Syriac character notes

Updated 7 August, 2017 • tags scriptnotes, syriac

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For information about the Syriac script and its features in general, see the Syriac script summary.

To view this page as intended, you need at least three Syriac fonts. The page comes with a webfont for each of the major styles of Syriac writing: Noto Sans Syriac Eastern, Noto Sans Syriac Estrangelo, and Noto Sans Syriac Western. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

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Letters

Basic letters

ܐ

U+0710 SYRIAC LETTER ALAPH

Syriac letter ܐܠܦ ʾĀlap̄   ʾ, or as mater lectionis ā    #value 1

Eastern ܐ ܐܐܐ   Estrangela ܐ ܐܐܐ   Western ܐ ܐܐܐ

ʔ as a consonant, eg. ܐܠܦ ʾālap̄.
ɑ as mater lectionis, eg. .

Aramaic ܐ ܐܐܐ     ʾ, or as mater lectionis a

ʔ as a consonant, eg. ܐܠܦ ʾālap̄. No vowels begin a word, but many begin with ܐ ʾ or ܥ ʿ, representing the glottal stop.

When word final it is typically not pronounced, but signals the presence of the vowels a, ɪ, which is particularly useful in unpointed text, eg. ܕܠܐ dlʾ dla without. In pointed text there is a diacritic on the previous letter to indicate the actual sound, eg. ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ʔaha this, ܡܵܚܸܐ maḥɪʾ maxi hit.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 508 

ܑ

U+0711 SYRIAC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALAPH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in East Syriac texts to indicate an etymological Alaph

Syriac superscript alaph

Used in East Syriac texts to indicate an etymological alaph, eg. ܩܲܖ݄ܡܵܝܑܼܬ̣. Maps to nothing in West Syriac.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p44  

ܒ

U+0712 SYRIAC LETTER BETH

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Syriac letter ܒܝܬ bēṯ    b when hard, when soft     #value 2

Eastern ܒ ܒܒܒ  Estrangela ܒ ܒܒܒ   Western ܒ ܒܒܒ

b when hard, eg. ܒܝܬ bēṯ.

v/w when soft, eg. ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā. v has become w in most modern dialects.

Aramaic ܒ ܒܒܒ

b when hard, eg. ܒܝܬ bēṯ.

w when soft, eg. ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā. v has become w in most modern dialects.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܓ

U+0713 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Syriac letter ܓܡܠ gāmal    g when hard, ḡ, g̱ when soft     #value 3

Eastern ܓ ܓܓܓ  Estrangela ܓ ܓܓܓ   Western ܓ ܓܓܓ

g when hard, eg. ܓ݁ܡܠ gāmal.

ɣ when soft, eg. ...

Aramaic ܓ ܓܓܓ     g when hard, when soft, ǧ with maǧliyana

g when hard, eg. ܓ݁ܡܠ gāmal.

ɟ, ʔ, ɣ, j when soft, eg. ...

The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using ◌݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and ◌݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

ʤ when combined with ◌̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] to represent this non-classical sound, eg. ܒܘܼܓ̰ܪܹ̈ܐ buʤrī bûʤreʾ cultivated.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܔ

U+0714 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL GARSHUNI

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in Garshuni documents

Syriac garshuni letter

Eastern ܔ ܔܔܔ  Estrangela ܔ ܔܔܔ   Western ܔ ܔܔܔ

Used for writing Arabic in the Syriac script.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܕ

U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form. When the symbol for this code point has a dot below, the latter appears slightly to the right.

Syriac letter ܕܠܬ dālaṯ     d when hard, when soft       #value 4

Eastern ܕ ܕܕܕ  Estrangela ܕ ܕܕܕ   Western ܕ ܕܕܕ

d when hard, eg. ܕ݁ܠܬ dālaṯ.

ð when soft, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ.

Aramaic ܕ ‍ܕ   d when hard, when soft

d when hard, eg. ܕ݁ܠܬ dālaṯ.

ð when soft, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ. Not all Aramaic dialects have this sound.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 509 

ܖ

U+0716 SYRIAC LETTER DOTLESS DALATH RISH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• ambiguous form for undifferentiated early dalath/rish

Syriac letter

Eastern ܖ ܖܖܖ  Estrangela ܖ ܖܖܖ   Western ܖ ܖܖܖ

In ancient texts the dot that distinguishes ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH] from ܪ [U+072A SYRIAC LETTER RISH] was not used. This code point can be used to represent that ambiguous form, where needed.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܗ

U+0717 SYRIAC LETTER HE

Syriac letter ܗܐ     h    #value 5

Eastern ܗ ‍ܗ  Estrangela ܗ ‍ܗ   Western ܗ ‍ܗ

h, eg. ܗܐ .

Aramaic ܗ ‍ܗ   h

h, eg. ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ʔaha this.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܘ

U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW

Syriac letter ܘܘ waw     w or ū, ō as mater lectionis    #value 6

Eastern ܘ ‍ܘ  Estrangela ܘ ‍ܘ   Western ܘ ‍ܘ

w as a consonant, eg. ܘܘ waw.
u, o as mater lectionis, eg. ...

Aramaic ܘ ‍ܘ   w, or û, ô as mater lectionis

w, eg. ܗܵܘܝܼ hawi haww as a consonant, eg. ܘܘ waw.

u when representing a vowel, eg. ܩܘܝܡܐ qûymʾ qujama subsistence. When, in pointed text, it carries the diacritic  ܼ [U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED​] it is transcribed û, eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qûyamaʾ. When it carries the diacritic  ܿ [U+073F SYRIAC RWAHA​], it is transcribed as ô. Both are pronounced the same.

o where in pointed text it follows the diacritic  ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED​] , eg. ܕܵܘ aw

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 508 

ܙ

U+0719 SYRIAC LETTER ZAIN

Syriac letter ܙܝܢ zayn     z    #value 7

Eastern ܙ ܝܙ  Estrangela ܙ ܝܙ   Western ܙ ܝܙ

z, eg. ܙܝܢ zayn.

ʒ in East Syriac when combined with  ̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] or  ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​] to represent foreign sounds, ie. ܙ̰ or ܙ̃.

Aramaic ܙ ܝܙ    z, ž with maǧliyana

z, eg. ܙܝܢ zayn.

ʒ when combined with   ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​] to represent this non-classical sound, ie. ܙ̃.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 509 

ܚ

U+071A SYRIAC LETTER HETH

Syriac letter ܚܝܬ ḥēṯ       #value 8

Eastern ܚ ܚܚܚ  Estrangela ܚ ܚܚܚ   Western ܚ ܚܚܚ

ħ, x, χ, eg. ܚܝܬ ḥēṯ.

Aramaic ܚ ܚܚܚ  

x, eg. ܚܲܕ ḥăd xa one.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܛ

U+071B SYRIAC LETTER TETH

Syriac letter ܛܝܬ ṭēṯ        #value 9

Eastern ܛ ܛܛܛ  Estrangela ܛ ܛܛܛ   Western ܛ ܛܛܛ

, eg. ܛܝܬ ṭēṯ.

Aramaic ܛ ܛܛܛ  

t, eg. ܪܗܸܛܪ̈ܵܝܹܐ rhɪtrajɪ rhĭṭ"rayeʾ eloquent.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܜ

U+071C SYRIAC LETTER TETH GARSHUNI

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in Garshuni documents

Syriac garshuni letter

Eastern ܜ ܜܜܜ  Estrangela ܜ ܜܜܜ   Western ܜ ܜܜܜ

Used for writing Arabic in the Syriac script.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܝ

U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH

Syriac letter ܝܘܕ yōḏ     y, or ī as mater lectionis    #value 10

Eastern ܝ ܝܝܝ  Estrangela ܝ ܝܝܝ   Western ܝ ܝܝܝ

j as consonant, eg. ܩܲܕ݂ܡܵܝܲܬ݂ qaḏmayaṯ firstly.

i, e as mater lectionis, eg. ܘܲܒ݂ܗܹܝܢ waḇhêyn and in them, ܐܵܡܪܝܢ ʾāmrīn say.

Aramaic ܝ ܝܝܝ   y, or î, e as mater lectionis

j as a consonant, eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qujama qûyamaʾ subsistence

i, e when representing a vowel, eg. ܦܝܫܝ pyšî pʰeʃi become, which contains two of these letters representing two different vowels.

In pointed text it is transcribed as î and pronounced i when it carries the diacritic  ܼ [U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED​], eg. ܦܵܝܫܝܼ payšî pʰeʃi become. The sequence ay is pronounced e when this letter has no diacritic of its own and follows a letter with the vowel diacritic  ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED​] (see the same example).

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 508 

ܞ

U+071E SYRIAC LETTER YUDH HE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• mostly used in East Syriac texts

Syriac ligature

Eastern ܞ ܞܞܞ  Estrangela ܞ ܞܞܞ   Western ܞ ܞܞܞ

Used in East Syriac and Estrangela texts.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [Nelson] p45  

ܟ

U+071F SYRIAC LETTER KAPH

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative/glide (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

When isolated, this letter is usually shown as initial+final form, eg. ܟ݁ܟ݁.

Syriac letter ܟܦ kāp̄    k when hard, when soft     #value 20

Eastern ܟ ܟܟܟ  Estrangela ܟ ܟܟܟ   Western ܟ ܟܟܟ

k when hard, eg. ܟ݁ܦ kāp̄.

x when soft, eg. ܟܬܝ݂ܵܒܵܬܹܐ ktîḇat"eʿ cʰtʰiwatʰɪ writings.

ʧ in East Syriac when combined with  ̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] to represent foreign sounds, ie. ܟ̰.

Aramaic ܟ ܟܟܟ    k when hard, when soft, č with maǧliyana

when hard, eg. ܟܬܝ݂ܵܒܵܬܹܐ ktîḇat"eʿ cʰtʰiwatʰɪ writings.

x when soft, eg. ܢܘܼܟ݂ܪ̈ܵܝܹܐ nûḵr"ayeʿ nuxrajɪ foreign.

ʧ when combined with   ̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] to represent this non-classical sound, ie. ‍ܟ̮‍ .

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܠ

U+0720 SYRIAC LETTER LAMADH

Syriac letter ܠܡܕ lāmaḏ    l   #value 30

Eastern ܠ ܠܠܠ  Estrangela ܠ ܠܠܠ   Western ܠ ܠܠܠ

l, eg. ܠܡܕ lāmaḏ.

Aramaic ܠ ܠܠܠ   l

l, eg. ܕܠܐ dlaʾ dla without.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܡ

U+0721 SYRIAC LETTER MIM

When isolated, this letter is usually shown as initial+final form, eg. ܡܡ.

Syriac letter ܡܝܡ mīm    m    #value 40

Eastern ܡ ܡܡܡ  Estrangela ܡ ܡܡܡ   Western ܡ ܡܡܡ

m, eg. ܡܝܡ mīm.

Aramaic ܡ ܡܡܡ   m

m, eg. ܐܘ݂ܡܬܵܐ ʾûmtaʾ ʔumtʰa nation.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܢ

U+0722 SYRIAC LETTER NUN

When isolated, this letter is usually shown as initial+final form, eg. ܢܢ.

Syriac letter ܢܘܢ nūn    n    #value 50

Eastern ܢ ܢܢܢ  Estrangela ܢ ܢܢܢ   Western ܢ ܢܢܢ

n, eg. ܢܘܢ nūn

Aramaic ܢ ܢܢܢ      n

n, eg. ܐܸܢ ʾĭn ʔɪn if.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܣ

U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH

Syriac letter ܣܡܟܬ semkaṯ    s   #value 60

Eastern ܣ ܣܣܣ  Estrangela ܣ ܣܣܣ   Western ܣ ܣܣܣ

s, eg. ܣܡܟܬ semkaṯ.

Aramaic ܣ ܣܣܣ     s

s, eg. ܦܵܐܹܣ paʿes pʰajiʃ become.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܤ

U+0724 SYRIAC LETTER FINAL SEMKATH

Syriac letter  s 

Eastern ܤ ܤܤܤ  Estrangela ܤ ܤܤܤ   Western ܤ ܤܤܤ

s, used like Greek final sigma.

Aramaic ܤ ܤܤܤ     

Daniels makes no mention of this form, and doesn't show it at the end of a word in the text sample, however the east syriac fonts from Beth Mardutho support it.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400   [2] WP Syriac alphabet  

ܥ

U+0725 SYRIAC LETTER E

Syriac letter ܥܐ ʿē    ʿ   #value 70

Eastern ܥ ܥܥܥ  Estrangela ܥ ܥܥܥ   Western ܥ ܥܥܥ

ʕ, eg. ܥܐ ʿē.

Aramaic ܥ ܥܥܥ    ʿ

ʔ, ʕ, eg. ...

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܦ

U+0726 SYRIAC LETTER PE

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative/glide (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Syriac letter ܦܐ    p when hard,  when soft    #value 80

Eastern ܦ ܦܦܦ  Estrangela ܦ ܦܦܦ   Western ܦ ܦܦܦ

p when hard, eg. ܦ݁ܐ .

f when soft, eg. ܐܠܦ݂ ʾālap̄. This is not found in most eastern dialects, or may become w.

In East Syriac the soft form is expressed using  ̮ [U+032E COMBINING BREVE BELOW​], ie. ܦ̮. This is the only letter that uses that convention.

Aramaic ܦ ܦܦܦ    p

pʰ, p, eg. ܦܵܝܫܝܼ payšî pʰeʃi become.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܧ

U+0727 SYRIAC LETTER REVERSED PE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in Christian Palestinian Aramaic

Syriac letter

Eastern ܧ ܧܧܧ  Estrangela ܧ ܧܧܧ   Western ܧ ܧܧܧ

Used in Christian Palestinian Aramaic

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

ܨ

U+0728 SYRIAC LETTER SADHE

Syriac letter ܨܕܐ ṣāḏē       #value 90

Eastern ܨ ‍ܨ  Estrangela ܨ ‍ܨ   Western ܨ ‍ܨ

, eg. ܨܕܐ ṣāḏē.

Aramaic ܨ ‍ܨ   

s, eg. ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܩ

U+0729 SYRIAC LETTER QAPH

Syriac letter ܩܘܦ qōp̄    q   #value 100

Eastern ܩ ܩܩܩ  Estrangela ܩ ܩܩܩ   Western ܩ ܩܩܩ

q , eg. ܩܘܦ qōp̄.

Aramaic ܩ ܩܩܩ    q

q, eg. ܩܘ݂ܝܵܡܵܐ qûyamaʾ qujama subsistence.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܪ

U+072A SYRIAC LETTER RISH

When this letter occurs in combination with  ̈ [U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS​] (plural marker) the diaeresis replaces the dot that is normally above it.

Syriac letter ܪܝܫ rēš    r   #value 200

Eastern ܪ ܪܪܪ  Estrangela ܪ ܪܪܪ   Western ܪ ܪܪܪ

r, eg. ܪܝܫ rēš.

Aramaic ܩ ‍ܩ    r

r, eg. ܡܵܪܹܐ mareʾ marɪ possessor of.

Same behaviour for dot replacement.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܫ

U+072B SYRIAC LETTER SHIN

Syriac letter ܫܝܢ šīn    š   #value 300

Eastern ܫ ܫܫܫ  Estrangela ܫ ܫܫܫ   Western ܫ ܫܫܫ

ʃ, eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ liʃana language.

ʒ in East Syriac when combined with  ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​] to represent foreign sounds, ie. ܫ̃.

Aramaic ܫ ܫܫܫ    š, ž with maǧliyana

ʃ, eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ liʃana language.

ʒ when combined with   ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​] to represent this non-classical sound, ie. ‍ܫ̃‍ .

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܬ

U+072C SYRIAC LETTER TAW

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Syriac letter ܬܘ taw     t when hard, when soft   #value 400

Eastern ܬ ‍ܬ  Estrangela ܬ ‍ܬ   Western ܬ ‍ܬ

t when hard, eg. ܬ݁ܘ taw.

θ when soft, eg. ܒܝܬ݂ bēṯ. Some modern eastern dialects don't use the soft form.

Aramaic ܬ ‍ܬ    t when hard, when soft

t, tʰ when hard, eg. ܡܵܦܬܘܼܝܹܐ maptûyeʾ mapʰtʰujɪ expand.

θ when soft, eg. ...

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

Persian letters

ܭ

U+072D SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN BHETH

Persian letter

Eastern ܭ ܭܭܭ  Estrangela ܭ ܭܭܭ   Western ܭ ܭܭܭ

v Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ܮ

U+072E SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN GHAMAL

Persian letter

Eastern ܮ ܮܮܮ  Estrangela ܮ ܮܮܮ   Western ܮ ܮܮܮ

ɣ Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ܯ

U+072F SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN DHALATH

Persian letter

Eastern ܯ ܯܯܯ  Estrangela ܯ ܯܯܯ   Western ܯ ܯܯܯ

ð Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

Sogdian letters

ݍ

U+074D SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN ZHAIN

Sogdian letter

Eastern ݍ ݍݍݍ  Estrangela ݍ ݍݍݍ   Western ݍ ݍݍݍ

ʒ Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ݎ

U+074E SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN KHAPH

Sogdian letter

Eastern ݎ ݎݎݎ  Estrangela ݎ ݎݎݎ   Western ݎ ݎݎݎ

x Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ݏ

U+074F SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN FE

Sogdian letter

Eastern ݏ ݏݏݏ  Estrangela ݏ ݏݏݏ   Western ݏ ݏݏݏ

f Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

Vowels

ܰ

U+0730 SYRIAC PTHAHA ABOVE

a/ă

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‎ pṯāḥā 

a This symbol represents an uppercase alpha. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant, use  ܱ [U+0731 SYRIAC PTHAHA BELOW​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܱ

U+0731 SYRIAC PTHAHA BELOW

a/ă

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‎ pṯāḥā 

a This symbol represents an uppercase alpha. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant, use  ܰ [U+0730 SYRIAC PTHAHA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܲ

U+0732 SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED

East (& West) Syriac, vowel diacritic ܦܬ݂ܵܚܵܐ‎ pṯāḥā     a, ă

a This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

Aramaic vowel  ă

a, eg. ܚܲܕ ḥăd xa one.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܳ

U+0733 SYRIAC ZQAPHA ABOVE

ā/å

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā

ɑ This symbol represents an uppercase alpha. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant, use  ܴ [U+0734 SYRIAC ZQAPHA BELOW​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܴ

U+0734 SYRIAC ZQAPHA BELOW

ā/å

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā

ɑ This symbol represents an uppercase alpha. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant, use  ܳ [U+0733 SYRIAC ZQAPHA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܵ

U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED

East (& West) Syriac vowel diacritic ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā    ā

ɑ This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

Aramaic vowel  a

a, eg. ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ʔaha this.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܶ

U+0736 SYRIAC RBASA ABOVE

e/ĕ

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā

ɛ/e This symbol represents a lowercase epsilon. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant, use  ܷ [U+0737 SYRIAC RBASA BELOW​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܷ

U+0737 SYRIAC RBASA BELOW

e/ĕ

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā

ɛ/e This symbol represents a lowercase epsilon. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant, use  ܶ [U+0736 SYRIAC RBASA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܸ

U+0738 SYRIAC DOTTED ZLAMA HORIZONTAL

East (& West) Syriac vowel diacritic ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܪܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā ʾărīḵā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܦܫܝܼܩܵܐ‎ zlāmā pšīqā     e/ĕ/i

ɛ This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

ɪ often in East Syriac dialect.

e when followed by ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH].

Aramaic vowel  ĭ

i, eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ liʃana language.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܹ

U+0739 SYRIAC DOTTED ZLAMA ANGULAR

East (& West) Syriac vowel diacritic ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܟܲܪܝܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā karyā or ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܩܲܫܝܵܐ‎ zlāmā qašyā     ē

e This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

Aramaic vowel  e

ɪ, i, eg. ܡܵܪܹܐ mareʾ marɪ possessor of.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܺ

U+073A SYRIAC HBASA ABOVE

ī

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ ḥḇāṣā

i This symbol represents an uppercase eta. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant, use  ܻ [U+073B SYRIAC HBASA BELOW​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܻ

U+073B SYRIAC HBASA BELOW

ī

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ ḥḇāṣā

i This symbol represents an uppercase eta. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant, use  ܺ [U+073A SYRIAC HBASA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܼ

U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED

East (& West) Syriac vowel diacritic ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܠܝܼܨܵܐ‎ ʿṣāṣā ʾălīṣā or ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā ū, u, or ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ ḥḇāṣā ī, i

u, when used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW]

i, when used with ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH]

Aramaic vowel  î, û

u Always used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW], eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qûyamaʾ qujama subsistence.

i Always used with ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH], eg. ܗܵܘܝܼ hawî hawi be.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܽ

U+073D SYRIAC ESASA ABOVE

ū/u

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‎ʿṣāṣā

u This symbol represents a combined capital upsilon and lowercase omicron. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant, use  ܾ [U+073E SYRIAC ESASA BELOW​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܾ

U+073E SYRIAC ESASA BELOW

ū/u

West Syriac vowel diacritic ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‎ʿṣāṣā

u This symbol represents a combined capital upsilon and lowercase omicron. This sound can be indicated with this symbol either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant, use  ܽ [U+073D SYRIAC ESASA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

ܿ

U+073F SYRIAC RWAHA

East (& West) Syriac vowel diacritic ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܪܘܝܼܚܵܐ‎ ʿṣāṣā rwīḥā or ܪܘܵܚܵܐ‎ rwāḥā     ō, o

o, when used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW]

Aramaic vowel  ô

u Always used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW], eg. ܢܵܛܘܿܪܹ̈ܐ naṭô"reʾ naturɪ keepers.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

Marks

݀

U+0740 SYRIAC FEMININE DOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• feminine marker used with the Taw feminine suffix

Syriac feminine marker

Eastern ܬ݀   Estrangela ܬ݀    Western ܬ݀ 

A feminine marker used with ܬ [U+072C SYRIAC LETTER TAW] when used as a feminine suffix. East Syriac fonts should render as two dots below the base letter, whereas West Syriac fonts render as a single dot to the left of the base, eg. ܕܰܫܘܳܬ݀.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400   [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet   [3] [Nelson] p45  

݁

U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates a plosive pronunciation

Syriac diacritic mark ܩܘܫܝܐ qūššāyā

The following letters can represent either a 'hard' or 'soft' consonant: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ. The hard version is a plosive, and the soft version a fricative.

This diacritic is used to indicate that the letter represents the 'hard' form ( qūššāyā ), although in modern text the absence of a dot is the usual way to indicate a hard value.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

݂

U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates an aspirated (spirantized) pronunciation

Syriac diacritic mark ܪܘܟܟܐ rūkkāḵā

The following letters can represent either a 'hard' or 'soft' consonant: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ. The hard version is a plosive, and the soft version a fricative.

This diacritic is used to indicate that the letter represents the 'soft' form ( rūkkāḵā ).

When this diacritic appears below ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH] and that character has a dot below it, this diacritic moves slightly to the right, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

݃

U+0743 SYRIAC TWO VERTICAL DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• accent mark used in ancient manuscripts

Syriac accent mark

Accent mark used in ancient manuscripts, eg. ܡܪ݃ܝܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݄

U+0744 SYRIAC TWO VERTICAL DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• accent mark used in ancient manuscripts

Syriac accent mark

Accent mark used in ancient manuscripts, eg. ܡܪ݄ܝ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݅

U+0745 SYRIAC THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• diacritic used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac

Turoyo

Used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac, eg. ܐ݅ ܦܪܥܓܬܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݆

U+0746 SYRIAC THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• diacritic used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac

Turoyo

Used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac, eg. ܔ݆ܰܥܓܰܗ̈.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݇

U+0747 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indication of a silent letter

Syriac diacritic mark

Eastern  ݇   Estrangela  ݇    Western  ݇ 

Indicates a silent letter, eg. ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݈

U+0748 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indication of a silent letter
• also used to indicate numbers multiplied by a certain constant

Syriac diacritic mark

Eastern  ݈   Estrangela  ݈    Western  ݈ 

Indicates a silent letter, eg. ܐ݈.

Can also be used to indicate numbers multiplied by a certain constant.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݉

U+0749 SYRIAC MUSIC

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a music mark
• also used in the Syrian Orthodox Anaphora book to mark the breaking of the Eucharist bread

Syriac music mark

A music mark, eg. ܘܰܩـ݉ـܨܳܐ. Also used in the Syrian Orthodox Anaphora book to mark the breaking of the Eucharist bread.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݊

U+074A SYRIAC BARREKH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a diacritic cross used in liturgical texts

Syriac diacritic cross

A diacritic cross used in liturgical texts of all the Syriac churches, East and West, eg. ܘܩܰـ݊ـܕܶܫ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

Symbols & punctuation

Punctuation

܀

U+0700 SYRIAC END OF PARAGRAPH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the end of a paragraph

Syriac punctuation

Marks the end of a paragraph.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܁

U+0701 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR FULL STOP

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks interrogations, imperatives, and pauses, especially in Biblical texts

Syriac punctuation

Marks interrogations, imperatives, and pauses, especially in Biblical texts.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܂

U+0702 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR FULL STOP

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks subordinate clauses and minor pauses, especially in Biblical texts

Syriac punctuation

Marks subordinate clauses and minor pauses, especially in Biblical texts.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܃

U+0703 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks expressions of wonder and has a distinct pausal value in Biblical texts

Syriac punctuation

Marks expressions of wonder and has a distinct pausal value in Biblical texts.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܄

U+0704 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used at the end of verses of supplications

Syriac punctuation

Used at the end of verses of supplications.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܅

U+0705 SYRIAC HORIZONTAL COLON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• joins two words closely together in a context to which a rising tone is suitable

Syriac punctuation

Joins two words closely together in a context to which a rising tone is suitable.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܆

U+0706 SYRIAC COLON SKEWED LEFT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks a dependent clause

Syriac punctuation

Marks a dependent clause.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܇

U+0707 SYRIAC COLON SKEWED RIGHT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the end of a subdivision of the apodosis, or latter part of a Biblical verse

Syriac punctuation

Marks the end of a subdivision of the apodosis, or latter part of a Biblical verse.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܈

U+0708 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks a minor phrase division

Syriac punctuation

Marks a minor phrase division.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܉

U+0709 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED RIGHT

Description in the Unicode standard:

% SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT
• marks the end of a real or rhetorical question
• character name is a misnomer

Syriac punctuation

Marks the end of a real or rhetorical question. Should be called sublinear colon skewed left.1

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] NamesList

܊

U+070A SYRIAC CONTRACTION

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a contraction mark, mostly used in East Syriac
• placed at the end of an incomplete word

Syriac punctuation

Placed at the end of an incomplete word to mark a contraction. Mostly used in East Syriac, eg. ܩܫ܊.1

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p44

܋

U+070B SYRIAC HARKLEAN OBELUS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note
→ (division sign - 00F7)

Syriac note marker

Marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The section is ended using ܌ [U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS].1 For example: ܋ܙܒܢܝ̈ܢ܌

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400

܌

U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the end of a section with a marginal note

Syriac note marker

Marks the end of a section with a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The beginning of the section is indicated using ܋ [U+070B SYRIAC HARKLEAN OBELUS] or ܍ [U+070D SYRIAC HARKLEAN ASTERISCUS].1 For example: ܋ܙܒܢܝ̈ܢ܌

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400

܍

U+070D SYRIAC HARKLEAN ASTERISCUS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note

Syriac note marker

Marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The section is ended using ܌ [U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS].1 For example: ܍ܥܙܢܐ܌

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400

SAM

U+070F SYRIAC ABBREVIATION MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= SAM
• marks the beginning of a Syriac abbreviation

Syriac abbreviation mark

Indicates that a sequence of characters is an abbreviation, eg. ܬ܏ܫܒܘ is an abbreviation of ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ. The line would ideally have a small circle at the start, middle and end. It normally starts to the left of the nearest tall letter to the end of the abbreviation.

Modern East Syriac texts use a punctuation mark for contractions of this sort.

It is also used to indicate letter-based numbers, eg. ܒ܏ܝܗ. Note how, in this example, the prefix ܒ, is not covered by the SAM, only the number itself.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] pp392-400  [2] [WP] Syriac alphabet 

References

  1. [Wikipedia] Syriac script
  2. [Unicode] The Unicode Standard v9
  3. [Nelson] Paul Nelson, George Anton Kiraz, Sargon Hass, Proposal to Encode Syriac in ISO/IEC 10646, 1998
  4. [Sims-Williams] Nicholas Sims-Williams, Michael Everson, Proposal to add six Syriac letters for Sogdian and Persian to the UCS
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