Syriac character notes

Language code:

Merge lists

Updated 10 July, 2020

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them, gathered from various sources.

See also the companion document, Syriac, for a summary of the Syriac script and its use for the Syriac language.

The page also lists characters from the Combining Diacritical Marks and Arabic blocks that are commonly used by languages using the Syriac script.

There are many dialectal variations in pronunciation of the languages listed here. The phonetic information on this page for Syriac is fairly generalised. On the other hand, the pronunciation given for Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo reflects specific dialects, chosen because there is reasonably good documentation. The Assyrian is based on a course in reading Assyrian by Dr. Madeleine Davis Moradkhan, who based her approach on the "Assyrian Reader for Adult Beginners" by Haido & Yousif. The notes also contain information about correspondences in the Urmian dialect. The Turoyo dialect used here is that described by the Aramaic Online Project (2014-2017) edited by Shabo Talay, and the accompanying course ܫܠܳܡܐ ܣܘܪܰܝܬ Šlomo Surayt An Introductory Course to Surayt-Aramaic (Turoyo).

Related pages.
Other character notes.
About this page

Consonants

Basic consonants

ܐ

U+0710 SYRIAC LETTER ALAPH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom).
ܐ ـܐ ܕܐ ܐ ـܐ ܕܐ ܐ ـܐ ܕܐ

Syriac

ʔ as a consonant, eg. ܐܠܦ ʾālap̄.

ɑ as mater lectionis, eg. ܐܬܘ̈ܬܐ ʾtw̋tʾ (āṯwāṯâ) the letters.

As a consonant, usually transcribed ʾ. As mater lectionis, this may be transcribed as ȃ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic     ʾ, or as mater lectionis a

This serves as a vowel carrier at the beginning of a word, and silently follows most words ending in ɑ or e, eg. ܐܲܩܠܵܐ.

Word-internal usage is not fully clear. In some cases, it appears to allow for a separate vowel sound, eg. ܦܵܐܹܣ paʿes pʰaeʃ become. Not clear whether there is usually a glottal stop in such situations.

In words like ܚܐܵܛܵܐ xʾāᵵāʾ to sew or ܪܐܵܫܵܐ rʾāʃāʾ to awaken it separates the vowel from the first consonant, as if there is a glottal stop. (In a situation like ܒܐܵܗܵܐ bʾāhāʾ by this the word has been prefixed with a single-letter preposition.)

In other words, such as ܠܵܐܝ ܠܵܐܝ lāʾy lāʾy lullaby, it seems to have a lengthening function.

Turoyo

where it occurs at the start or end of a word, in conjunction with other vowel diacritics.

All word-initial vowels are written using the normal diacritic or mater lectionis preceded by a silent olaf, eg. ܐܝܠܷܢspan class="trans">ilën) September (which uses a mater lectionis for the vowel sound).a

It also appears silently, after the appropriate vowel diacritic, at the end of words that end in a or e, eg. ܒܳܬܶܐ, and ܒܝܪܰܐ.a

o as mater lectionis when it appears at the end of a word without a preceding vowel, eg. ܒܰܗܪܐ.a

Observation: I found only one instance of olaf appearing inside a word. See the third word in ܕܠܐ ܗܳܘܰܠܟ݂ܘ ܫܘܐܠܶܐ ܚܪܶܢܶܐ، ܓܷܕ ܥܷܒܪܝܢܰܐ dlʾ howalk‐̣w ʃwʾleʾ ħreneʾ, gəd ʕəbrynaʾ (d lo howalxu šuwole ḥrene, gëd cëbrina).a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505

ܒ

U+0712 SYRIAC LETTER BETH

May represent both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft). The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using   ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA] for the hard form, and   ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom).
ܒ ܒـܒـܒ ܒ ܒـܒـܒ ܒ ܒـܒـܒ

Syriac

b when hard, eg. ܒܝܬ byt (bēṯ).

v () when soft, eg. ܪܒ݂ܨܐ rḅsˤʾ (rḅāsˤāʾ).

Wherever it is traditionally geminate within a word, even in dialects that no longer distinguish double consonants, it is hard.w

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

b when hard, eg. ܒܵܒܵܐ.

v () when soft, eg. ܣܵܒ݂ܵܐ.

At the beginning of a word this may represent the preposition by, eg. ܒܐܵܗܵܐ. If the following consonant is the beginning of a cluster, this preposition is written with the vowel diacritic   ܲ [U+0732 SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED], but otherwise not.

Urmian dialect. w when soft. v has become w in most modern dialects, and can form diphthongs with a preceding vowel.w

Turoyo 

b when hard, eg. ܒܝܬ byt (bēṯ).

v (v) when soft, eg. ܒ݂ܝܠܠܰܐ.

Words that in Syriac are written using ܒ݂ tend to be written in Turoyo using ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW], eg. ܕܰܗܒ݂ܐ dȧhb‐̣ʾ (dahḇo) gold becomes ܕܰܗܘܐ dȧhwʾ (dahwo).a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܓ

U+0713 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL

May represent both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft). The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using   ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and   ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

This letter may be combined with a tilde, called maǧlīyānā, to represent a sound not found in classical Syriac phonology.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܓ ܓـܓـܓ ܓ ܓـܓـܓ ܓ ܓـܓـܓ

Syriac

g when hard, eg. ܓ݁ܡܠ g݁ml (gāmal).

ɣ when soft, transcribed as .

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 

g when hard, eg. ܓܵܘܙܵܐ gāwzāʾ (gāwzā) walnut.

ʁ () when soft, eg. ܣܪܵܓ݂ܵܐ.r33 Other dialects may produce ɟ, ʔ, j.

With maǧlīyānā.d͡ʒ (ǧ) as ܓ̰ when combined with ̰  [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW] (maǧlīyānā), eg. ܓ̰ܘܼܢܵܐ.a Used for words borrowed into Assyrian, rather than native words.

Turoyo 

g when hard, eg. ܓܘܫܡܐ.a

ɣ (ġ) when soft, eg. ܓ݂ܰܠܛܐ.a

(For d͡ʒ see ܔ [U+0714 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL GARSHUNI].)

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܕ

U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH

May represent both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft). The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using   ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and   ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Joins only to the right.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܕ ـܕ ܕ ـܕ ܕ ـܕ

Syriac

d when hard, eg. ܕܵܠܵܬ dālāt (dālāṯ).

ð () when soft, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ ywd–̣ (yōḏ).

When the glyph for this letter has a dot below it, ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] is moved slightly to the right, eg. ܕ݂ and ܕ݂

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 

d when hard, eg. ܕܵܕܵܐ.

ð () when soft, eg. ܐܵܕ݂ܵܪ.

At the beginning of a word this may represent the preposition of, eg. ܚܵܬܵܐ ܕܲܒܪܵܬܵܐ. If the following consonant is the beginning of a cluster, this preposition is written with the vowel diacritic   ܲ [U+0732 SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED], but otherwise not.

Urmian dialect. Soft sound not used. Words are written and pronounced as d.

Turoyo 

d when hard, eg. ܕܰܪܓ݂ܐ.a

ð () when soft, eg. ܐܰܕ݂ܢܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܗ

U+0717 SYRIAC LETTER HE

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܗ ـܗ ܗ ـܗ ܗ ـܗ

Syriac

Consonant, grammatical marker, or abbreviation.

h, eg. ܗܐ .

Joins only to right.

At the end of a word with a point above it, it represents the third-person feminine singular suffix. Without the point, it stands for the masculine equivalent.w

Standing alone with a horizontal line above it, it is the abbreviation for either ܗܵܢܘܿ hānô this is, that is or ܗܵܠܹܠܘܼܝܵܐ hālēlûyâ hallelujah.w

Greek ai is sometimes written ܗ.d501

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

h, eg. ܗܵܘܵܐ, ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ɑhɑ this.

Turoyo

h, eg. ܗܶܫ.a

when used as a grammatical indicator at the end of a word after e or a when it represents a personal ending or pronominal suffix, eg. ܓܪܷܫܠܶܗ, ܓܪܷܫܠܰܗ; ܒܰܒܶܗ, ܒܰܒܰܗ; etc.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܘ

U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW

Joins only to the right.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܘ ـܘ ܘ ـܘ ܘ ـܘ

Syriac

w as a consonant, eg. ܘܘ waw

u, o as mater lectionis, eg. ܗܵܠܹܠܘܼܝܵܐ hālēlûyâ hallelujah. See the notes on combinations under Assyrian.

Joins only to right.

As a consonant, usually transcribed w. When combined with vowel signs, this may be transcribed as û or ô.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

w as a consonant, eg. ܗܵܘܵܐ hāwāʾ (hāwā) air. (v in the Urmian dialect.)

w as part of a diphthong, eg. ܓܵܘܙܵܐ gāwzāʾ (gāwzā) walnut.

At the beginning of a word this may represent the conjunction and, eg. ܒܪܵܬܵܐ ܘܝܵـܠܵܐ. If the following consonant is the beginning of a cluster, this preposition is written with the vowel diacritic   ܲ [U+0732 SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED], but otherwise not.

Urmian dialect. The consonant is pronounced v.

 

u when representing a vowel, eg. ܩܘܝܡܐ qûymʾ qujama subsistence.

When, in pointed text, it carries the diacritic  ܼ [U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED​] it is transcribed û, eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qûyamaʾ. When it carries the diacritic  ܿ [U+073F SYRIAC RWAHA​], it is transcribed as ô, eg. ܗܵܢܘܿ hānô this is, that is. Both are pronounced the same (u).

o where in pointed text it follows the diacritic  ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED​] , eg. ܕܵܘ aw

Turoyo

w as a consonant, eg. ܘܰܥܕܐ.

u as mater lectionis, eg. ܕܘܟܬܐ. Note that no vowel diacritic is used.

The following shows both uses in a single word, ܐܰܪܢܘܘܳܐ.

This letter is also used without a vowel diacritic for the diphthong aw eg. ܕܰܘܡܐ.

It can also appear without a diacritic when a word ends in o, eg. ܚܰܠܘܐ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 508 

ܙ

U+0719 SYRIAC LETTER ZAIN

This letter may be combined with a tilde, called maǧlīyānā, to represent a sound not found in classical Syriac phonology.

Joins only to the right.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܙ ـܙ ܙ ـܙ ܙ ـܙ

Syriac

z, eg. ܙܝܢ zayn.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

z, eg. ܙܵܘܕܵܐ zāwdāʾ (zāwdā) more.

 

With maǧlīyānā.ʒ (ž) as ܙ̰ or ܙ̃ when combined with ̰  [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW] or ̃  [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​] (maǧlīyānā).

Turoyo

z, eg. ܙܰܒܢܐ.a

With maǧlīyānā.ʒ (ž) as ܙ̰ when combined with ̰  [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW] (maǧlīyānā), eg. ܙ̰ܱܒܰܫܶܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 509 

ܚ

U+071A SYRIAC LETTER HETH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܚ ܚـܚـܚ ܚ ܚـܚـܚ ܚ ܚـܚـܚ

Syriac

ħ, x, χ, eg. ܚܝܬ ḥēṯ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

x, eg. ܚܵܘܵܐ.

Turoyo

ħ, eg. ܚܳܠܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܛ

U+071B SYRIAC LETTER TETH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܛ ܛـܛـܛ ܛ ܛـܛـܛ ܛ ܛـܛـܛ

Syriac

, eg. ܛܝܬ ṭēṯ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

t, eg. ܛܲܪܦܵܐ.

Turoyo

, eg. ܛܷܒܒܰܟܼ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܝ

U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܝ ܝـܝـܝ ܝ ܝـܝـܝ ܝ ܝـܝـܝ

Syriac

j as consonant, eg. ܩܲܕ݂ܡܵܝܲܬ݂ qaḏmayaṯ firstly.

i, e as mater lectionis, eg. ܘܲܒ݂ܗܹܝܢ waḇhêyn and in them, ܐܵܡܪܝܢ ʾāmrīn say.

As a consonant, usually transcribed y. When combined with vowel signs, this may be transcribed as î.

See also notes on combinations described for Assyrian.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

j (y) as a consonant, eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qujama qûyamaʾ subsistence.

 

i, e when representing a vowel, eg. ܦܝܫܝ pyšî pʰeʃi become, which contains two of these letters representing two different vowels.

In pointed text it is transcribed as î and pronounced i when it carries the diacritic  ܼ [U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED​], eg. ܦܵܝܫܝܼ payšî pʰeʃi become.

The sequence ay is pronounced e when this letter has no diacritic of its own and follows a letter with the vowel diacritic  ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED​] (see the same example).

Turoyo

j as a consonant, eg. ܒ̣ܝܝܰܢܰܐ, and ܣܷܣܝܐ.

i as mater lectionis, eg. ܪܝܫܐ. No vowel diacritic is used.

The following shows both uses in a single word, ܥܰܨܪܝـܝܶܐ.

This letter is also used without a vowel diacritic for the diphthong aj, eg. ܐܰܝܕܰܪܒܐ.

It can also appear without a diacritic when a word ends in o, eg. ܐܰܕܠܰܠܝܐ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 508 

ܟ

U+071F SYRIAC LETTER KAPH

May represent both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft). The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using   ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and   ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

This letter may be combined with a tilde, called maǧlīyānā, to represent a sound not found in classical Syriac phonology.

This letter is usually doubled ܟܟ when it occurs in isolation (eg. in list numbering).

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܟ ܟـܟـܟ ܟ ܟـܟـܟ ܟ ܟـܟـܟ

Syriac

k when hard, eg. ܟ݁ܦ kāp̄.

x () when soft.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

k when hard, eg. ܟܲܠܒܵܐ.r9

ħ () when soft, eg. ܒܲܟ݂ܬܵܐ.r35

Observation: There seems to be an alternative form for this letter when used in (proper) isolation, that ressembles an initial form but has a tail. See for example page 9 of Davis.

Urmian dialect. Pronounced x.

With maǧlīyānā.t͡ʃ (č) as ܟ̰ܟ when combined with ̰  [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW] (maǧlīyānā), eg. ܟ̰ܵܐܝ. Mostly used for words borrowed from the Turkish language.r35

Turoyo

k when hard, eg. ܟܰܓ݂ܰܬ

x (x) when soft, eg. ܟ݂ܰܒܪܐ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܠ

U+0720 SYRIAC LETTER LAMADH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܠ ܠـܠـܠ ܠ ܠـܠـܠ ܠ ܠـܠـܠ

Syriac

l, eg. ܠܡܕ lāmaḏ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

l, eg. ܠܲܦܵܐ.

At the beginning of a word this may represent the preposition to, eg. ܕܵܫܢܵܐ ܠܲܒܪܵܬܵܐ. If the following consonant is the beginning of a cluster, this preposition is written with the vowel diacritic   ܲ [U+0732 SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED], but otherwise not.

Turoyo

l, eg. ܫܠܳܡܐ.a

Note how the isolated and final forms are represented by a glyph that doubles the strokes. In certain combinations, this also produces special forms: when doubled, it is written ܠܠ ll; followed by olaf it is written ܠܐ .

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܡ

U+0721 SYRIAC LETTER MIM

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܡ ܡـܡـܡ ܡ ܡـܡـܡ ܡ ܡـܡـܡ

Syriac

m, eg. ܡܝܡ mīm.

When isolated, this letter is usually shown as initial+final form, ie. ܡܡ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

m, eg. ܡܲܠܟܵܐ.

Turoyo

m, eg. ܡܘܟܠܐ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܢ

U+0722 SYRIAC LETTER NUN

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܢ ܢـܢـܢ ܢ ܢـܢـܢ ܢ ܢـܢـܢ

Syriac

n, eg. ܢܘܢ nūn

When isolated, this letter is usually shown as initial+final form, ie. ܢܢ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

n, eg. ܢܵܬܵܐ.

Turoyo

n, eg. ܐܰܚܘܢܐ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܣ

U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܣ ܣـܣـܣ ܣ ܣـܣـܣ ܣ ܣـܣـܣ

Syriac

s, eg. ܣܡܟܬ semkaṯ.

In word-final position, this may be replaced by ܤ [U+0724 SYRIAC LETTER FINAL SEMKATH].

Unusually, this letter started out as right-joining only. From the 7th to 11th century, there was a mix of right- and dual-joining letters. From the 12th century onwards, this letter has been dual-joining. To simulate the earlier behaviour, use U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER (ZWNJ) immediately after this letter.n44

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

s, eg. ܣܵܠܵܐ.

Turoyo

s, eg. ܣܷܣܝܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܤ

U+0724 SYRIAC LETTER FINAL SEMKATH

The standard character for s is ܣ [U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH].

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܤ ـܤ ܤ ـܤ ܤ ـܤ

Syriac

s, used like Greek final sigma as a word-final alternate form for ܣ [U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH].

It occurs interchangeably with ܣ [U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH].n44

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܥ

U+0725 SYRIAC LETTER E

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܥ ܥـܥـܥ ܥ ܥـܥـܥ ܥ ܥـܥـܥ

Syriac

ʕ, eg. ܥܐ ʿē.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܥ ܥܥܥ    ʿ

ʔ, eg. ܥܲܡ.

Urmian dialect. This is not pronounced, and simply serves as a carrier for a or e sounds.r

Turoyo

ʕ, eg. ܥܰܝܢܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܦ

U+0726 SYRIAC LETTER PE

May represent both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft). The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using   ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and   ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom).
ܦ ܦـܦـܦ ܦ ܦـܦـܦ ܦ ܦـܦـܦ

Syriac

p when hard, eg. ܦ݁ܐ p–̇ʾ ().

f () when soft, eg. ܐܠܦ݂ ʾālap̄. This is not found in most eastern dialects, or may become w.

In East Syriac the soft form is expressed using   ̮ [U+032E COMBINING BREVE BELOW​], ie. ܦ̮. This is the only letter that uses that convention.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

p, eg. ܦܵܓܵܐ.

Turoyo

The standard pronunciation, without any diacritic, is f. To indicate p, add ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA], ie. ܦ݁.wa

f (f) when soft, eg. ܦܶܡܐ.

p (p) when hard, eg. ܦ݁ܠܰܢ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܨ

U+0728 SYRIAC LETTER SADHE

Joins only to the right.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܨ ـܨ ܨ ـܨ ܨ ـܨ

Syriac

, eg. ܨܕܐ ṣāḏē.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

, eg. ܨܵܝܕܵܐ ᵴāydāʾ (sāydā) pen, paintbrush.

s before o or u.r

Urmian dialect. Pronounced s, and so the same as ܣ [U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH].r10

Turoyo

, eg. ܨܰܦܪܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܩ

U+0729 SYRIAC LETTER QAPH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܩ ܩـܩـܩ ܩ ܩـܩـܩ ܩ ܩـܩـܩ

Syriac

q , eg. ܩܘܦ qōp̄.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

q, eg. ܩܵܝܵܐ.

Turoyo

q, eg. ܩܰܚܘܰܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܪ

U+072A SYRIAC LETTER RISH

When this letter occurs in combination with  ̈  [U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS​] (plural marker) the diaeresis replaces the dot that is normally above it.

Joins only to the right.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܪ ـܪ ܪ ـܪ ܪ ـܪ

Syriac

r, eg. ܪܝܫ rēš.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

r, eg. ܪܲܡܫܵܐ.

Turoyo

r, eg. ܪܰܒܷܥ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܫ

U+072B SYRIAC LETTER SHIN

This letter may be combined with a tilde, called maǧlīyānā, to represent a sound not found in classical Syriac phonology.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܫ ܫـܫـܫ ܫ ܫـܫـܫ ܫ ܫـܫـܫ

Syriac

ʃ, eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ liʃana language.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

ʃ, eg. ܫܠܵܡܵܐ.

With maǧlīyānā.ʒ () as ܫ̃. or ܫ̰, when combined with ̰  [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW] or ̃  [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​] (maǧlīyānā), eg. ܡܝܼܫ̰. Used for words borrowed from other languages.

Turoyo

ʃ, eg. ܫܰܬܐ.a

With maǧlīyānā.t͡ʃ (č) as ܫ̰, when combined with ̰  [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW] (maǧlīyānā), eg. ܫ̰ܰܢܛܰܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܬ

U+072C SYRIAC LETTER TAW

May represent both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft). The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using   ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and   ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Joins only to the right.

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܬ ـܬ ܬ ـܬ ܬ ـܬ

Syriac

t when hard, eg. ܬ݁ܘ taw.

θ () when soft, eg. ܒܝܬ݂ bēṯ.

Joins only to the right.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

t when hard, eg. ܬܲܠܓܵܐ.

θ () when soft, eg. ܐܵܬ݂ܘܿܪ.

Urmian dialect. Soft form not used. Words are written and pronounced t.r34

Turoyo

t when hard, eg. ܬܰܠܓܐ.

θ () when soft, eg. ܐܰܬ݂ܬܐ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

Additional consonant forms

ܖ

U+0716 SYRIAC LETTER DOTLESS DALATH RISH

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܖ ـܖ ܖ ـܖ ܖ ـܖ

Syriac

Before the 4th century, the dot that distinguishes ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH] from ܪ [U+072A SYRIAC LETTER RISH] was not used. This code point can be used to represent that ambiguous form, where needed.

Joins only to the right.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܞ

U+071E SYRIAC LETTER YUDH HE

Estrangelo and eastern
styles (top to bottom)
ܞ ـܞ ܞ ـܞ

Syriac

Ligature for the sound jh. Used in East Syriac and Estrangela texts only.n30

Joins only to the right.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] [Nelson] p45  

ܧ

U+0727 SYRIAC LETTER REVERSED PE

ܧ ܧܧܧ

Syriac

p in Christian Palestinian Aramaic, which was a Western Aramaic dialect used by the Melkite Christian community in Palestine and Transjordan between the fifth and thirteenth centuries.

Garshuni letters

ܔ

U+0714 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL GARSHUNI

This is an adaptation of the letter ܓ [U+0713 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL].

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom).
ܔ ܔܔܔ ܔ ܔܔܔ ܔ ܔܔܔ

Syriac

Garshuni letter used for writing Arabic in the Syriac script.

Turoyo

In Turoyo this is an ordinary letter of the alphabet.

d͡ʒ, eg. ܔܰܙܘܶܐ ʤȧzwėʾ (jazwe) coffee pot 

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܜ

U+071C SYRIAC LETTER TETH GARSHUNI

This is an adaptation of the letter ܛ [U+071B SYRIAC LETTER TETH].

Estrangelo, eastern, and
western styles (top to bottom)
ܜ ܜܜܜ ܜ ܜܜܜ ܜ ܜܜܜ

Syriac

Garshuni letter used for writing Arabic in the Syriac script.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] Daniels p505 

Persian letters

ܭ

U+072D SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN BHETH

Persian   

v Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ܮ

U+072E SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN GHAMAL

Persian   

ɣ Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

This is an adaptation of the letter ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH].

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ܯ

U+072F SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN DHALATH

Persian   

ð Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

This is an adaptation of the letter ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH].

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

Sogdian letters

ݍ

U+074D SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN ZHAIN

Sogdian   

ʒ Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ݎ

U+074E SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN KHAPH

Sogdian  

x Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ݏ

U+074F SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN FE

Sogdian  

f Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

Vowels

Dotted vowels

ܲ

U+0732 SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED

Syriac

Dotted vowel diacritics are standard in East Syriac, but also sometimes used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  ă

a, eg. ܕܲܪܬܵܐ. This is a shorter vowel than ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED] and the phonetic realisation is central, such as ä or ɐ.

Consonants following this vowel are usually geminated, eg. ܣܲܡܲܐ.

Urmian dialect. Can be pronounced the same way, eg. ܥܲܡ, but may also be pronounced æ, eg. ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ, or as ɛ, eg. ܟܲܠܒܵܐ.

When followed by ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW] without a vowel, this becomes o, eg. ܡܲܘܡܼܬܵܐ. Followed by ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH] with no vowel, this becomes ɛ (é), eg. ܒܲܝܬܵܐ.

This makes the latter combinations sound the same as similar combinations with ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED].

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܵ

U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED

Syriac

Dotted vowel diacritics are standard in East Syriac, but also sometimes used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

ɑ (ā or â), eg. ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ɑhɑ this.

Urmian dialect.Often more like æ (a), but also ɑ (â) in certain words.

When followed by ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW] without a vowel, this becomes o, eg. ܓܵܘ.

Followed by ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH] with no vowel, this becomes ɛ (é), eg. ܕܵܝܒܵܐ, although there are exceptions, such as ܦܵܝܕܵܐ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܸ

U+0738 SYRIAC DOTTED ZLAMA HORIZONTAL

Syriac

Dotted vowel diacritics are standard in East Syriac, but also sometimes used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  ĭ

ɪ, eg. ܫܸܡܫܵܐ.

Urmian dialect. Many words are pronounced with this sound rather than a, and this often leads to a spelling change also, eg. ܕܲܫܬܵܐ may be spelled ܕܸܫܬܵܐ deʃtāʾ.r18

 

ɛ is the standard pronunciation.

ɪ often in East Syriac dialects (when it may be transcribed i), eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ lɪʃana language.w

e when followed by ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH].

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܹ

U+0739 SYRIAC DOTTED ZLAMA ANGULAR

Syriac

Dotted vowel diacritics are standard in East Syriac, but also sometimes used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  e

e, eg. ܪܹܫܵܐ.

It is also the pronunciation when this is followed by ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH], eg. ܐܹܝܠ.w

Urmian dialect. Pronounced i.

 

e is the standard pronunciation. It is also the pronunciation when this is followed by ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH].w

ɪ, i, eg. ܡܵܪܹܐ mareʾ marɪ possessor of.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܼ

U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED

Syriac

Dotted vowel diacritics are standard in East Syriac, but also sometimes used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Always used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW] or ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH]. This combination follows ܐ [U+0710 SYRIAC LETTER ALAPH] at the start of a word, just like other vowels, eg. ܐܝܼܠܵܢܵܐ.

i with ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH], eg. ܢܝܼܫܵܐ. The two together may be transcribed as î. Many imperatives end in this vowel, eg. ܒܢܝܼ, as do 1st person singular possessive pronouns, eg. ܒܵܒܝܼ.r20

The sound ija can be written with a single yodh consonant, and vowel diacritics both above and below it, eg. ܐܝܼܛܵܠܝܼܵܐ ʾyitˤālyiāʾ (iṭaliya) Italy.r20

u with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW], eg. ܢܘܼܢܵܐ. The two together may be transcribed as û. Before a consonant cluster this vowel is pronounced shorter, eg. ܩܘܼܦܬܵܐ.r26

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܿ

U+073F SYRIAC RWAHA

Syriac

Dotted vowel diacritics are standard in East Syriac, but also sometimes used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  ô

Always used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW].

o (with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW]), eg. ܡܘܿܕܵܐ. The two together may be transcribed as ô.

Urmian dialect. Pronounced u.r27

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

Greek letter vowels

ܰ

U+0730 SYRIAC PTHAHA ABOVE

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from an uppercase alpha, eg. ܐܰܝܟܱ݁ܢܺܐ ʾȧykạ‐̇nïʾ.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܱ [U+0731 SYRIAC PTHAHA BELOW​].

Turoyo   

a, eg. ܡܰܠܟܘܬ݂ܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܱ

U+0731 SYRIAC PTHAHA BELOW

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from an uppercase alpha, eg. ܐܰܝܟܱ݁ܢܺܐ ʾȧykạ‐̇nïʾ.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or above the consonant.To make it appear above the consonant use  ܰ [U+0730 SYRIAC PTHAHA ABOVE​].

Turoyo   

a, eg. ܓ݂ܱܠܱܒܶܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܳ

U+0733 SYRIAC ZQAPHA ABOVE

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a lowercase alpha, eg. ܪܬܘܩܵܢܳܐ rtwqānåʾ.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܴ [U+0734 SYRIAC ZQAPHA BELOW​].

Turoyo   

ɒ, eg. ܐܳܬ݂ܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܴ

U+0734 SYRIAC ZQAPHA BELOW

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a lowercase alpha, eg. ܟܴ݁ܗ̈ܢܶܐ kḁ‐̇h‐̈nėʾ.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܳ [U+0733 SYRIAC ZQAPHA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܶ

U+0736 SYRIAC RBASA ABOVE

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a lowercase epsilon, eg. ܟܴ݁ܗ̈ܢܶܐ kḁ‐̇h‐̈nėʾ.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܷ [U+0737 SYRIAC RBASA BELOW​].

Turoyo   

e, eg. ܐܶܡܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܷ

U+0737 SYRIAC RBASA BELOW

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a lowercase epsilon, eg. ܘܰܡܫܰܐܷܠ wȧmʃȧʾẹl.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܶ [U+0736 SYRIAC RBASA ABOVE​].

Turoyo   

ə, eg. ܐܷܫܡܐ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܺ

U+073A SYRIAC HBASA ABOVE

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a uppercase eta, eg. ܥܰܡܰܢܘܽܐܝܺܠ̣ ʿȧmȧnwůʾyïl‐̜.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܻ [U+073B SYRIAC HBASA BELOW​].

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܻ

U+073B SYRIAC HBASA BELOW

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a uppercase eta, eg. ܕܻ݁ܝܗܘܽܕ݁ܳܐ dị‐̇yhwůd‐̇åʾ.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܺ [U+073A SYRIAC HBASA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܽ

U+073D SYRIAC ESASA ABOVE

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a combined capital upsilon and lowercase omicron, eg. ܥܰܡܰܢܘܽܐܝܺܠ̣ ʿȧmȧnwůʾyïl‐̜.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܾ [U+073E SYRIAC ESASA BELOW​].

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܾ

U+073E SYRIAC ESASA BELOW

Syriac

Used for West Syriac. Derived from a combined capital upsilon and lowercase omicron, eg. ܩܕ݂ܳܡܰܝܗܾܘܢ qd‐̣åmȧyhụwn.n

The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܽ [U+073D SYRIAC ESASA ABOVE​].

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

Diacritics

݁

U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA

Syriac       ܩܘܫܝܐ qūššāyā

The following letters can represent either a 'hard' or 'soft' consonant: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ. The hard version is a plosive, and the soft version a fricative.

This diacritic is used to explicitly indicate that the letter represents the 'hard' form (qūššāyā ), although in modern text the absence of a dot is the usual way to indicate a hard value.

Assyrian

Not usually used, but may be used, especially in older texts, to emphasise the sound of 5 consonants: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܬ, eg. ܫܸܬ݁ܠܵܐ or ܕܘܼܓ݁ܠܵܐ.

Turoyo

In the standardised orthography of 2017, this character is only used for ܦ݁ f‐̇ p, since the default (dotless) sound of the consonant produces f.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

݂

U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA

The following letters can represent either a 'hard' or 'soft' consonant: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ. The hard version is a plosive, and the soft version a fricative. This diacritic is used to explicitly indicate that the letter represents the 'soft' form (rūkkāḵā).

When this diacritic appears below ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH] and that character has a dot below it, this diacritic moves slightly to the right, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ.

Syriac    ܪܘܟܟܐ rūkkāḵā

The following letters can represent either a 'hard' or 'soft' consonant: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ.

In some fonts ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH] has a dot above the baseline, so no adjustment is needed to fit this diacritic in, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ.

Assyrian

Used to produce the following sounds: ܒ݂ v, ܬ݂ θ, ܕ݂ ð, ܟ݂ ħ, and ܓ݂ ʁ.r32-34

Turoyo

In the standardised orthography of 2017, combinations of this character and base characters are treated as letters of the alphabet. It is used to produce the following sounds: ܒ݂ v, ܬ݂ θ, ܕ݂ ð, ܟ݂ x, and ܓ݂ ɣ.a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

݇

U+0747 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE ABOVE

Syriac

Silent letter marker, used in the Eastern style.

The Western style uses ̱   [U+0331 COMBINING MACRON BELOW], eg. ܒܬ̱ܪ bṯr.

The marker can also appear below the base, in which case use ݈  [U+0748 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE BELOW].

Assyrian

Silences a letter, eg. ܫܲܢ݇ܬܵܐ.

Frequently, its use in the modern Aramaic koine is to bridge differences in dialects. For example, ܒܬ݇ܪ bt݇r after, is pronounced baθar in some modern dialects, harking back to the classical pronunciation, but bar in Urmi and the koine.

Occasionally the diacritic is used below the base, in which case use ݈ [U+0748 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE BELOW].

The letters ܐ ܥ ܗ ܝ, when included for etymological reasons, are often silent, though without using the talqana.n 

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݈

U+0748 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE BELOW

Syriac   

Indicates a silent letter, used in the Eastern style, eg. ܐ݈.

The Western style uses ̱   [U+0331 COMBINING MACRON BELOW], eg. ܒܬ̱ܪ bṯr.

The marker can also appear above the base, in which case use ݇ [U+0747 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE ABOVE].

Can also be used to indicate numbers multiplied by a certain constant.

Assyrian

Used in the modern Aramaic koine to bridge differences in dialects.

The marker appears to be more common above the base, in which case use ݇ [U+0747 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE ABOVE].

The letters ܐ ܥ ܗ ܝ, when included for etymological reasons, are often silent, though without using the talqana.n 

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݀

U+0740 SYRIAC FEMININE DOT

Syriac

ܬ݀ ܬ݀ ܬ݀

Used with ܬ [U+072C SYRIAC LETTER TAW] when it is a feminine suffix.

East Syriac fonts should render as two dots below the base letter, whereas West Syriac fonts render as a single dot to the left of the base, eg. ܕܰܫܘܳܬ݀. Examples to the right show (top to bottom) estrangelo, eastern, and western styles.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] [Nelson] p45  

݃

U+0743 SYRIAC TWO VERTICAL DOTS ABOVE

Syriac   

Accent mark used in ancient manuscripts, eg. ܡܪ݃ܝܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݄

U+0744 SYRIAC TWO VERTICAL DOTS BELOW

Syriac   

Accent mark used in ancient manuscripts, eg. ܡܪ݄ܝ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݅

U+0745 SYRIAC THREE DOTS ABOVE

Turoyo   

Used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac, eg. ܐ݅ ܦܪܥܓܬܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݆

U+0746 SYRIAC THREE DOTS BELOW

Turoyo   

Used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac, eg. ܔ݆ܰܥܓܰܗ̈.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݉

U+0749 SYRIAC MUSIC

Syriac   

A music mark, eg. ܘܰܩـ݉ـܨܳܐ.

Also used in the Syrian Orthodox Anaphora book to mark the breaking of the Eucharist bread.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݊

U+074A SYRIAC BARREKH

Syriac   

A diacritic cross used in liturgical texts of all the Syriac churches, East and West, eg. ܘܩܰـ݊ـܕܶܫ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

ܑ

U+0711 SYRIAC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALAPH

East Syriac   

Used in East Syriac texts to indicate an etymological alaph, eg. ܩܲܖ݄ܡܵܝܑܼܬ̣ qaḋ݄māyܑit‐̜. Maps to nothing in West Syriac.n44

Punctuation

܀

U+0700 SYRIAC END OF PARAGRAPH

Syriac

eg. ܘܐܠܝ̣ܐ܀ wʾly‐̜ʾ܀.n

܁

U+0701 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR FULL STOP

Syriac

Marks interrogations, imperatives, and pauses, especially in Biblical texts, eg. ܥܰܩܶܟܘ܁ ʿȧqėkw..n

܂

U+0702 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR FULL STOP

Syriac   

Marks subordinate clauses and minor pauses, especially in Biblical texts, eg. ܠܚܶܩܡ܂ lħėqm..n

܃

U+0703 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON

Syriac   

Marks expressions of wonder and has a distinct pausal value in Biblical texts, eg. ܕܐܪܥܐ܃ dʾrʿʾ: .n

܄

U+0704 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON

Syriac   

Used at the end of verses of supplications, eg. ܟܫܡܐ܄ kʃmʾ: .n

܅

U+0705 SYRIAC HORIZONTAL COLON

Syriac   

Joins two words closely together in a context to which a rising tone is suitable, eg. ܬ݁ܘܽܒ݂ܘ܅ t‐̇wůb‐̣w: .n

܆

U+0706 SYRIAC COLON SKEWED LEFT

Syriac   

Marks a dependent clause, eg. ܦܪܕܝܣܐ܆ prdysʾ: .n

܇

U+0707 SYRIAC COLON SKEWED RIGHT

Syriac   

Marks the end of a subdivision of the apodosis, or latter part of a Biblical verse, eg. ܒ݁ܘܽܟܪܳܐ܇ b‐̇wůkråʾ: .n

܈

U+0708 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT

Syriac   

Marks a minor phrase division, eg. ܘܰܐܢ̱ܬ܈ wȧʾṉt; .n

܉

U+0709 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED RIGHT

Syriac   

Marks the end of a real or rhetorical question. Should be called sublinear colon skewed left, eg. ܩܕ݂ܳܡܰܝܗܘ̇ܢ܉ qd‐̣åmȧyhw‐͑n? .n

܊

U+070A SYRIAC CONTRACTION

Syriac   

Placed at the end of an incomplete word to mark a contraction. Mostly used in East Syriac, eg. ܩܫ܊ qʃ. .n44

܏

U+070F SYRIAC ABBREVIATION MARK

Syriac   

Indicates that a sequence of characters is an abbreviation, eg. ܬ܏ܫܒܘ is an abbreviation of ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ. The line would ideally have a small circle at the start, middle and end. It normally starts to the left of the nearest tall letter to the end of the abbreviation.

Modern East Syriac texts use a punctuation mark for contractions of this sort.

It is also used to indicate letter-based numbers, eg. ܒ܏ܝܗ. Note how, in this example, the prefix ܒ, is not covered by the SAM, only the number itself.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

܋

U+070B SYRIAC HARKLEAN OBELUS

Syriac   

Marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The section is ended using ܌ [U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS].1 For example: ܋ܙܒܢܝ̈ܢ܌ ܋zbny‐̈n܌ .n44

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400 

܌

U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS

Syriac   

Marks the end of a section with a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The beginning of the section is indicated using ܋ [U+070B SYRIAC HARKLEAN OBELUS] or ܍ [U+070D SYRIAC HARKLEAN ASTERISCUS]. For example: ܋ܙܒܢܝ̈ܢ܌ ܋zbny‐̈n܌ .n44

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400 

܍

U+070D SYRIAC HARKLEAN ASTERISCUS

Syriac   

Marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The section is ended using ܌ [U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS]. For example: ܍ܥܙܢܐ܌ ܍ʿznʾ܌ .n44

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400 

Combining diacritical marks

̃

U+0303 COMBINING TILDE

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 

Used to indicate sounds not found in Classical Syriac, and called maǧliyana.

Assyrian typically uses a tilde above the base character for the following:

ܙ z -> ܙ̃ ʒ 

ܫ ʃ -> ܫ̃ ʒ 

For some combinations, maǧliyana is written using   ̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW].

̄

U+0304 COMBINING MACRON

Syriac 

Used in western Syriac to indicate a silent letter.

(Other types of Syriac text may use  ݇ [U+0747 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE ABOVE] rather than this.)

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

In sequences of 3 consonants without intervening vowels this is used below the second to contract the pronunciation of the letter and add a very short vowel, eg. ܡܲܩܕ̄ܫܵܐ, ܡܲܕܒ̄ܚܵܐ, and ܚܲܪܕ̄ܠܵܐ.r53

It is NOT used with the following consonants: ܐ ܗ ܘ ܝ ܠ ܡ ܢ ܥ ܪ.

It is mostly found in older texts, or the writings of modern authors wanting to adhere to the full rules of Assyrian spelling, and is practically obsolete in everyday use.r32

̇

U+0307 COMBINING DOT ABOVE

Assyrian 

Used to disambiguate certain letters, morphemes or words, eg. the masc. and fem. personal pronouns, ܗ̇ܘ ḣw aw and ܗ̇ܝ ḣy aj, and their corresponding demonstratives. The dot is also written over the 3rd person fem. suffix ܘܗ̇ -wḣ -o. Examples include ܐܝܼܕ݂ܵܗ̇ and ܐ݇ܬܹܐ ܠܵܗ̇.

The dot above also distinguishes ܡ̇ܢ ṁn man who from ܡ̣ܢ ṃn mɪn from, with a dot below.

See also   ̣ [U+0323 COMBINING DOT BELOW].

̈

U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS

When used as syame in the Syriac script, the order of this character and vowel diacritics above the consonant is important: the syame should always come first. Compare ܪܵ̈ܡܹܐ rā˖mēʾ and ܪ̈ܵܡܹܐ r˖āmēʾ.

Syriac 

Used to represent the Syriac syame (ܣܝ̈ܡܐ), which indicates plural nouns, adjectives and participles. It is needed because many plural words would otherwise look the same as the singular word, eg. ܡܠܟܐ mlkʾ (malkā) king could otherwise be also read as malkē kings. Instead, the plural form can be written as ܡܠܟ̈ܐ mlk̋ʾ.

Although it's not strictly needed for non-regular words, it is also used for them, eg. ܒܝܬܐ bytʾ (baytā) house and ܒ̈ܬܐ b̋tʾ (bāttē) houses.

Some modern usage, however, omits this diacritic when vowel marks are present, because it is redundant.

An author can place this mark above any letter in a word, but if the word contains one or more ܪ [U+072A SYRIAC LETTER RISH] the mark is generally placed over the one which is nearest the word end, and replaces the single dot above it, eg. ܢܘܼܟ݂ܪ̈ܵܝܹܐ.

Other likely locations include low rising letters, and letters near the middle or end of a word.w

It is also used in Garshuni texts for the Arabic teh marbuta.n

Assyrian 

Examples of use: ܒܢܵܬܹ̈ܐ, ܝܵܠܹ̈ܐ, ܗܵܘܢܵܢܹ̈ܐ, ܪ̈ܵܡܹܐ, ܫܲܪܝܼܪܹ̈ܥ, ܡܵܬ݂ܘܵܬܹ̈ܐ.

̊

U+030A COMBINING RING ABOVE

Syriac 

An alternate form for   ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA], especially in West Syriac grammar books.n

̣

U+0323 COMBINING DOT BELOW

Assyrian 

Used to disambiguate certain letters, morphemes or words, eg. it distinguishes ܡ̣ܢ ṃn mɪn from, with a dot below from ܡܸܢ.

See also   ̇ [U+0307 COMBINING DOT ABOVE], since this dot often appears above the base also.

̤

U+0324 COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW

Syriac 

Found in ancient manuscripts, with a grammatical and phonological function.n

̥

U+0325 COMBINING RING BELOW

Syriac 

An alternate form for   ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA], especially in West Syriac grammar books.n

̭

U+032D COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT BELOW

Syriac 

A digit marker.n

̮

U+032E COMBINING BREVE BELOW

Syriac 

Used in late and modern East Syriac texts, as well as Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, to indicate v (), a soft pronunciation of ܦ [U+0726 SYRIAC LETTER PE].n

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 

Used to indicate f (), a soft pronunciation of ܦ [U+0726 SYRIAC LETTER PE], eg. ܬܸܦ̮ܠܵܐ.r36 Called ܩܝܸܫܬܵܐ݂݂ qiʃtɑ.

Urmian dialect. ܦ̮ may be pronounced u, eg. ܪܲܦ̮ܫܵܐ rapˇʃāʾ ruʃɑ, or o, eg. ܢܲܦ̮ܫܵܐ napˇʃāʾ noʃɑ, or f, eg. ܬܲܦ̮ܬܘܼܫܹܐ tapˇtwiʃēʾ taftuʃi.

̰

U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Used to indicate sounds not found in Classical Syriac, and called maǧliyana (ܡܲܓ̰ܠܝܼܵܢܵܐ), eg. Syriac ܓ ɡ with maǧliyana becomes ʤ, as in ܒܘܼܓ̰ܪܹ̈ܐ buʤrī bûʤreʾ cultivated.

Assyrian typically uses a tilde below the base character for the following:

ܓ ɡ -> ܓ̰ d͡ʒ

ܟ k -> ܟ̰ t͡ʃ 

Assyrian applies maǧliyana to two other sounds using a tilde above the base character, see   ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE].

Turoyo

Also used as maǧliyana, but only for the following combinations:

ܙ z -> ܙ̰ ʒ 

ܫ ʃ -> ܫ̰ ʒ 

̱

U+0331 COMBINING MACRON BELOW

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

In sequences of 3 consonants without intervening vowels this is used below the second to 'extend and join their sounds'.r52 It is only used with the following consonants: ܐ ܗ ܘ ܝ ܠ ܡ ܢ ܥ ܪ, eg. ܢܸܫܡ̱ܬܵܐ, ܡܲܕܢ̱ܚܵܐ, and ܡܲܥܪ̱ܒ݂ܵܐ.

It is mostly found in older texts, or the writings of modern authors wanting to adhere to the full rules of Assyrian spelling, and is practically obsolete in everyday use.r52

Urmian dialect. To make it easier to pronounce these sequences, Urmian pronunciation adds short vowels after the first or second letters, eg. ܡܲܙܡ̱ܪܵܢܵܐ mazm̱rānāʾ mazmmrɑnɑ becomes ܡܲܙܡܸܪܵܢܵܐ mazmɪrānāʾ mezmɪrɑnɑ, and ܡܲܕܢ̱ܚܵܐ becomes ܡܲܕܸܢܚܵܐ madɪnxāʾ medɪnxa.r53

Arabic

،

U+060C ARABIC COMMA

؛

U+061B ARABIC SEMICOLON

؟

U+061F ARABIC QUESTION MARK

ـ

U+0640 ARABIC TATWEEL

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Observation: Used to stretch the baseline between letters occasionally. Seems to be in order to prevent diacritics clashing.

Hyphens. Also used, with space either side, to join two words in a compound, eg. ܒܹܬ݂ ـ ܟܪ̈ܝܼܗܹܐ bētˑ _ kr˖yihēʾ beθ-krihe hospital.r45

References

  1. [ a ] Aramaic Online Project (2014-2017) edited by Shabo Talay, ܫܠܳܡܐ ܣܘܪܰܝܬ Šlomo Surayt An Introductory Course to Surayt-Aramaic (Turoyo)
  2. [ d ] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  3. [ n ] Paul Nelson, George Anton Kiraz, Sargon Hass, Proposal to Encode Syriac in ISO/IEC 10646, 1998
  4. [ r ] Madeleine Davis, Assyrian Reading Lessons in Six Days, 2nd ed., March 2014
  5. [ s ] Nicholas Sims-Williams, Michael Everson, Proposal to add six Syriac letters for Sogdian and Persian to the UCS
  6. [ a ] Aramaic Online Project (2014-2017) edited by Shabo Talay, ܫܠܳܡܐ ܣܘܪܰܝܬ Šlomo Surayt An Introductory Course to Surayt-Aramaic (Turoyo)
  7. [ u ] The Unicode Standard v9.0, Syriac.
  8. [ w ] Wikipedia, Syriac alphabet