Syriac character notes

Updated 9 February, 2018 • tags scriptnotes, syriac

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For information about the Syriac script and its features in general, see the Syriac script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

Languages using Syriac include Assyrian Neo-Aramaic.

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Consonants

Basic consonants

ܐ

U+0710 SYRIAC LETTER ALAPH

Consonant    ʾ, or as mater lectionis ā    #value 1

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܝܐ ܕܐ ܐ   Estrangela ܝܐ ܕܐ ܐ   Western ܝܐ ܕܐ ܐ

Syriac    ܐܠܦ ʾālap̄

ʔ as a consonant, eg. ܐܠܦ ʾālap̄.
ɑ as mater lectionis, eg. .

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic     ʾ, or as mater lectionis a

ʔ as a consonant, eg. ܐܠܦ ʾālap̄. No vowels begin a word, but many begin with ܐ ʾ or ܥ ʿ, representing the glottal stop.

When word final it is typically not pronounced, but signals the presence of the vowels a, ɪ, which is particularly useful in unpointed text, eg. ܕܠܐ dlʾ dla without. In pointed text there is a diacritic on the previous letter to indicate the actual sound, eg. ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ʔaha this, ܡܵܚܸܐ maḥɪʾ maxi hit.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505

ܒ

U+0712 SYRIAC LETTER BETH

Consonant    b when hard, when soft    #value 2

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܒܝܒܝܒ ܒ  Estrangela ܒܝܒܝܒ ܒ   Western ܒܝܒܝܒ ܒ

Syriac    ܒܝܬ bēṯ

b when hard, eg. ܒܝܬ bēṯ.

v, w when soft, eg. ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā. v has become w in most modern dialects.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

b when hard, eg. ܒܝܬ bēṯ.

w when soft, eg. ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā. v has become w in most modern dialects.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܓ

U+0713 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL

Consonant    g when hard, ḡ, g̱ when soft, ǧ with maǧlīyānā    #value 3

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

When combined with ◌̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​], known as maǧlīyānā, this represents a sound not in the classical Syriac phonology.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܓܝܓܝܓ ܓ  Estrangela ܓܝܓܝܓ ܓ   Western ܓܝܓܝܓ ܓ

Syriac ܓܡܠ gāmal

g when hard, eg. ܓ݁ܡܠ gāmal.

ɣ when soft, eg. ...

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 

g when hard, eg. ܓ݁ܡܠ gāmal.

ɟ, ʔ, ɣ, j when soft, eg. ...

ʤ with maǧliyana, eg. ܒܘܼܓ̰ܪܹ̈ܐ buʤrī bûʤreʾ cultivated.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܕ

U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH

Consonant    d when hard, when soft    #value 4

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form. When the symbol for this code point has a dot below, the latter appears slightly to the right.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܕܝܕܝܕ ܕ  Estrangela ܕܝܕܝܕ ܕ   Western ܕܝܕܝܕ ܕ

Syriac    ܕܠܬ dālaṯ

d when hard, eg. ܕ݁ܠܬ dālaṯ.

ð when soft, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 

d when hard, eg. ܕ݁ܠܬ dālaṯ.

ð when soft, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ. Not all Aramaic dialects have this sound.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܗ

U+0717 SYRIAC LETTER HE

Consonant    h    #value 5

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܗܝܗܝܗ ܗ  Estrangela ܗܝܗܝܗ ܗ   Western ܗܝܗܝܗ ܗ

Syriac    ܗܐ

h, eg. ܗܐ .

At the end of a word with a point above it, it represents the third-person feminine singular suffix. Without the point, it stands for the masculine equivalent.w

Standing alone with a horizontal line above it, it is the abbreviation for either ܗܵܢܘܿ hānô this is, that is or ܗܵܠܹܠܘܼܝܵܐ hālēlûyâ hallelujah.w

Greek ai is sometimes written ܗ.d501

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

h, eg. ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ʔaha this.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܘ

U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW

Consonant    w (ū, ō in combinations)    #value 6

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܘܝܘܝܘ ܘ  Estrangela ܘܝܘܝܘ ܘ   Western ܘܝܘܝܘ ܘ

Syriac   ܘܘ waw

w as a consonant, eg. ܘܘ waw.
u, o as mater lectionis, eg. ܗܵܠܹܠܘܼܝܵܐ hālēlûyâ hallelujah. See the notes on combinations under Assyrian.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

w, eg. ܗܵܘܝܼ hawi haww as a consonant, eg. ܘܘ waw.

u when representing a vowel, eg. ܩܘܝܡܐ qûymʾ qujama subsistence.

When, in pointed text, it carries the diacritic  ܼ [U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED​] it is transcribed û, eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qûyamaʾ. When it carries the diacritic  ܿ [U+073F SYRIAC RWAHA​], it is transcribed as ô, eg. ܗܵܢܘܿ hānô this is, that is. Both are pronounced the same (u).

o where in pointed text it follows the diacritic  ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED​] , eg. ܕܵܘ aw

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 508 

ܙ

U+0719 SYRIAC LETTER ZAIN

Consonant    z or ž with maǧliyana    #value 7

When combined with ◌̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] or  ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​], known as maǧlīyānā, this represents a sound not in the classical Syriac phonology.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܙܝܙܝܙ ܙ  Estrangela ܙܝܙܝܙ ܙ   Western ܙܝܙܝܙ ܙ

Syriac ܙܝܢ zayn

z, eg. ܙܝܢ zayn.

ʒ in East Syriac with maǧliyana, ie. ܙ̰ or ܙ̃.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

z, eg. ܙܝܢ zayn.

ʒ with maǧliyana, ie. ܙ̃.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 509 

ܚ

U+071A SYRIAC LETTER HETH

Consonant       #value 8

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܚܝܚܝܚ ܚ  Estrangela ܚܝܚܝܚ ܚ   Western ܚܝܚܝܚ ܚ

Syriac ܚܝܬ ḥēṯ  

ħ, x, χ, eg. ܚܝܬ ḥēṯ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

x, eg. ܚܲܕ ḥăd xa one.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܛ

U+071B SYRIAC LETTER TETH

Consonant       #value 9

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܛܝܛܝܛ ܛ  Estrangela ܛܝܛܝܛ ܛ   Western ܛܝܛܝܛ ܛ

Syriac    ܛܝܬ ṭēṯ

, eg. ܛܝܬ ṭēṯ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

t, eg. ܪܗܸܛܪ̈ܵܝܹܐ rhɪtrajɪ rhĭṭ"rayeʾ eloquent.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܝ

U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH

Consonant/mater lectionis    y (î in combinations)   #value 10

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܝܝܝܝܝ ܝ  Estrangela ܝܝܝܝܝ ܝ   Western ܝܝܝܝܝ ܝ

Syriac    ܝܘܕ yōḏ

j as consonant, eg. ܩܲܕ݂ܡܵܝܲܬ݂ qaḏmayaṯ firstly.

i, e as mater lectionis, eg. ܘܲܒ݂ܗܹܝܢ waḇhêyn and in them, ܐܵܡܪܝܢ ʾāmrīn say.

See also notes on combinations described for Assyrian.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

j as a consonant, eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qujama qûyamaʾ subsistence

i, e when representing a vowel, eg. ܦܝܫܝ pyšî pʰeʃi become, which contains two of these letters representing two different vowels.

In pointed text it is transcribed as î and pronounced i when it carries the diacritic  ܼ [U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED​], eg. ܦܵܝܫܝܼ payšî pʰeʃi become.

The sequence ay is pronounced e when this letter has no diacritic of its own and follows a letter with the vowel diacritic  ܵ [U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED​] (see the same example).

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505, 508 

ܟ

U+071F SYRIAC LETTER KAPH

Consonant    k when hard, when soft, č with maǧliyana   #value 20

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative/glide (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

When combined with  ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​], known as maǧlīyānā, this represents a sound not in the classical Syriac phonology.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܟܝܟܝܟ ܟ  Estrangela ܟܝܟܝܟ ܟ   Western ܟܝܟܝܟ ܟ

Syriac    ܟܦ kāp̄

k when hard, eg. ܟ݁ܦ kāp̄.

x when soft, eg. ܟܬܝ݂ܵܒܵܬܹܐ ktîḇat"eʿ cʰtʰiwatʰɪ writings.

ʧ in East Syriac when combined with  ̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] to represent foreign sounds, ie. ܟ̰.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

when hard, eg. ܟܬܝ݂ܵܒܵܬܹܐ ktîḇat"eʿ cʰtʰiwatʰɪ writings.

x when soft, eg. ܢܘܼܟ݂ܪ̈ܵܝܹܐ nûḵr"ayeʿ nuxrajɪ foreign.

ʧ when combined with   ̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] to represent this non-classical sound, ie. ‍ܟ̮‍ .

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܠ

U+0720 SYRIAC LETTER LAMADH

Consonant    l    #value 30

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܠܝܠܝܠ ܠ  Estrangela ܠܝܠܝܠ ܠ   Western ܠܝܠܝܠ ܠ

Syriac    ܠܡܕ lāmaḏ

l, eg. ܠܡܕ lāmaḏ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

l, eg. ܕܠܐ dlaʾ dla without.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܡ

U+0721 SYRIAC LETTER MIM

Consonant    m    #value 40

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܡܝܡܝܡ ܡ  Estrangela ܡܝܡܝܡ ܡ   Western ܡܝܡܝܡ ܡ

When isolated, this letter is usually shown as initial+final form, eg. ܡܡ.

Syriac    ܡܝܡ mīm

m, eg. ܡܝܡ mīm.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

m, eg. ܐܘ݂ܡܬܵܐ ʾûmtaʾ ʔumtʰa nation.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܢ

U+0722 SYRIAC LETTER NUN

Consonant    n    #value 50

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܢܝܢܝܢ ܢ  Estrangela ܢܝܢܝܢ ܢ   Western ܢܝܢܝܢ ܢ

When isolated, this letter is usually shown as initial+final form, eg. ܢܢ.

Syriac    ܢܘܢ nūn

n, eg. ܢܘܢ nūn

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

n, eg. ܐܸܢ ʾĭn ʔɪn if.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܣ

U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH

Consonant    s    #value 60

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܣܝܣܝܣ ܣ  Estrangela ܣܝܣܝܣ ܣ   Western ܣܝܣܝܣ ܣ

Syriac    ܣܡܟܬ semkaṯ

s, eg. ܣܡܟܬ semkaṯ.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

s, eg. ܦܵܐܹܣ paʿes pʰajiʃ become.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܥ

U+0725 SYRIAC LETTER E

Consonant    ʿ    #value 70

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܥܝܥܝܥ ܥ  Estrangela ܥܝܥܝܥ ܥ   Western ܥܝܥܝܥ ܥ

Syriac    ܥܐ ʿē

ʕ, eg. ܥܐ ʿē.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܥ ܥܥܥ    ʿ

ʔ, ʕ, eg. ...

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܦ

U+0726 SYRIAC LETTER PE

Consonant    p when hard,  when soft    #value 80

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative/glide (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܦܝܦܝܦ ܦ  Estrangela ܦܝܦܝܦ ܦ   Western ܦܝܦܝܦ ܦ

Syriac    ܦܐ

p when hard, eg. ܦ݁ܐ .

f when soft, eg. ܐܠܦ݂ ʾālap̄. This is not found in most eastern dialects, or may become w.

In East Syriac the soft form is expressed using  ̮ [U+032E COMBINING BREVE BELOW​], ie. ܦ̮. This is the only letter that uses that convention.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

pʰ, p, eg. ܦܵܝܫܝܼ payšî pʰeʃi become.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܨ

U+0728 SYRIAC LETTER SADHE

Consonant       #value 90

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܨܝܨܝܨ ܨ  Estrangela ܨܝܨܝܨ ܨ   Western ܨܝܨܝܨ ܨ

Syriac    ܨܕܐ ṣāḏē

, eg. ܨܕܐ ṣāḏē.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

s, eg. ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܩ

U+0729 SYRIAC LETTER QAPH

Consonant    q    #value 100

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܩܝܩܝܩ ܩ  Estrangela ܩܝܩܝܩ ܩ   Western ܩܝܩܝܩ ܩ

Syriac    ܩܘܦ qōp̄

q , eg. ܩܘܦ qōp̄.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

q, eg. ܩܘ݂ܝܵܡܵܐ qûyamaʾ qujama subsistence.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܪ

U+072A SYRIAC LETTER RISH

Consonant    r    #value 200

When this letter occurs in combination with  ̈ [U+0308 COMBINING DIAERESIS​] (plural marker) the diaeresis replaces the dot that is normally above it.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܪܝܪܝܪ ܪ  Estrangela ܪܝܪܝܪ ܪ   Western ܪܝܪܝܪ ܪ

Syriac    ܪܝܫ rēš

r, eg. ܪܝܫ rēš.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

r, eg. ܡܵܪܹܐ mareʾ marɪ possessor of.

Same behaviour for dot replacement.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܫ

U+072B SYRIAC LETTER SHIN

Consonant    š or with maǧlīyānā   #value 300

When combined with ◌̰ [U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW​] or  ̃ [U+0303 COMBINING TILDE​], known as maǧlīyānā, this represents a sound not in the classical Syriac phonology.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܫܝܫܝܫ ܫ  Estrangela ܫܝܫܝܫ ܫ   Western ܫܝܫܝܫ ܫ

Syriac    ܫܝܢ šīn

ʃ, eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ liʃana language.

ʒ in East Syriac as maǧlīyānā, ie. ܫ̃.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

ʃ, eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ liʃana language.

ʒ with maǧlīyānā, ie. ‍ܫ̃‍ .

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܬ

U+072C SYRIAC LETTER TAW

Consonant    t when hard, when soft    #value 400

This symbol represents both a plosive (hard) and fricative (soft) sound. The intended sound of the letter can be made explicit using  ݁ [U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA​] for the hard form, and  ݂ [U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA​] for the soft form.

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܬܝܬܝܬ ܬ  Estrangela ܬܝܬܝܬ ܬ   Western ܬܝܬܝܬ ܬ

Syriac    ܬܘ taw

t when hard, eg. ܬ݁ܘ taw.

θ when soft, eg. ܒܝܬ݂ bēṯ. Some modern eastern dialects don't use the soft form.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

t, tʰ when hard, eg. ܡܵܦܬܘܼܝܹܐ maptûyeʾ mapʰtʰujɪ expand.

θ when soft, eg. ...

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

Additional consonant forms

ܖ

U+0716 SYRIAC LETTER DOTLESS DALATH RISH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• ambiguous form for undifferentiated early dalath/rish

Alternative consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܖܝܖܝܖ ܖ  Estrangela ܖܝܖܝܖ ܖ   Western ܖܝܖܝܖ ܖ

Syriac    dālaṯ rish

In ancient texts the dot that distinguishes ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH] from ܪ [U+072A SYRIAC LETTER RISH] was not used. This code point can be used to represent that ambiguous form, where needed.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܞ

U+071E SYRIAC LETTER YUDH HE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• mostly used in East Syriac texts

Ligature    jh

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܞܝܞܝܞ ܞ  Estrangela ܞܝܞܝܞ ܞ   Western ܞܝܞܝܞ ܞ

Syriac   

Used in East Syriac and Estrangela texts.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] [Nelson] p45  

ܤ

U+0724 SYRIAC LETTER FINAL SEMKATH

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܤܝܤܝܤ ܤ  Estrangela ܤܝܤܝܤ ܤ   Western ܤܝܤܝܤ ܤ

Syriac   

s, used like Greek final sigma as a word-final alternate form for ܣ [U+0723 SYRIAC LETTER SEMKATH].

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Daniels makes no mention of this form, and doesn't show it at the end of a word in the text sample, however the east syriac fonts from Beth Mardutho support it.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܧ

U+0727 SYRIAC LETTER REVERSED PE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in Christian Palestinian Aramaic

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܧܝܧܝܧ ܧ  Estrangela ܧܝܧܝܧ ܧ   Western ܧܝܧܝܧ ܧ

Syriac   

Used in Christian Palestinian Aramaic

Garshuni letters

ܔ

U+0714 SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL GARSHUNI

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in Garshuni documents

Garshuni letter

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܔܝܔܝܔ ܔ  Estrangela ܔܝܔܝܔ ܔ   Western ܔܝܔܝܔ ܔ

Used for writing Arabic in the Syriac script.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܜ

U+071C SYRIAC LETTER TETH GARSHUNI

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in Garshuni documents

Garshuni letter

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܜܝܜܝܜ ܜ  Estrangela ܜܝܜܝܜ ܜ   Western ܜܝܜܝܜ ܜ

Used for writing Arabic in the Syriac script.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] Daniels p505 

Persian letters

ܭ

U+072D SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN BHETH

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܭܝܭܝܭ ܭ  Estrangela ܭܝܭܝܭ ܭ   Western ܭܝܭܝܭ ܭ

Persian   

v Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ܮ

U+072E SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN GHAMAL

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܮܝܮܝܮ ܮ  Estrangela ܮܝܮܝܮ ܮ   Western ܮܝܮܝܮ ܮ

Persian   

ɣ Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ܯ

U+072F SYRIAC LETTER PERSIAN DHALATH

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ܯܝܯܝܯ ܯ  Estrangela ܯܝܯܝܯ ܯ   Western ܯܝܯܝܯ ܯ

Persian   

ð Used in Persian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE.

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

Sogdian letters

ݍ

U+074D SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN ZHAIN

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ݍܝݍܝݍ ݍ  Estrangela ݍܝݍܝݍ ݍ   Western ݍܝݍܝݍ ݍ

Sogdian   

ʒ Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ݎ

U+074E SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN KHAPH

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ݎܝݎܝݎ ݎ  Estrangela ݎܝݎܝݎ ݎ   Western ݎܝݎܝݎ ݎ

Sogdian  

x Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

ݏ

U+074F SYRIAC LETTER SOGDIAN FE

Consonant

Cursive shapes: Eastern ݏܝݏܝݏ ݏ  Estrangela ݏܝݏܝݏ ݏ   Western ݏܝݏܝݏ ݏ

Sogdian  

f Used in Sogdian text of the 8th-14th centuries CE

Refs: [1] [Sims-Williams] p4

Vowels

Dotted vowels

ܲ

U+0732 SYRIAC PTHAHA DOTTED

Vowel diacritic    a

East (and West) Syriac    ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‎ pṯāḥā

a This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  ă

a, eg. ܚܲܕ ḥăd xa one.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܵ

U+0735 SYRIAC ZQAPHA DOTTED

Vowel diacritic    ā

East (& West) Syriac   ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā

ɑ This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

a, eg. ܐܵܗܵܐ ʾahaʾ ʔaha this.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܸ

U+0738 SYRIAC DOTTED ZLAMA HORIZONTAL

Vowel diacritic    e

East (& West) Syriac   ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܪܝܼܟ݂ܵܐ‎ / ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܦܫܝܼܩܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā ʾărīḵā / zlāmā pšīqā

ɛ This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

ɪ often in East Syriac dialect.

e when followed by ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH].

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  ĭ

i, eg. ܠܸܫܵܢܵܐ lĭšanaʾ liʃana language.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܹ

U+0739 SYRIAC DOTTED ZLAMA ANGULAR

Vowel diacritic    ē

East (& West) Syriac   ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ ܟܲܪܝܵܐ‎ / ܙܠܵܡܵܐ ܩܲܫܝܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā karyā / zlāmā qašyā

e This is the standard way to represent this sound in East Syriac, and is often used in West Syriac too.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  e

ɪ, i, eg. ܡܵܪܹܐ mareʾ marɪ possessor of.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܼ

U+073C SYRIAC HBASA-ESASA DOTTED

Vowel diacritic    i  (combined with yudh and waw = î, û)

East (& West) Syriac    ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܐܲܠܝܼܨܵܐ‎ ʿṣāṣā ʾălīṣā or ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ rḇāṣā

u, when used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW]

i, when used with ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

u Always used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW], eg. ܩܘܼܝܵܡܵܐܼ qûyamaʾ qujama subsistence.

i Always used with ܝ [U+071D SYRIAC LETTER YUDH], eg. ܗܵܘܝܼ hawî hawi be.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

ܿ

U+073F SYRIAC RWAHA

Vowel diacritic    o  (combined with waw = ô)

East (& West) Syriac   ܥܨܵܨܵܐ ܪܘܝܼܚܵܐ‎ / ܪܘܵܚܵܐ‎ ʿṣāṣā rwīḥā / rwāḥā

o, when used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW]

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic  ô

u Always used with ܘ [U+0718 SYRIAC LETTER WAW], eg. ܢܵܛܘܿܪܹ̈ܐ naṭô"reʾ naturɪ keepers.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p501 

Greek letter vowels

ܰ

U+0730 SYRIAC PTHAHA ABOVE

Vowel diacritic    ȧ

Derived from an uppercase alpha. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܱ [U+0731 SYRIAC PTHAHA BELOW​].

West Syriac    ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‎ pṯāḥā    a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܱ

U+0731 SYRIAC PTHAHA BELOW

Vowel diacritic   

Derived from an uppercase alpha. The vowel can be indicated either above or above the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܰ [U+0730 SYRIAC PTHAHA ABOVE​].

West Syriac   ܦܬ݂ܳܚܳܐ‎ pṯāḥā    a

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܳ

U+0733 SYRIAC ZQAPHA ABOVE

Vowel diacritic    å

Derived from a lowercase alpha. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܴ [U+0734 SYRIAC ZQAPHA BELOW​].

West Syriac   ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā   ɑ

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܴ

U+0734 SYRIAC ZQAPHA BELOW

Vowel diacritic   

Derived from a lowercase alpha. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܳ [U+0733 SYRIAC ZQAPHA ABOVE​].

West Syriac   ܙܩܵܦ݂ܵܐ‎ zqāp̄ā   ɑ

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] Daniels p505 

ܶ

U+0736 SYRIAC RBASA ABOVE

Vowel diacritic    ė

Derived from a lowercase epsilon. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܷ [U+0737 SYRIAC RBASA BELOW​].

West Syriac   ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ rḇāṣā   ɛ, e

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܷ

U+0737 SYRIAC RBASA BELOW

Vowel diacritic   

Derived from a lowercase epsilon. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܶ [U+0736 SYRIAC RBASA ABOVE​].

West Syriac   ܪܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ rḇāṣā   ɛ, e

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܺ

U+073A SYRIAC HBASA ABOVE

Vowel diacritic    ï

Derived from a uppercase eta. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܻ [U+073B SYRIAC HBASA BELOW​].

West Syriac   ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ ḥḇāṣā    i

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܻ

U+073B SYRIAC HBASA BELOW

Vowel diacritic   

Derived from a uppercase eta. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܺ [U+073A SYRIAC HBASA ABOVE​].

West Syriac   ܚܒ݂ܵܨܵܐ‎ ḥḇāṣā    i

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܽ

U+073D SYRIAC ESASA ABOVE

Vowel diacritic    ů

Derived from a combined capital upsilon and lowercase omicron. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear below the consonant use  ܾ [U+073E SYRIAC ESASA BELOW​].

West Syriac   ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‎ ṣāṣā    u

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

ܾ

U+073E SYRIAC ESASA BELOW

Vowel diacritic   

Derived from a combined capital upsilon and lowercase omicron. The vowel can be indicated either above or below the consonant. To make it appear above the consonant use  ܽ [U+073D SYRIAC ESASA ABOVE​].

West Syriac   ܥܨܳܨܳܐ‎ ṣāṣā    u

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

Diacritics

݁

U+0741 SYRIAC QUSHSHAYA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates a plosive pronunciation

Hard-sound marker

Syriac       ܩܘܫܝܐ qūššāyā

The following letters can represent either a 'hard' or 'soft' consonant: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ. The hard version is a plosive, and the soft version a fricative.

This diacritic is used to indicate that the letter represents the 'hard' form (qūššāyā ), although in modern text the absence of a dot is the usual way to indicate a hard value.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

݂

U+0742 SYRIAC RUKKAKHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates an aspirated (spirantized) pronunciation

Soft-sound marker

Syriac    ܪܘܟܟܐ rūkkāḵā

The following letters can represent either a 'hard' or 'soft' consonant: ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ. The hard version is a plosive, and the soft version a fricative.

This diacritic is used to indicate that the letter represents the 'soft' form ( rūkkāḵā ).

When this diacritic appears below ܕ [U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH] and that character has a dot below it, this diacritic moves slightly to the right, eg. ܝܘܕ݂ yōḏ.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

݇

U+0747 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indication of a silent letter

Silent letter marker

Syriac   

Indicates a silent letter, eg. ܗ݇ܘ̣ܵܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݈

U+0748 SYRIAC OBLIQUE LINE BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indication of a silent letter
• also used to indicate numbers multiplied by a certain constant

Silent letter marker

Syriac   

Indicates a silent letter, eg. ܐ݈.

Can also be used to indicate numbers multiplied by a certain constant.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݀

U+0740 SYRIAC FEMININE DOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• feminine marker used with the Taw feminine suffix

Feminine marker    ʺ

Syriac   

A feminine marker used with ܬ [U+072C SYRIAC LETTER TAW] when used as a feminine suffix. East Syriac fonts should render as two dots below the base letter, whereas West Syriac fonts render as a single dot to the left of the base, eg. ܕܰܫܘܳܬ݀.

Eastern ܬ݀   Estrangela ܬ݀    Western ܬ݀ 

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet  [3] [Nelson] p45  

݃

U+0743 SYRIAC TWO VERTICAL DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• accent mark used in ancient manuscripts

Accent mark

Syriac   

Accent mark used in ancient manuscripts, eg. ܡܪ݃ܝܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݄

U+0744 SYRIAC TWO VERTICAL DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• accent mark used in ancient manuscripts

Accent mark

Syriac   

Accent mark used in ancient manuscripts, eg. ܡܪ݄ܝ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݅

U+0745 SYRIAC THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• diacritic used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac

Diacritic

Turoyo   

Used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac, eg. ܐ݅ ܦܪܥܓܬܐ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݆

U+0746 SYRIAC THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• diacritic used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac

Diacritic

Turoyo   

Used in Turoyo for letters not found in Syriac, eg. ܔ݆ܰܥܓܰܗ̈.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݉

U+0749 SYRIAC MUSIC

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a music mark
• also used in the Syrian Orthodox Anaphora book to mark the breaking of the Eucharist bread

Music mark

Syriac   

A music mark, eg. ܘܰܩـ݉ـܨܳܐ. Also used in the Syrian Orthodox Anaphora book to mark the breaking of the Eucharist bread.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

݊

U+074A SYRIAC BARREKH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a diacritic cross used in liturgical texts

Diacritic cross

Syriac   

A diacritic cross used in liturgical texts of all the Syriac churches, East and West, eg. ܘܩܰـ݊ـܕܶܫ.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p45  

ܑ

U+0711 SYRIAC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALAPH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in East Syriac texts to indicate an etymological Alaph

Superscript alaph

East Syriac   

Used in East Syriac texts to indicate an etymological alaph, eg. ܩܲܖ݄ܡܵܝܑܼܬ̣. Maps to nothing in West Syriac.

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p44  

Punctuation

܀

U+0700 SYRIAC END OF PARAGRAPH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the end of a paragraph

End of paragraph

܁

U+0701 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR FULL STOP

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks interrogations, imperatives, and pauses, especially in Biblical texts

Phrase delimiter

Syriac   

Marks interrogations, imperatives, and pauses, especially in Biblical texts.1

܂

U+0702 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR FULL STOP

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks subordinate clauses and minor pauses, especially in Biblical texts

Phrase delimiter

Syriac   

Marks subordinate clauses and minor pauses, especially in Biblical texts.1

܃

U+0703 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks expressions of wonder and has a distinct pausal value in Biblical texts

Colon

Syriac   

Marks expressions of wonder and has a distinct pausal value in Biblical texts.1

܄

U+0704 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used at the end of verses of supplications

Colon

Syriac   

Used at the end of verses of supplications.1

܅

U+0705 SYRIAC HORIZONTAL COLON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• joins two words closely together in a context to which a rising tone is suitable

Colon

Syriac   

Joins two words closely together in a context to which a rising tone is suitable.1

܆

U+0706 SYRIAC COLON SKEWED LEFT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks a dependent clause

Colon

Syriac   

Marks a dependent clause.1

܇

U+0707 SYRIAC COLON SKEWED RIGHT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the end of a subdivision of the apodosis, or latter part of a Biblical verse

Colon

Syriac   

Marks the end of a subdivision of the apodosis, or latter part of a Biblical verse.1

܈

U+0708 SYRIAC SUPRALINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks a minor phrase division

Phrase division

Syriac   

Marks a minor phrase division.1

܉

U+0709 SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED RIGHT

Description in the Unicode standard:

% SYRIAC SUBLINEAR COLON SKEWED LEFT
• marks the end of a real or rhetorical question
• character name is a misnomer

Question mark

Syriac   

Marks the end of a real or rhetorical question. Should be called sublinear colon skewed left.1

܊

U+070A SYRIAC CONTRACTION

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a contraction mark, mostly used in East Syriac
• placed at the end of an incomplete word

Contraction mark

Syriac   

Placed at the end of an incomplete word to mark a contraction. Mostly used in East Syriac, eg. ܩܫ܊.1

Refs: [1] [Nelson] p44

܏

U+070F SYRIAC ABBREVIATION MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= SAM
• marks the beginning of a Syriac abbreviation

Abbreviation mark

Syriac   

Indicates that a sequence of characters is an abbreviation, eg. ܬ܏ܫܒܘ is an abbreviation of ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ. The line would ideally have a small circle at the start, middle and end. It normally starts to the left of the nearest tall letter to the end of the abbreviation.

Modern East Syriac texts use a punctuation mark for contractions of this sort.

It is also used to indicate letter-based numbers, eg. ܒ܏ܝܗ. Note how, in this example, the prefix ܒ, is not covered by the SAM, only the number itself.

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400  [2] WP Syriac alphabet 

܋

U+070B SYRIAC HARKLEAN OBELUS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note
→ (division sign - 00F7)

Note marker

Syriac   

Marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The section is ended using ܌ [U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS].1 For example: ܋ܙܒܢܝ̈ܢ܌

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400 

܌

U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the end of a section with a marginal note

Note marker

Syriac   

Marks the end of a section with a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The beginning of the section is indicated using ܋ [U+070B SYRIAC HARKLEAN OBELUS] or ܍ [U+070D SYRIAC HARKLEAN ASTERISCUS].1 For example: ܋ܙܒܢܝ̈ܢ܌

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400 

܍

U+070D SYRIAC HARKLEAN ASTERISCUS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note

Note marker

Syriac   

Marks the beginning of a phrase, word, or morpheme that has a marginal note in the Herklean translation of the New Testament. The section is ended using ܌ [U+070C SYRIAC HARKLEAN METOBELUS].1 For example: ܍ܥܙܢܐ܌

Refs: [1] Unicode9 pp392-400 

References

  1. [W] Syriac script
  2. [U] The Unicode Standard v9
  3. [N] Paul Nelson, George Anton Kiraz, Sargon Hass, Proposal to Encode Syriac in ISO/IEC 10646, 1998
  4. [S] Nicholas Sims-Williams, Michael Everson, Proposal to add six Syriac letters for Sogdian and Persian to the UCS
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