦳

Pangkon is described in absence, and cecak telu in foreign.

Punctuation

The Javanese block contains 15 punctuation marks. They are all described in the section boundaries.

꧊␣꧋␣꧌␣꧍␣꧈␣꧉␣꧇␣ꧏ␣꧁␣꧂␣꧅␣꧄␣꧃␣꧆

The following 2 characters are used to represent correction marks in handwriting (see correction).

꧞␣꧟

Numbers, dates, currency, etc.

Javanese uses native digits, which are decimal-based and used in the same way as European numerals.

꧐␣꧑␣꧒␣꧓␣꧔␣꧕␣꧖␣꧗␣꧘␣꧙

Several of the digits are identical to letters of the alphabet, so [U+A9C7 JAVANESE PADA PANGKAT] is often used around numbers, eg. :꧑꧕:ꦎꦏ꧀ꦠꦺꦴꦧꦼꦂ:꧒꧐꧑꧒: :15:ọk͓teːbər̽:2012: 15 october 2012.

ꦠꦶꦁꦏꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧕꧇

Pada pangkat used to indicate numbers.

Everson, on the other hand, says that [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] is used for this purpose, and gives the examples ꧈꧖꧈꧘꧈꧙꧈ 6 8 9 and ꧈꧒꧐꧐꧗꧈ 2007.e

Glyph shaping & positioning

You can experiment with examples using the Javanese picker.

Context-based shaping

Are special glyph forms needed, depending on the context in which a character is used? Do glyphs interact in some circumstances?

Glyph shaping is required for Javanese. One principle area is that of subjoined or postfixed consonants, which often interact typographically with the preceding consonant.

Not all fonts show the same shaping behaviours.

The following example, using the Tuladha Jejeg font, the three syllables, each containing a k-k stack, show how the font adapts the subjoined [U+A98F JAVANESE LETTER KA] at the bottom right according to what follows it.

ꦏꦿ ꦏ꧀ꦏꦿ  ꦏ꧀ꦏ ꦏ꧀ꦏꦾ

The following two syllables show how the Yogyakarta font changes the shape of ◌ꦿ [U+A9BF JAVANESE CONSONANT SIGN CAKRA​] to match the depth of the syllable. (The Tuladha Jejeg and Javanese Text fonts don't do this.)

ꦏꦿ ꦏ꧀ꦏꦿ

Another difference is the change in bottom right-hand shape of the subjoined k, which has provoked some controversy.

The next example, using the Javanese Text font, shows different renderings of the u vowel-sign after the second character in a consonant cluster.

ꦏ꧀ꦏꦸ  ꦏ꧀ꦯꦸ  ꦏ꧀ꦰꦸ  ꦏꦿꦸ

Note that the middle cluster contains only one u character. The similar-looking shape in the middle of the word is just part of the kS conjoined shape. The rightmost cluster uses a ligature for -ru, where the chakra appears to be drawn after the u, although actually stored before it.

Context-based positioning

Are there requirements to position diacritics or other items specially, depending on context? Does the script have multiple diacritics competing for the same location relative to the base?

Obviously the principle of subjoining consonants requires rules about positioning, and those rules need to be disregarded for combinations where the second character of a cluster is not subjoined (though it usually changes shape).

In the following example we see ka with cecak telu on the left. In the middle syllable cecak telu has shifted slightly to the left to make room for the other diacritic. In the right-hand syllable the cecak telu has both moved and reduced in size to fit with the other diacritic.

ꦏꦿ ꦏ꧀ꦏꦿ  ꦏ꧀ꦏ ꦏ꧀ꦏꦾ

The position and size of cecak telu depends on its neighbours.

Another example of the need for special positioning occurs when a vowel-sign is pronounced after a subjoined consonant but appears above the previous consonant in the stack (see the example earlier).

Font styles

Are italicisation, bolding, oblique, etc relevant? Do italic fonts lean in the right direction? Is synthesised italicisation problematic? Are there other problems relating to bolding or italicisation - perhaps relating to generalised assumptions of applicability?

Transforming characters

If the script is bicameral, are the special rules about case conversion? Are there other correspondences between glyphs, such as half- vs fullwidth presentation forms?

Structural boundaries & markers

Grapheme boundaries

A grapheme is a user-perceived unit of text. The Unicode Standard uses generalised rules to define 'grapheme clusters', which approximate the likely grapheme boundaries in a writing system.

Do Unicode grapheme clusters appropriately segment character units for the script? Are there special requirements when double-clicking on the text, or moving through the text with the cursor, or backspace, etc.?

Word boundaries

The concept of 'word' is difficult to define in any language (see What is a word?). Here, a word is a vaguely-defined, but recognisable semantic unit that is typically smaller than a phrase and may comprise one or more syllables.

Are words separated by spaces, or other characters? Are there special requirements when double-clicking on the text? Are words hyphenated?

Words are not separated by spaces. Spaces may be used to separate phrases.

Phrase & section boundaries

What characters are used to indicate the boundaries of phrases, sentences, and sections?

For separators at the sentence level and below, the following are used, where the right column indicates approximate equivalences to Latin script.

comma [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA]  This is not used after ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON​].
colon [U+A9C7 JAVANESE PADA PANGKAT].
sentence [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI]. The character [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] represents a full stop when used after ◌꧀ [U+A9C0 JAVANESE PANGKON​]

For higher level divisions of the text the following are used.

paragraph Typically begins with [U+A9CB JAVANESE PADA ADEG ADEG].
section ditto
general divider [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] 
parentheses Typically a pair of [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] characters are used.
Alternatively, the pair of characters [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] and [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH] may be used.

Letters may begin with ꧋꧆꧋ if the writer doesn't want to indicate a distinction regarding age or rank between themselves and the reader. Otherwise, for more formal letters, they can choose one of three alternatives provided as single characters in the Javanese Unicode block. [U+A9C5 JAVANESE PADA LUHUR] is used for letters to people of greater age or higher rank, [U+A9C4 JAVANESE PADA MADYA] for people of equal age/rank, and [U+A9C3 JAVANESE PADA ANDAP] for people of lower age/rank. The difference between these three is the height of the swash to the far left.

The end of a letter can be signaled using ꧉꧆꧉. This combination may also involve just ꧆꧉, or may be repeated with spaces between to fill the linee, eg.
꧉ ꧆ ꧉ ꧆ ꧉ ꧆ ꧉

In poetry ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ (purwapada) introduces a poem; ꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ (madyapada) introduces a new song within a poem; and ꧅ꦆ꧅ (wasanapada) indicates the end of a poem.

Optionally, [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI] can be added to the above with some space around it. The spaces should be non-breaking, since there should be no line-breaks between the constituent partse, eg.
꧅ ꧉ ꦧ꧀ꦖ ꧉ ꧅

Titlesmay be marked by a pair of rerenggan characters, ie. ꧁...꧂. The glyphs for these characters may vary substantially.

Bracketing & parentheses

What characters are used as parentheses, or to bracket information?

Quotations

What characters are used to indicate quotations? Do quotations within quotations use different characters? What characters are used to indicate dialogue?

Javanese text may use [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] for quotation marks.

Alternatively, the pair of characters [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] and [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH] may be used.

Abbreviations

What characters are used to indicate abbreviation, ellipsis & repetition?

According to Everson [U+A9C8 JAVANESE PADA LINGSA] is used for acronyms, eg. ꧈ꦢꦺ꧈ꦲ꧈ꦌꦭ꧀꧈ ,de,h,ẹl͓, DHL.

It is also used after initials in a name, eg. ꦫ꧈ꦩ꧈ꦯꦸꦭꦂꦠ r,m,Sulr̽t R. M. Sularta.e

Repetition

A repeated syllable can be represented by [U+A9CF JAVANESE PANGRANGKEP], which is derived from the arabic-indic digit for 2, eg. ꦧꦸꦏꦸꧏ buku-buku books. It can be transcribed as buku2.

For 'ditto' marks in vertical lists, Javanese uses [U+A9C9 JAVANESE PADA LUNGSI] .

Emphasis & text decoration

How are emphasis and highlighting achieved? If lines are drawn alongside, over or through the text, do they need to be a special distance from the text itself? Is it important to skip characters when underlining, etc? How do things change for vertically set text?

To draw attention to text Javanese may use a paired set of [U+A9CA JAVANESE PADA ADEG] characters around the relevant text.

The two characters [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] and [U+A9CD JAVANESE TURNED PADA PISELEH] can be used similarly, or sometimes just [U+A9CC JAVANESE PADA PISELEH] is repeated.

Inline notes & annotations

What mechanisms, if any, are used to create inline notes and annotations? (For referent-type notes such as footnotes, see below.)

Correction marks.According to Wikipedia [U+A9DF JAVANESE PADA ISEN-ISEN] is used in handwriting to indicate a correction in Yogyakarta, eg. where a scribe wanted to write pada luhur but actually wrote pada wu.. they would use this mark as follows: ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ.

In Yogyakarta they would use the character [U+A9DE JAVANESE PADA TIRTA TUMETES] instead.

Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

Are there special rules about the way text wraps when it hits the end of a line? Does line-breaking wrap whole 'words' at a time, or characters, or something else (such as syllables in Tibetan and Javanese)? What characters should not appear at the end or start of a line, and what should be done to prevent that?

Like Tibetan, line breaking can occur after any full orthographic syllable. Hyphenation is not used.→g

In some printed material, when a new line begins with ◌ꦺ [U+A9BA JAVANESE VOWEL SIGN TALING], an additional spacing one is placed at the end of the previous line.

An extra taling at the end of the line when the word kawon is split before won.

Text alignment & justification

Does text in a paragraph needs to have flush lines down both sides? Does the script need assistance to conform to a grid pattern? Does the script allow punctuation to hang outside the text box at the start or end of a line? Where adjustments are need to make a line flush, how is that done? Does the script shrink/stretch space between words and/or letters? Are word baselines stretched, as in Arabic? What about paragraph indents?

Use the control below to see how your browser justifies the text sample here.

꧋ꦱ​ꦧꦼ​ꦤ꧀ꦲꦸ​ꦮꦺꦴꦁ​ꦏ​ꦭ​ꦪꦶꦂ​ꦫ​ꦏꦺ​ꦏ​ꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ​ꦩꦂ​ꦢꦶ​ꦏ​ꦭ​ꦤ꧀ꦢꦂ​ꦧꦺ​ꦩꦂ​ꦠ​ꦧ​ꦠ꧀ꦭ​ꦲ​ꦏ꧀ꦲ​ꦏ꧀ꦏꦁ​ꦥ​ꦝ꧉​ꦏ​ꦧꦺꦃ​ꦥꦶ​ꦤ​ꦫꦶꦁ​ꦔ​ꦤ꧀ꦲ​ꦏ​ꦭ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦏ​ꦭ꧀ꦧꦸ​ꦱꦂ​ꦠ​ꦏ​ꦲ​ꦗ​ꦧ꧀ꦥ​ꦱꦿ​ꦮꦸꦁ​ꦔ​ꦤ꧀ꦲꦁ​ꦒꦺꦴ​ꦤ꧀ꦤꦺ​ꦩꦼ​ꦩꦶ​ꦠꦿ​ꦤ꧀ꦱꦶ​ꦗꦶ​ꦭ​ꦤ​ꦱꦶ​ꦗꦶ​ꦤꦺ​ꦏ​ꦤ꧀ꦛꦶ​ꦗꦶ​ꦮ​ꦱꦸ​ꦩ​ꦢꦸ​ꦭꦸꦂ

Letter spacing

Does the script create emphasis or other effects by spacing out the words, letters or syllables in a word? (For justification related spacing, see above.).

Counters, lists, etc.

Are there list or other counter styles in use? If so, what is the format used? Do counters need to be upright in vertical text? Are there other aspects related to counters and lists that need to be addressed?

Styling initials

Does the script use special styling of the initial letter of a line or paragraph, such as for drop caps or similar? How about the size relationship between the large letter and the lines alongide? where does the large letter anchor relative to the lines alongside? is it normal to include initial quote marks in the large letter? is the large letter really a syllable? etc.

Baselines & inline alignment

Does the script have special requirements for baseline alignment between mixed scripts and in general?

Page & book layout

General page layout & progression

How are the main text area and ancilliary areas positioned and defined? Are there any special requirements here, such as dimensions in characters for the Japanese kihon hanmen? The book cover for scripts that are read right-to-left scripts is on the right of the spine, rather than the left. When content can flow vertically and to the left or right, how to specify the location of objects, text, etc. relative to the flow? Do tables and grid layouts work as expected? How do columns work in vertical text? Can you mix block of vertical and horizontal text? Does text scroll in a different direction?

Grids & tables

Does the script have special requirements for character grids or tables?

Notes, footnotes, etc

Does the script have special requirements for notes, footnotes, endnotes or other necessary annotations of this kind? (There is a section above for purely inline annotations, such as ruby or warichu. This section is more about annotation systems that separate the reference marks and the content of the notes.)

Forms & user interaction

Are vertical form controls needed? Are scroll bars in an unusual position? Other special requirements for user interaction?

Page numbering, running headers, etc

Are there special conventions for page numbering, or the way that running headers and the like are handled?

Languages using the Javanese script

According to ScriptSource, the Javanese script is used for the following languages:

References

  1. [ d ] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0, pp477-480
  2. [ u ] The Unicode Standard v10.0, Javanese, pp661-664.
  3. [ w ] Wikipedia, Javanese script.
  4. [ t ] Teguh Budi Sayoga, Proposal for encoding the Javanese Script in the UCS (A900-A97F).
  5. [ e ] Michael Everson, Proposal for encoding the Javanese script in the UCS.
  6. [ c ] Comrie, The World's Major Languages
  7. [ g ] GitHub Sealreq repository discussion list
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