Sinhala character notes

Updated 20 January, 2019 • tags scriptnotes, sinhala

This page lists characters in the following Unicode blocks and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For a summary of the script and its use in writing systems, see the page Sinhala script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

We only have usage data for the Sinhalese language.

Find

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

Read more about how to use this page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the character or the hex number in the Find control above.

To view this page as intended, you need a Sinhala font. This page comes with a Noto Serif Sinhala webfont. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font. The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. (If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.)

Information about languages that use these characters is taken from the list maintained for the Character Use app. The list is not exhaustive.

References are indicated by superscript characters. Wherever possible, those contain direct links to the source material. When such a pointer is alongside an arrow → it means that it's worth following the link for the additional information it provides. Digits refer to the main sources, which are listed at the bottom of a set of notes.

When you are using UniView and you turn on Show notes, UniView will pull in information about characters from this page.

Consonants

Śuddha consonants

U+0D9F SINHALA LETTER SANYAKA GAYANNA

Śuddha prenasalised consonant    ňg

Sinhala    ᵑɡ

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Miśra consonants

U+0D9B SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA KAYANNA

Sinhala    k

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D9D SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA GAYANNA

Sinhala    g

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DA5 SINHALA LETTER TAALUJA SANYOOGA NAAKSIKYAYA

Sinhala    ɡna

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

ɲ at the beginning of a word, and pronounced the same as [U+0DA4 SINHALA LETTER TAALUJA NAASIKYAYA], eg. compare ඤාණ ɲān (ɲāna) Jnana and ඥාන ǰᵑāṅ (ᵑǰāṅa) knowledge.

gn elsewhere two consonants, eg. පඥා pᵑǰā (paᵑǰā) pagɲa.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D9E SINHALA LETTER KANTAJA NAASIKYAYA

Sinhala    ŋ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

This consonant never appears with a vowel, but does appear with a virama, ie. ඞ්.s

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DA1 SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA CAYANNA

Sinhala    ʧ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DA3 SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA JAYANNA

Sinhala    ʤ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DA4 SINHALA LETTER TAALUJA NAASIKYAYA

Sinhala    ɲ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DA6 SINHALA LETTER SANYAKA JAYANNA

Sinhala    nd͡ʒa

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DA8 SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA TTAYANNA

Sinhala    ʈ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DAA SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA DDAYANNA

Sinhala    ɖ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DAE SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA TAYANNA

Sinhala    t

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DB0 SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA DAYANNA

Sinhala    d

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DB1 SINHALA LETTER DANTAJA NAYANNA

Sinhala    n

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DB5 SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA PAYANNA

Sinhala    p

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DB7 SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA BAYANNA

Sinhala    b

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DC1 SINHALA LETTER TAALUJA SAYANNA

Sinhala    ʃ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DC2 SINHALA LETTER MUURDHAJA SAYANNA

Sinhala    ʃ

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DC6 SINHALA LETTER FAYANNA

Sinhala    f

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). A new consonant for foreign sounds.

Sometimes this consonant is written using a grapheme that represents the Latin f combined with [U+0DB4 SINHALA LETTER ALPAPRAANA PAYANNA].

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Vowels

Śuddha independent vowels

U+0D85 SINHALA LETTER AYANNA

Sinhala    a, ə

There is no corresponding vowel sign.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Miśra independent vowels

U+0D8D SINHALA LETTER IRUYANNA

Sinhala    ru, ri

Vocalic r. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

This can be also be written with śuddha letters රු ru, which corresponds to the actual pronunciation.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D8E SINHALA LETTER IRUUYANNA

Sinhala    riː,ruː

Long vocalic r. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). Not in contemporary use, however the corresponding vowel sign, ◌ෲ [U+0DF2 SINHALA VOWEL SIGN DIGA GAETTA-PILLA​], is used, eg. කරතෲ krtr̥̄ (karatr̥̄).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D93 SINHALA LETTER AIYANNA

Sinhala    ɑj

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D96 SINHALA LETTER AUYANNA

Sinhala    ɑw

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D8F SINHALA LETTER ILUYANNA

Sinhala    li

Vocalic l. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). Not in contemporary use.

This can be also be written with śuddha letters ලි li , which corresponds to the actual pronunciation.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D90 SINHALA LETTER ILUUYANNA

Sinhala    liː

Long vocalic l. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Śuddha vowel signs

U+0DCF SINHALA VOWEL SIGN AELA-PILLA

Sinhala    ඇලපිල්ල ælapilla    aː, a

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DD3 SINHALA VOWEL SIGN DIGA IS-PILLA

Sinhala    දිග ඉස්පිල්ල diga ispilla   

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DD4 SINHALA VOWEL SIGN KETTI PAA-PILLA

Sinhala    පාපිල්ල pāpilla    u

As for Tamil, this vowel sign assumes various different shapes and connection points, depending on what consonant it follows. These examples show the main variations.

පු pu
කු ku
රු ru
ළු ɭu

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DD6 SINHALA VOWEL SIGN DIGA PAA-PILLA

Sinhala    දිග පාපිල්ල diga pāpilla   

As for Tamil, this vowel sign assumes various different shapes and connection points, depending on what consonant they follow. Below are some examples.

පූ
කූ
රූ

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DDA SINHALA VOWEL SIGN DIGA KOMBUVA

Sinhala    කොම්බුව සහ හල්කිරීම kombuva saha halkirīma   

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DDC SINHALA VOWEL SIGN KOMBUVA HAA AELA-PILLA

Sinhala    කොම්බුව සහ ඇලපිල්ල kombuva saha ælapilla    o

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DDD SINHALA VOWEL SIGN KOMBUVA HAA DIGA AELA-PILLA

Sinhala    කොම්බුව සහ හල්ඇලපිල්ල kombuva saha halælapilla   

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Miśra vowel signs

U+0DD8 SINHALA VOWEL SIGN GAETTA-PILLA

Sinhala    ගැටය සහිත ඇලපිල්ල gæṭa sahita ælapilla    ri,ru

Vocalic r. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

This can be also be written with śuddha letters රු ru, which corresponds to the actual pronunciation.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DF2 SINHALA VOWEL SIGN DIGA GAETTA-PILLA

Sinhala    ගැටය සහිත ඇලපිලි දෙක gæṭa sahita ælapili deka    riː,ruː

Long vocalic r, eg. කරතෲ karatr̥̄. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DDB SINHALA VOWEL SIGN KOMBU DEKA

Sinhala    කොම්බු දෙක kombu deka    ɑj

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DDE SINHALA VOWEL SIGN KOMBUVA HAA GAYANUKITTA

Sinhala    කොම්බුව සහ ගයනුකිත්ත kombuva saha gayanukitta    ɑw

Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DDF SINHALA VOWEL SIGN GAYANUKITTA

Sinhala    ගයනුකිත්ත gayanukitta    li

Vocalic l. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). Not in contemporary use.

This can be also be written with śuddha letters ලි li , which corresponds to the actual pronunciation.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DF3 SINHALA VOWEL SIGN DIGA GAYANUKITTA

Sinhala       liː

Long vocalic l. Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc). Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Virama & other combining characters

U+0DCA SINHALA SIGN AL-LAKUNA

Sinhala    හල් කිරිම hal kirīma   

Indicates that the consonant is not followed by a vowel sound.

In most cases this is visible in Sinhalese text, appearing over the relevant consonant. It may have one of two different shapes, however, depending on the consonant it is associated with: with k you get ක්; with you get ඛ්.

It is also used to indicate that the font should use a conjunct shape and hide the virama. In this case it is used with ZWJ [U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER]. In modern text, the ZWJ follows the virama, and the result is a ligated shape or a reduced shape for one of the conjunct letters. The forms with r or y look like this when combined with k: ර්‍ක r͓₊k, ක්‍ර k͓₊r, and ක්‍ය k͓₊y. There is also a form using both: ක්‍ය්‍ර k͓₊y͓₊r (kyra). Wikipedia3 lists several more conjuncts, some of which are reproduced here:

ක්‍ව k͓₊v
ක්‍ෂ k͓₊ʃ̇
ත්‍ථ t͓₊tʰ
ත්‍ව t͓₊v
න්‍ද ṅ͓₊d
න්‍ධ ṅ͓₊dʰ
ඳ්‍ඨ ⁿd͓₊ʈʰ
ඳ්‍ධ ⁿd͓₊dʰ
ඳ්‍ව ⁿd͓₊v

If ZWJ is used before the virama the font should produce an older form of conjunct where the character glyphs are drawn together so that they touch (and the virama is hidden), eg. ම‍්ම mm (cf. මම).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D82 SINHALA SIGN ANUSVARAYA

Sinhala    binduva

ŋ, eg. සිංහල siŋ̽hl siŋhala Sinhala.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0D83 SINHALA SIGN VISARGAYA

Sinhala

? Part of the extended (miśra) repertoire (for Sanskrit, Pali, etc).

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Punctuation

U+0DF4 SINHALA PUNCTUATION KUNDDALIYA

Sinhala  

Equivalent to full stop. No longer in use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Numbers

Astrological digits

U+0DE6 SINHALA LITH DIGIT ZERO

Astrological digit    0

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DE7 SINHALA LITH DIGIT ONE

Astrological digit    1

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DE8 SINHALA LITH DIGIT TWO

Astrological digit    2

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DE9 SINHALA LITH DIGIT THREE

Astrological digit    3

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DEA SINHALA LITH DIGIT FOUR

Astrological digit    4

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DEB SINHALA LITH DIGIT FIVE

Astrological digit    5

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DEC SINHALA LITH DIGIT SIX

Astrological digit    6

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DED SINHALA LITH DIGIT SEVEN

Astrological digit    7

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DEE SINHALA LITH DIGIT EIGHT

Astrological digit    8

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

U+0DEF SINHALA LITH DIGIT NINE

Astrological digit    9

Sinhala Not in contemporary use.

General sources: Daniels pp408-412, Unicode pp513-514, Sinhalese alphabet

Archaic digits

𑇡

U+111E1 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT ONE

Sinhala archaic digit    1

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇢

U+111E2 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT TWO

Sinhala archaic digit    2

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇣

U+111E3 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT THREE

Sinhala archaic digit    3

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇤

U+111E4 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT FOUR

Sinhala archaic digit    4

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇥

U+111E5 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT FIVE

Sinhala archaic digit    5

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇦

U+111E6 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT SIX

Sinhala archaic digit    6

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇧

U+111E7 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT SEVEN

Sinhala archaic digit    7

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇨

U+111E8 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT EIGHT

Sinhala archaic digit    8

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇩

U+111E9 SINHALA ARCHAIC DIGIT NINE

Sinhala archaic digit    9

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇪

U+111EA SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER TEN

Sinhala archaic digit    10

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇫

U+111EB SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER TWENTY

Sinhala archaic digit    20

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇬

U+111EC SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER THIRTY

Sinhala archaic digit    30

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇭

U+111ED SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER FORTY

Sinhala archaic digit    40

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇮

U+111EE SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER FIFTY

Sinhala archaic digit    50

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇯

U+111EF SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER SIXTY

Sinhala archaic digit    60

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇰

U+111F0 SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER SEVENTY

Sinhala archaic digit    70

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇱

U+111F1 SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER EIGHTY

Sinhala archaic digit    80

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇲

U+111F2 SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER NINETY

Sinhala archaic digit    90

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇳

U+111F3 SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER ONE HUNDRED

Sinhala archaic digit    100

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

𑇴

U+111F4 SINHALA ARCHAIC NUMBER ONE THOUSAND

Sinhala archaic digit    1,000

Used in a historic number system, called Sinhala Illakkam, prior to 1815.

Refs: [1] Daniels pp408-412 [2] Unicode pp513-514 [3] Sinhalese alphabet

References

  1. [ u ] The Unicode Standard v10.0, Sinhala, pp513-514.
  2. [ d ] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0, pp408-412
  3. [ w ] Sinhalese alphabet.
  4. [ s ] Sri Lanka Standard, Sinhala Character Code for Information Exchange.
Last commit 2019-01-20 17:51 GMT.  •  Make a comment  •  Licence CC-By © r12a.