Updated 25 January, 2023
This page brings together basic information about the Adlam script and its use for the Pular language. It aims to provide a brief, descriptive summary of the modern, printed orthography and typographic features, and to advise how to write Pular using Unicode.
𞤑𞤵𞥅𞤤𞤢𞤤 𞤺𞤢𞤣𞤢𞤲𞤢𞤤 𞤋𞤲𞥆𞤢𞤥𞤢 𞤢𞥄𞤣𞤫𞥅𞤶𞤭 𞤬𞤮𞤬 𞤨𞤮𞤼𞤭⹁ 𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤭𞤥𞤯𞤭𞤣𞤭 𞤫 𞤶𞤭𞤦𞤭𞤲𞤢𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤫 𞤼𞤮 𞤦𞤢𞤲𞥆𞤺𞤫 𞤸𞤢𞤳𞥆𞤫𞥅𞤶𞤭. 𞤉𞤩𞤫 𞤲'𞤺𞤮𞥅𞤣𞤭 𞤥𞤭𞥅𞤶𞤮 𞤫 𞤸𞤢𞤳𞥆𞤭𞤤𞤢𞤲𞤼𞤢𞥄𞤺𞤢𞤤 𞤫𞤼𞤫 𞤫𞤩𞤫 𞤨𞤮𞤼𞤭 𞤸𞤵𞥅𞤬𞤮 𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤭𞤪𞤣𞤫 𞤫 𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤫𞤪 𞤩 𞤭𞤴𞤲𞤺𞤵𞤴𞤵𞤥𞥆𞤢𞥄𞤺𞤵.
𞤑𞤵𞥅𞤤𞤢𞤤 𞥒 𞤘𞤮𞥅𞤼𞤮 𞤳𞤢𞤤𞤢 𞤭𞤲𞤢 𞤱𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤭 𞤸𞤮𞤳𞥆𞤵𞤲𞤣𞤫 𞤸𞤮𞥅𞤪𞤫 𞤥𞤵𞤥 𞤸𞤢𞤳𞥆𞤫𞥅𞤶𞤭 𞤫 𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤭𞤥𞤢 𞤺𞤵𞥅𞤶𞤭 𞤳𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤢𞥄𞤯𞤭 𞤫 𞤲𞤢𞤲𞤮𞤲𞤣𞤭𞤪𞤢𞤤𞤲𞤺𞤢𞤤 𞤼𞤢𞤱𞤢 𞤢𞤤𞤢𞥄 𞤨𞤢𞤤𞤼𞤢𞤺𞤮𞤤 𞤲𞥋𞤺𞤵𞤪𞤵⹁𞤐𞥋𞤦𞤢𞤴𞤣𞤭⹁ 𞤤𞤫𞤻𞤮𞤤⹁ 𞤯𞤫𞤥𞤲𞤺𞤢𞤤⹁ 𞤣𞤭𞥅𞤲𞤫⹁ 𞤭𞤱𞤣𞤭 𞤤𞤫𞤴𞤣𞤭 𞤱𞤢𞤤𞥆𞤢 𞤪𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤮⹁ 𞤣𞤢𞤻𞤢𞤤⹁ 𞤶𞤭𞤦𞤭𞤲𞤢𞤲𞤣𞤫 𞤱𞤢𞤤𞥆𞤢 𞤳𞤢𞤤𞤢 𞤲𞥋𞤺𞤮𞤲𞤳𞤢. 𞤉 𞤳𞤮 𞤬𞤢𞤱𞤼𞤭𞥅 𞤸𞤫𞥅𞤲 𞤸𞤢𞤴 𞤨𞤢𞤤𞤼𞤮𞥅𞤪 𞤺𞤮𞥅𞤼𞤮 𞤱𞤮𞥅𞤣𞤢𞤼𞤢𞥄 𞤫 𞤣𞤮𞤱 𞤴𞤮𞤱𞤭𞤼𞤢𞥄𞤣𞤫 𞤫 𞤣𞤢𞤱𞤪𞤵𞤺𞤮𞤤⹁ 𞤻𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤮𞥅𞤪𞤫 𞤸𞤢𞤳𞥆𞤵𞤲𞤣𞤫 𞤤𞤫𞤴𞤯𞤫𞥅𞤤𞤫 𞤬𞤢𞤱𞤢𞥄𞤣𞤫 𞤫 𞤲𞤫𞤯𞥆𞤮 𞤵𞤥𞥆𞤭𞥅𞤯𞤮 𞤤𞤫𞤴𞤣𞤭 𞤱𞤢𞤤𞥆𞤢 𞤲𞤫𞤯𞥆𞤮 𞤥𞤮 𞤴𞤮𞤱𞤭𞤼𞤢𞥄𞤳𞤭 𞤥𞤢𞥄 𞤱𞤮𞤲𞤭 𞤨𞤢𞤱𞤭𞤯𞤮 𞤴𞤢𞤥𞤭𞤪𞤮𞥅𞤪𞤫 𞤤𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤯𞤭𞤲𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤫 𞤱𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤲𞤣𞤫 𞤱𞤮𞤲𞤣𞤫 𞤬𞤮𞤬.
The Adlam script was devised in the 1980s, and is nowadays used for writing the Fulani language, alongside Latin and Arabic orthographies. It is currently taught in Guinea, Nigeria, Liberia and other nearby countries.
Pular or Pulaar is the way the Fula people refer to their language in western dialects. In central and eastern dialects it is Fulfulde. The English names Fula(h) and Fulani originally come from Manding and Hausa, respectively. Sometimes the French name Peul (from Wolof) can be found.
The spread of the script is occurring remarkably rapidly across the whole Pular/Fulfulde-speaking world, through a grass-roots movement. The new script appeals to Pular speakers, and its use is having a positive impact on general literacy among them.
𞤀𞤣𞤤𞤢𞤥 𞤆𞤵𞤤𞤢𞤪 Adlam Pular
The script was developed by two teenage brothers, Ibrahima and Abdoulaye Barry, so that their language could have its own script. The name of the script ‘Adlam’ reflects the first four characters in the repertoire: A, D, L, and M.
After teaching their own family and local villagers to use the script for lessons in water hygiene and basic medical care, the brothers set up learning centres in Togo, Senegal, and Benin. Eventually, the means were available to print the script, and a newspaper and a number of printed books were published.
The shapes of the glyphs used has evolved over time, and various changes were standardised in 2019, however some fonts have not yet caught up with these changes.
See also variants.
Sources: Scriptsource, Wikipedia
The Adlam script is an alphabet. Both consonants and vowels are indicated by letters. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the Pular language.
Adlam text runs right-to-left in horizontal lines. Unlike Arabic, numbers are also written right-to-left. ❯ direction
The script can be written cursively or not. Non-joining fonts may be used for titles, etc. ❯ cursive
Adlam is bicameral, so all the numbers below need to be doubled to account for upper- and lowercase variants.
The 23 native consonant letters used for Fulah are supplemented by repertoire extensions for 6 more sounds used in foreign and loan words, and by applying a consonant modifier diacritic or a nukta to 9 characters for more foreign (mostly Arabic sounds). ❯ consonants
There is no special treatment for consonant clusters or final consonants.
Diacritics are also used to indicate prenasalisation and gemination. ❯ gemination
Adlam has 7 basic, short vowel sounds, but only 5 vowel letters. A diacritic is used to create 2 more letters. Long vowels are indicated using one of the 2 vowel lengthening diacritics. ❯ vowels
Adlam has a set of native numerals. Numbers are written from right-to-left, and therefore do not create bidirectional text. ❯ numbers
Click on the sound groups to see where else in the document each of the sounds are referred to.
Phones in a lighter colour are infrequently used. Source Wikipedia.
Short i e o u vowel sounds can also be realized as ɪ ɛ ɔ ʊ.wl
|plosive||p b||t d
|fricative||f v||θ||s z
|ʃ||x ɣ||ʕ||h ɦ|
Click on the characters to find where they are mentioned in this page.
The Pular alphabet has 23 consonants and 5 vowels. Each has upper and lowercase forms; shown above and below, respectively.
The basic vowels, called 𞤫𞤧𞤢𞤥 mase in Pular, are written as follows:
The sounds e and o are less frequent and are written using 𞥊 [U+1E94A ADLAM NUKTA] over the open-mid vowels.
Vowel length is phonetically significant in Pular, eg. compare: 𞤢𞤥𞤵𞤺𞤮𞤤 𞤢𞥄𞤥𞤵𞤺𞤮𞤤
Long vowel sounds are indicated using diacritics. There are 2 of these: 𞥅 [U+1E945 ADLAM VOWEL LENGTHENER] is used for all vowels except 𞤢 [U+1E922 ADLAM SMALL LETTER ALIF], which uses 𞥄 [U+1E944 ADLAM ALIF LENGTHENER].
According to Eversone, 𞥄 [U+1E944 ADLAM ALIF LENGTHENER] can also be used above a consonant to indicate the sound aː without a vowel, eg. 𞤣𞥄 dˉ daː
Long vowels can also written by following a vowel with an 𞤸 [U+1E938 ADLAM SMALL LETTER HA] that is not followed by a vowel, eg. 𞤧𞤫𞤸𞤪𞤫 seere
The latest glyph reform introduces visual differences between the shapes of the vowel lengthener and the alif lengthener above upper vs lowercase letters.p
The 𞥊 [U+1E94A ADLAM NUKTA] used to distinguish sounds e and o normally appears above the base letter, but when the sound is lengthened the diacritic appears below the base character, while the lengthening mark appears above, eg. 𞤫𞥊𞥅 ɛ˙ː eː 𞤮𞥊𞥅 ɔ˙ː oː
The nukta should be typed and stored before the lengthening mark.
No special mechanism is used to indicate the absence of a vowel. See also gemination.
This section maps Pular vowel sounds to common graphemes in the Adlam orthography, grouped by lowercase ( l ) or uppercase ( u ). Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.
The following are the consonants in the Adlam alphabet.
A set of supplementary letters are used for loan words and proper nouns originated in neighbouring ethnic groups.
Adlam has 3 diacritics for extending letters to cover non-native sounds (principally Arabic).
𞥈 [U+1E948 ADLAM CONSONANT MODIFIER] and 𞥊 [U+1E94A ADLAM NUKTA] provide the basic diacritics. They are shown here with lowercase letters.
The third diacritic, 𞥉 [U+1E949 ADLAM GEMINATE CONSONANT MODIFIER], is used when one of these modified letters is also geminated.
When a consonant is followed immediately by a glottal stop and then a vowel, the glottal stop is represented using the diacritic 𞥇 [U+1E947 ADLAM HAMZA] over the preceding consonant (see fig_glottal_stop).e,2
Pre-nasalised consonants are indicated by adding 𞥋 [U+1E94B ADLAM NASALIZATION MARK], called 𞤻𞤮𞤲𞤣𞤢𞤤 nyondal, between 𞤲 [U+1E932 ADLAM SMALL LETTER NUN] and the consonant affected, eg. compare 𞤸𞤭𞤲𞥋𞤣𞤵 𞤸𞤭𞤲𞤣𞤵
Word-initially, the nyondal may or may not be usedsow, so either of the 2 following spellings are possible: 𞤲𞥋𞤺𞤵𞤪𞤫 𞤲𞤺𞤵𞤪𞤫
Other places where the nyondal is not needed includesow:
If it appears between two joined letters, the nasalisation character should not break that join.
This character was added to Unicode version 12. Prior to that, people used an apostrophe, but that is not desirable, because it breaks the cursive joining.
Gemination of consonants is normally indicated using 𞥆 [U+1E946 ADLAM GEMINATION MARK],e,2 eg. compare 𞤧𞤢𞤳𞤫 𞤧𞤢𞤳𞥆𞤫
As mentioned in nukta, letters that have consonant modifier diacritics use a special code point, 𞥉 [U+1E949 ADLAM GEMINATE CONSONANT MODIFIER] that combines the gemination marker with the modifier.
Letters that combine with 𞥊 [U+1E94A ADLAM NUKTA] should move that diacritic below the base character and keep the gemination mark above, eg. see fig_gemination.
This section maps Pular consonant sounds to common graphemes in the Adlam orthography, grouped by lowercase ( l ) or uppercase ( u ). Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.
Sounds listed as 'infrequent' are allophones, or sounds used for foreign words, etc.
Adlam uses native digits.
Unlike other right-to-left scripts such as Arabic, Hebrew, and Thaana, (but like N'Ko) the numbers are displayed right-to-left, with the most significant digit first.e This means that numbers don't produce bidirectional text in Adlam
The shape of 𞥖 [U+1E956 ADLAM DIGIT SIX] was significantly changed by the 2019 glyph shape reform to make it less similar to the letter HA.p
For thousands and decimal separators, Adlam uses a space and a period, respectively.n
Adlam text is written horizontally, with successive lines progressing down the page.
Inline text is right-to-left in the main but, as in most right-to-left scripts, embedded left-to-right script text is written left-to-right (producing 'bidirectional' text). However, like N'Ko but unlike Arabic, numbers are also written with digits in right-to-left order.
The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm automatically takes care of the ordering for all the text in fig_bidi, as long as the 'base direction' is set to RTL. In HTML this can be set using the
dir attribute, or in plain text using formatting controls.
If the base direction is not set appropriately, the directional runs will be ordered incorrectly as shown in fig_bidi_no_base_direction.
bidi_class properties for characters in the Fula language.
For other aspects of dealing with right-to-left writing systems see the following sections:
For more information about how directionality and base direction work, see Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm basics. For information about plain text formatting characters see How to use Unicode controls for bidi text. And for working with markup in HTML, see Creating HTML Pages in Arabic, Hebrew and Other Right-to-left Scripts.
Unicode provides a set of 10 formatting characters that can be used to control the direction of text when displayed. These characters have no visual form in the rendered text, however text editing applications may have a way to show their location.
U+202B RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING] ( [RLE), U+202A LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING] ( [LRE), and U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING] ( [PDF) are in widespread use to set the base direction of a range of characters. RLE/LRE comes at the start, and PDF at the end of a range of characters for which the base direction is to be set.
In Unicode 6.1, the Unicode Standard added a set of characters which do the same thing but also isolate the content from surrounding characters, in order to avoid spillover effects. They are U+2067 RIGHT-TO-LEFT ISOLATE] ( [RLI), U+2066 LEFT-TO-RIGHT ISOLATE] ( [LRI), and U+2069 POP DIRECTIONAL ISOLATE] ( [PDI). The Unicode Standard recommends that these be used instead.
There is also U+2068 FIRST STRONG ISOLATE] ( [FSI), used initially to set the base direction according to the first recognised strongly-directional character.
U+061C ARABIC LETTER MARK] ( [ALM) is used to produce correct sequencing of numeric data. Follow the link for details.
U+200F RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK] ( [RLM) and U+200E LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK] ( [LRM) are invisible characters with strong directional properties that are also sometimes used to produce the correct ordering of text.
For more information about how to use these formatting characters see How to use Unicode controls for bidi text. Note, however, that when writing HTML you should generally use markup rather than these control codes. For information about that, see Creating HTML Pages in Arabic, Hebrew and Other Right-to-left Scripts.
This section brings together information about the following topics: writing styles; cursive text; context-based shaping; context-based positioning; baselines, line height, etc.; font styles; case & other character transforms.
You can experiment with examples using the Adlam character app.
Adlam is usually cursive, ie. letters in a word are joined up (see cursive and fig_joined_writing_style), however a non-cursive writing style (see fig_unjoined_writing_style) is sometimes used, mainly as display fonts for books and article titles as well as educational content (because the unconnected script is easier to learn).n
When Adlam is cursive (see writing_styles), letters in a word are joined up. Fonts need to produce the appropriate joining form for a letter, according to its visual context, but the code point remains the same. This results in four different glyphs for most letters (including an isolated glyph).
The cursive treatment doesn't produce major variations of the essential part of the glyph for a character (unlike Arabic), but there are some small adaptations.
Unlike Arabic and Syriac scripts, no glyphs join only on one side.
Unlike Arabic or Syriac, joining forms generally only differ by the addition of a small baseline extension. A few items in the table are highlighted that have very small additional changes, most amounting to just a small extension of a stroke. Also, whereas Arabic and Syriac re-use a number of basic shapes to create additional letters by adding diacritics, in Adlam each letter shape is different. fig_joining_forms shows the basic shapes in Adlam and what their joining forms look like.
|𞤨 [U+1E928 ADLAM SMALL LETTER PE]||𞤨||𞤨||𞤨||𞤨|
|𞤦 [U+1E926 ADLAM SMALL LETTER BA]||𞤦||𞤦||𞤦||𞤦|
|𞤩 [U+1E929 ADLAM SMALL LETTER BHE]||𞤩||𞤩||𞤩||𞤩|
|𞤼 [U+1E93C ADLAM SMALL LETTER TU]||𞤼||𞤼||𞤼||𞤼|
|𞤣 [U+1E923 ADLAM SMALL LETTER DAALI]||𞤣||𞤣||𞤣||𞤣|
|𞤯 [U+1E92F ADLAM SMALL LETTER DHA]||𞤯||𞤯||𞤯||𞤯|
|𞤳 [U+1E933 ADLAM SMALL LETTER KAF]||𞤳||𞤳||𞤳||𞤳|
|𞤺 [U+1E93A ADLAM SMALL LETTER GA]||𞤺||𞤺||𞤺||𞤺|
|𞤹 [U+1E939 ADLAM SMALL LETTER QAAF]||𞤹||𞤹||𞤹||𞤹|
|𞤷 [U+1E937 ADLAM SMALL LETTER CHI]||𞤷||𞤷||𞤷||𞤷|
|𞤶 [U+1E936 ADLAM SMALL LETTER JIIM]||𞤶||𞤶||𞤶||𞤶|
|𞤬 [U+1E92C ADLAM SMALL LETTER FA]||𞤬||𞤬||𞤬||𞤬|
|𞤧 [U+1E927 ADLAM SMALL LETTER SINNYIIYHE]||𞤧||𞤧||𞤧||𞤧|
|𞤸 [U+1E938 ADLAM SMALL LETTER HA]||𞤸||𞤸||𞤸||𞤸|
|𞤥 [U+1E925 ADLAM SMALL LETTER MIIM]||𞤥||𞤥||𞤥||𞤥|
|𞤲 [U+1E932 ADLAM SMALL LETTER NUN]||𞤲||𞤲||𞤲||𞤲|
|𞤻 [U+1E93B ADLAM SMALL LETTER NYA]||𞤻||𞤻||𞤻||𞤻|
|𞤽 [U+1E93D ADLAM SMALL LETTER NHA]||𞤽||𞤽||𞤽||𞤽|
|𞤱 [U+1E931 ADLAM SMALL LETTER WAW]||𞤱||𞤱||𞤱||𞤱|
|𞤪 [U+1E92A ADLAM SMALL LETTER RA]||𞤪||𞤪||𞤪||𞤪|
|𞤤 [U+1E924 ADLAM SMALL LETTER LAAM]||𞤤||𞤤||𞤤||𞤤|
|𞤴 [U+1E934 ADLAM SMALL LETTER YA]||𞤴||𞤴||𞤴||𞤴|
|𞤰 [U+1E930 ADLAM SMALL LETTER YHE]||𞤰||𞤰||𞤰||𞤰|
|𞤾 [U+1E93E ADLAM SMALL LETTER VA]||𞤾||𞤾||𞤾||𞤾|
|𞤿 [U+1E93F ADLAM SMALL LETTER KHA]||𞤿||𞤿||𞤿||𞤿|
|𞥀 [U+1E940 ADLAM SMALL LETTER GBE]||𞥀||𞥀||𞥀||𞥀|
|𞥁 [U+1E941 ADLAM SMALL LETTER ZAL]||𞥁||𞥁||𞥁||𞥁|
|𞥂 [U+1E942 ADLAM SMALL LETTER KPO]||𞥂||𞥂||𞥂||𞥂|
|𞥃 [U+1E943 ADLAM SMALL LETTER SHA]||𞥃||𞥃||𞥃||𞥃|
|𞤭 [U+1E92D ADLAM SMALL LETTER I]||𞤭||𞤭||𞤭||𞤭|
|𞤵 [U+1E935 ADLAM SMALL LETTER U]||𞤵||𞤵||𞤵||𞤵|
|𞤫 [U+1E92B ADLAM SMALL LETTER E]||𞤫||𞤫||𞤫||𞤫|
|𞤮 [U+1E92E ADLAM SMALL LETTER O]||𞤮||𞤮||𞤮||𞤮|
|𞤢 [U+1E922 ADLAM SMALL LETTER ALIF]||𞤢||𞤢||𞤢||𞤢|
U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER] ( [ZWJ) and U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER] ( [ZWNJ) are used to control the visual joining behaviour of cursive glyphs. They are particularly useful in educational contexts. For example, the ZWJ was used to create the shapes in fig_joining_forms.
ZWJ permits a letter to form a cursive connection without a visible neighbour.
ZWNJ prevents two adjacent letters forming a cursive connection with each other when rendered.
Observation: The ZWJ only works on the left side of glyphs in fig_joining_forms if the table cell's base direction is set to RTL.
See just above for shaping related to cursive joining.
See variants for information about recent glyph shape changes.
Context affects the shapes of certain diacritics when placed over upper vs lowercase letters.p
𞥊 [U+1E94A ADLAM NUKTA] usually sits above the letter it modifies, but if the letter is also lengthened or geminated, it moves below the letter and leaves the lengthening/gemination diacritic above.
The Kigelia font may be the first italicised Adlam tyeface, but its development was based on requests from the community of users. Discussion with the community led to an italic form that leans to the right (unlike N'Ko).g,#issuecomment-512911833
Adlam words are separated by spaces.
: [U+003A COLON]
. [U+002E FULL STOP]
The question mark, ؟ [U+061F ARABIC QUESTION MARK], is from the Arabic block, but the comma and semicolon are ⹁ [U+2E41 REVERSED COMMA] and ⁏ [U+204F REVERSED SEMICOLON], respectively, rather than the Arabic comma and semicolon. (The Arabic comma/semicolon are only used as carryovers from the older Adlam fonts.)n
𞥟 [U+1E95F ADLAM INITIAL QUESTION MARK] and 𞥞 [U+1E95E ADLAM INITIAL EXCLAMATION MARK] are used to begin a phrase that is a question or exclamation, respectively, much like ¿ and ¡ in Spanish. The phrase ends using an Arabic question mark or ASCII exclamation mark,e,2 eg. 𞥟 𞤢𞤤𞤢𞥄 ؟ ¿ alaˉ ? no? 𞥞𞤢𞤤𞤢𞥄 ! ¡ alaˉ ! no!
The shapes of these question and exclamation punctuation marks were significantly changed in the 2019 shape reform, with the aim of making them more visually appealing.
Observation: The punctuation marks appear to be separated from the rest of the text by a space.
Pular commonly uses ASCII parentheses to insert parenthetical information into text.
The words 'left' and 'right' in Unicode names for parentheses, brackets, and other paired characters should be ignored. LEFT should be read as if it said START, and RIGHT as END. The direction in which the glyphs point will be automatically determined according to the base direction of the text.
The number of characters that are mirrored in this way is around 550, most of which are mathematical symbols. Some are single characters, rather than pairs. The following are some of the more common ones.
Observation: Adlam text appears to use quote marks “ [U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK] at the start, and ” [U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK] at the end. Note that these characters are not mirrored during display. This means that left indicates use on the left, and right indicates use on the right, unlike other types of paired punctuation.
Observation: Adlam text appears to use the 3-dot ellipsis. Unicode has … [U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS] for that.
Adlam text breaks primarily at the spaces around words. In-word breaks using hyphenation also occur.
When a line break occurs in the middle of an embedded left-to-right sequence, the items in that sequence need to be rearranged visually so that it isn't necessary to read lines from top to bottom.
latin-line-breaks shows how two Latin words are apparently reordered in the flow of text to accommodate this rule. Of course, the rearragement is only that of the visual glyphs: nothing affects the order of the characters in memory.
As in almost all writing systems, certain punctuation characters should not appear at the end or the start of a line. The Unicode line-break properties help applications decide whether a character should appear at the start or end of a line.
Show (default) line-breaking properties for characters in the Fula language.
The following list gives examples of typical behaviours for some of the characters used in Adlam text. Context may affect the behaviour of some of these and other characters.
Click/tap on the characters to show what they are.
Fula text uses hyphenation at the end of a line to reduce excess space during justification. See an example in fig_hyphenation.
Fully-justified text in Fulah is produced by adding spaces between words, but long words may be hyphenated to reduce the overall space added.g
See also historical_justification.
Adlam uses the so-called 'alphabetic' baseline, which is the same as for Latin and many other scripts.
Adlam places vowel and tone marks above base characters, and can also add combining characters below the line. The resulting complexity means that the vertical resolution needed for clearly readable Pular text is higher than for English, or most Latin text.
To give an approximate idea, fig_baselines compares Latin and Adlam glyphs from the Noto Sans font. The basic height of lowercase Adlam letters is typically around the Latin x-height, however diacritics reach well beyond the Latin ascenders, creating a need for larger line spacing. The vertical height is further increased when dealing with capital letters.
You can experiment with counter styles using the Counter styles converter. Patterns for using these styles in CSS can be found in Ready-made Counter Styles, and we use the names of those patterns here to refer to the various styles.
The Pular orthography uses a numeric style using native digits.
The adlam numeric style is decimal-based and uses these digits.rmcs
The default list style uses a full stop + space as a suffix.
Observation: The Winden Jangen site has scans of a number of books which use ordered lists, and they use Adlam numbers (see fig_cs_numeric).
Drop caps can be found in Fulah text written with the Adlam script (more commonly than raised caps).
The initial character and the character that follows it are unjoined.§
This section is for any features that are specific to thisScript and that relate to the following topics: general page layout & progression; grids & tables; notes, footnotes, etc; forms & user interaction; page numbering, running headers, etc.
Pular books, magazines, etc. written using the Adlam script are bound on the right-hand side, and pages progress from right to left.
Columns are vertical but run right-to-left across the page.
The right-to-left orientation of the script affects the direction of page layout, and of the layout of items within the page.
The page shown in fig_layout is the mirror-image of pages in, say, French. Note the various navigation items on the page, and the progression of numbers at the bottom of the page.
On the other hand, the video controls assume a LTR direction. This is mostly constrained by technology at the moment, and whether or not this is acceptable is still being debated.
In 2019 the design of Adlam letter glyphs was overhauled in a proposal to the Unicode Consortium, which resulted in changes to the code chart. p
Typical changes involved standardising the shapes across cursive forms, better distinctions between lower and uppercase forms, removal of some ascenders to avoid diacritic collisions, and then addition of some small ascenders to help distinguish joined forms.
There were also some significant shape changes, particularly to make supplementary letters look more like those used for similar, standard sounds, or to make letters easier to read.
Although there are not many Adlam Unicode fonts, and they will be changed, legacy forms are likely to persist for some time alongside the new forms.
The 2017 release of the Noto Sans Adlam font (still in use in early 2020) contained a set of glyphs that sometimes matched one or other of the shapes shown in variant_shapes, and sometimes used completely different shapes from either. The Noto fonts were updated to the new shapes in September 2020.
Click to also show in variant_shapes shapes produced by the Noto Sans Adlam font at the start of 2020. Red underlines highlight some characters that don't resemble either of the other charts.
In the early stages of Adlam typography it was quite common to see full justification of printed text that was produced by stretching baselines, rather than by adjusting inter-word spaces. This was influenced by the use of keyboards based on Arabic code points. Handwritten documents, however, were not justified in this way.
Observation: The Winden Jangen site has scans of a number of books which apply full justification. The method of justification appears to be elongation of the baseline, with no affect on the inter-word spacing. See fig_justification. In narrow columns this can produce some exaggerated stretching, as seen in fig_justification_wide. There are many passages in the samples available that apply this exaggerated stretching. Some content also applies justification to the last line in a paragraph, which sometimes produces even wider elongations.
Thanks to the following people for making useful suggestions that were incorporated into the text: Neil Patel, Ibrahima Barry.