Sundanese character notes

Updated 1 September, 2017 • tags scriptnotes, sundanese

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For information about the general features of the Sundanese script see the Sundanese script summary.

To view this page as intended, you need a Sundanese font. This page comes with a Noto Sans Sundanese webfont and a Sundanese Unicode 2013 webfont. The former has better coverage of the repertoire (including the supplement block), but the latter has better rendering behaviour. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

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You can also find characters for which there are annotations using UniView (switch on Show notes).

The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.

Consonants

Basic consonants

U+1B8B SUNDANESE LETTER QA

Sundanese consonant    q

qa Used for writing foreign words.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B8D SUNDANESE LETTER NGA

Sundanese consonant    ng

ŋa

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B8E SUNDANESE LETTER CA

Sundanese consonant    c

ʧa

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B8F SUNDANESE LETTER JA

Sundanese consonant    j

ʤa

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B90 SUNDANESE LETTER ZA

Sundanese consonant    z

za Used for writing foreign words.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B91 SUNDANESE LETTER NYA

Sundanese consonant    ny

ɲa

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B96 SUNDANESE LETTER FA

Sundanese consonant    f

fa Used for writing foreign words.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B97 SUNDANESE LETTER VA

Sundanese consonant    v

va Used for writing foreign words.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B9F SUNDANESE LETTER XA

Sundanese consonant    x

? Used for writing foreign words.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BAE SUNDANESE LETTER KHA

Sundanese consonant    kh

ha Used for writing Arabic خ, eg. ᮮᮥᮯᮥ خاشع xušu state of grace. Not widely used.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BAF SUNDANESE LETTER SYA

Sundanese consonant    sy

sa Used for writing Arabic ش, eg. ᮮᮥᮯᮥ خاشع xušu state of grace. Not widely used.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

medial consonants

U+1BA1 SUNDANESE CONSONANT SIGN PAMINGKAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= subjoined ya

Sundanese medial consonant pamingkal   -y-

j Used after a syllable-initial consonant.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BA2 SUNDANESE CONSONANT SIGN PANYAKRA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= subjoined ra

Sundanese medial consonant panyakra   -r-

ra Used after a syllable-initial consonant, eg. ᮃᮌᮢᮤᮊᮥᮜ᮪ᮒᮥᮁ agrikultur agriculture.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BA3 SUNDANESE CONSONANT SIGN PANYIKU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= subjoined la

Sundanese medial consonant panyiku   -l-

la Used after a syllable-initial consonant, eg. ᮄᮊᮣᮤᮙ᮪ iklim climate.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

Syllable-final consonants

U+1B80 SUNDANESE SIGN PANYECEK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= anusvara

Sundanese syllable-final consonant panayecek    -ng

ŋ as a syllable-final sound, eg. ᮙᮀᮌᮥ manggu mangosteen.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B81 SUNDANESE SIGN PANGLAYAR

Description in the Unicode standard:

= repha

Sundanese syllable-final consonant panglayar    -r

r as a syllable-final sound, eg. ᮕᮞᮤᮁ pasir hill.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B82 SUNDANESE SIGN PANGWISAD

Description in the Unicode standard:

= visarga

Sundanese syllable-final consonant pangwisad    -h

h as a syllable-final sound, eg. ᮃᮘᮂ-ᮃᮘᮂ abah-abah goods.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

Historical consonants

U+1BAC SUNDANESE CONSONANT SIGN PASANGAN MA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= subjoined ma

Sundanese medial consonant sign    ?

Not used in modern Sundanese.

When reproducing the old orthography this can be used to represent a medial m (like  ၟ [U+105F MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MON MEDIAL MA​]). It contrasts with a subjoined m produced with the virama.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1BAD SUNDANESE CONSONANT SIGN PASANGAN WA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= subjoined wa

Sundanese medial consonant sign    ?

Not used in modern Sundanese.

When reproducing the old orthography this can be used to represent a medial w that contrasts with a subjoined w produced with the virama.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1BBB SUNDANESE LETTER REU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• vocalic r

Sundanese consonant   

Not used with modern Sundanese, where this syllable is written ᮛᮩ.

In reproductions of the old orthography this can be used for reu.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1BBC SUNDANESE LETTER LEU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• vocalic l

Sundanese consonant   

Not used with modern Sundanese, where this syllable is written ᮜᮩ.

In reproductions of the old orthography this can be used for leu.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1BBD SUNDANESE LETTER BHA

Sundanese consonant  

A symbol found on the Prasasta Kawali (the oldest inscribed stone containing Sundanese text).

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1BBE SUNDANESE LETTER FINAL K

Sundanese final consonant   

Not used with modern Sundanese, where this final k sound is written ᮊ᮪.

Can be used for reproductions of the old orthography as it was written on palm leaf manuscripts.

Refs: [1] Everson2

ᮿ

U+1BBF SUNDANESE LETTER FINAL M

Sundanese final consonant   

Not used with modern Sundanese, where this final m sound is written ᮙ᮪.

Can be used for reproductions of the old orthography as it was written on palm leaf manuscripts.

Refs: [1] Everson2

Viramas

U+1BAA SUNDANESE SIGN PAMAAEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

= virama
• does not form conjuncts

Sundanese virama patén or pamaéh  

Visible indicator of a killed vowel, eg. ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ aksara.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BAB SUNDANESE SIGN VIRAMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• forms conjuncts in older orthography

Sundanese virama

Not used in modern Sundanese.

When reproducing the older orthography this can be used to create conjuncts like any other virama. The following shows known conjuncts.

List of conjuncts.

Refs: [1] Everson2

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+1B83 SUNDANESE LETTER A

There is no corresponding vowel-sign, since this is the inherent vowel.

Sundanese independent vowel    a

a

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B84 SUNDANESE LETTER I

The corresponding vowel-sign is  ᮤ [U+1BA4 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANGHULU​].

Sundanese independent vowel    i

i, eg. ᮄᮊᮣᮤᮙ᮪ iklim climate.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B85 SUNDANESE LETTER U

The corresponding vowel-sign is  ᮥ [U+1BA5 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANYUKU​].

Sundanese independent vowel    u

u

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B86 SUNDANESE LETTER AE

The corresponding vowel-sign is  ᮦ [U+1BA6 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANAELAENG​].

Sundanese independent vowel    é

e, eg. ᮆᮜ᮪ᮙᮥ élmu science.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B87 SUNDANESE LETTER O

The corresponding vowel-sign is  ᮧ [U+1BA7 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANOLONG​].

Sundanese independent vowel    o

o

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B88 SUNDANESE LETTER E

The corresponding vowel-sign is  ᮨ [U+1BA8 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PAMEPET​].

Sundanese independent vowel    e

ə

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1B89 SUNDANESE LETTER EU

The corresponding vowel-sign is  ᮩ [U+1BA9 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANEULEUNG​].

Sundanese independent vowel    eu

ɤ

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

Vowel signs

U+1BA4 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANGHULU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= i

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+1B84 SUNDANESE LETTER I].

Sundanese vowel-sign panghulu   i

i, eg. ᮄᮊᮣᮤᮙ᮪ iklim climate.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BA5 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANYUKU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= u

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+1B85 SUNDANESE LETTER U].

Sundanese vowel-sign panyuku   u

u, eg. ᮆᮜ᮪ᮙᮥ élmu science.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BA6 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANAELAENG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ae

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+1B86 SUNDANESE LETTER AE].

Sundanese vowel-sign panéléng   é

e This vowel-sign is displayed to the left of the base character, eg. ᮛᮦᮌᮀ régang stick.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BA7 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANOLONG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= o

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+1B87 SUNDANESE LETTER O].

Sundanese vowel-sign panolong   o

o, eg. ᮌᮨᮜᮧᮙ᮪ᮘᮀ ᮙᮤᮊᮢᮧ gelombang mikro microwave.

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BA8 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PAMEPET

Description in the Unicode standard:

= e

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+1B88 SUNDANESE LETTER E].

Sundanese vowel-sign pamepet   e

ə

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BA9 SUNDANESE VOWEL SIGN PANEULEUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= eu

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+1B89 SUNDANESE LETTER EU].

Sundanese vowel-sign    eu

ɤ explanation_of_usage

Refs: [1] Everson2 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

Sign

U+1BBA SUNDANESE AVAGRAHA

Sundanese sign    avagraha

Not used in modern Sundanese.

In older Sundanese orthography it kills the vowel of a preceding consonant but introduces a hiatus before an initial a-, eg. ᮃᮜᮥᮔᮺᮌᮥᮀ alun-agung tidal wave. This could also be written as two words, ie. ᮃᮜᮥᮔ᮪ ᮃᮌᮥᮀ.

Refs: [1] Everson2

punctuation

U+1CC0 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU SURYA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• sun

Sundanese punctuation  

Used in Old Sundanese. Can represent a full stop.

Also used as part of ᳆᳀᳆ to denote a religious text.

It represents the sun.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1CC1 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU PANGLONG

Description in the Unicode standard:

• half moon

Sundanese punctuation   

Used in Old Sundanese. As part of the sequence ᳆᳁, this helps indicate that the source is a religious text.

It represents a half moon.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1CC2 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU PURNAMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• full moon

Sundanese punctuation   

Used in Old Sundanese. Used to represent a comma when [U+1CC0 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU SURYA] is used as a full stop.

As part of the sequence ᳅᳂᳅ this indicates that the source is a historical text.

It represents a full moon.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1CC3 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU CAKRA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• wheel

Sundanese punctuation    xxx

Otherwise [U+1CC3 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU CAKRA] may be used as a comma in older texts.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1CC4 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU LEU SATANGA

Sundanese  

The meaning of this sign is not clear. It appears in Old Sundanese manuscripts.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1CC5 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU KA SATANGA

Sundanese  

As part of the sequence ᳅᳂᳅ this indicates that the source is a historical text.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1CC6 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU DA SATANGA

Sundanese  

When used as part of ᳆᳀᳆ in religious texts.

Refs: [1] Everson2

U+1CC7 SUNDANESE PUNCTUATION BINDU BA SATANGA

Sundanese  

When used as part of ᳇᳇ in religious texts.

Refs: [1] Everson2

Digits

U+1BB0 SUNDANESE DIGIT ZERO

Sundanese digit    0

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB1 SUNDANESE DIGIT ONE

Sundanese digit    1

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB2 SUNDANESE DIGIT TWO

Sundanese digit    2

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB3 SUNDANESE DIGIT THREE

Sundanese digit    3

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB4 SUNDANESE DIGIT FOUR

Sundanese digit    4

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB5 SUNDANESE DIGIT FIVE

Sundanese digit    5

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB6 SUNDANESE DIGIT SIX

Sundanese digit    6

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB7 SUNDANESE DIGIT SEVEN

Sundanese digit    7

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB8 SUNDANESE DIGIT EIGHT

Sundanese digit    8

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

U+1BB9 SUNDANESE DIGIT NINE

Sundanese digit    9

Refs: [1] Unicode10 pp677-678 [2] Wikipedia: Sundanese alphabet

References

  1. [Wikipedia] Sundanese script
  2. [Unicode] The Unicode Standard v10.0
  3. [Everson] Michael Everson, Proposal for encoding the Sundanese script in the UCS
  4. [Everson2] Michael Everson, Proposal for encoding additional Sundanese characters for Old Sundanese in the UCS
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