Rohingya

Hanifi Rohingya orthography notes

Updated 22 April, 2024

This page brings together basic information about the Hanifi Rohingya script and its use for the Rohingya language. It aims to provide a brief, descriptive summary of the modern, printed orthography and typographic features, and to advise how to write Rohingya using Unicode.

Referencing this document

Richard Ishida, Rohingya (Hanifi Rohingya) Orthography Notes, 22-Apr-2024, https://r12a.github.io/scripts/rohg/rhg

Sample

Select part of this sample text to show a list of characters, with links to more details.
Change size:   28px

𐴀𐴞𐴕𐴐𐴦𐴝𐴕 𐴁𐴠𐴒𐴧𐴟𐴕 𐴀𐴝𐴎𐴝𐴊𐴢 𐴀𐴝𐴌 𐴀𐴠𐴑𐴧𐴟 𐴉𐴥𐴟𐴖𐴝𐴙𐴕𐴝 𐴇𐴥𐴡𐴑 𐴀𐴝𐴌 𐴀𐴞𐴎𐴧𐴡𐴃𐴢 𐴓𐴡𐴌 𐴉𐴡𐴘𐴊𐴝 𐴀𐴥𐴡𐴘𐴧𐴠 ۔ 𐴀𐴥𐴞𐴃𐴝𐴘𐴝𐴃𐴧𐴟 𐴀𐴝𐴈𐴡𐴓 𐴀𐴝𐴌 𐴁𐴟𐴎 𐴀𐴥𐴡𐴘𐴧𐴠 ، 𐴀𐴥𐴠𐴃𐴡𐴓𐴧𐴝 𐴀𐴥𐴞𐴃𐴝𐴌𐴝𐴃𐴧𐴟 𐴀𐴠𐴑 𐴀𐴡𐴕 𐴀𐴝𐴌 𐴀𐴠𐴑 𐴎𐴡𐴕 𐴓𐴡𐴘 𐴁𐴤𐴝𐴘𐴧𐴡 𐴋𐴧𐴡𐴙𐴓𐴧𐴝 𐴔𐴦𐴝𐴔𐴠𐴓𐴝 𐴒𐴡𐴌𐴥𐴡𐴕 𐴏𐴝𐴀𐴝 ۔

Source: Unicode UDHR, article 1

Usage & history

Origins of the Hanifi Rohingya script, 1980s – today.

Phoenician

└ Aramaic

└ Nabataean

└ Arabic

└ Hanifi Rohingya

+ N'Ko

+ Thaana

+ Persian

Hanifi Rohingya is one of four scripts used for writing the Rohingya language, spoken by about 1,500,000 people, mostly in Myanmar, but also in significant Rohingya-speaking refugee communities in Bangladesh and Thailand.

The other scripts are Arabic, Latin (called Rohingyalish), and Myanmar.

Hanifi Rohingya is actively used in newspapers and books and on the Web. The inventor estimates that around 50 Rohingya community Schools in Bangladesh refugee camps are teaching Hanifi Rohingya, and another 2,000 are learning in Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. There are also a number of web sites and apps dedicated to the script.

𐴌𐴟𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴚𐴒𐴙𐴝 ɾuh²aŋgia ruˈhɪŋdʒa Rohingya

For over 200 years, the Rohingya language has been written in Arabic script, using several orthographies, one of which was developed in 1975, but didn't gain much traction. The Latin orthography. called Rohingyalish or Rohingya Fonna, was developed in 1999 in order to make it easier to write Rohingya on computers.

Around 1960, scholars began to see a need for a completely new writing system that was tailored closely to the needs of the language and that provided a focus point for Rohingya culture. In the 1980s this lead to the development of the Hanifi Rohingya script by Mohammad Hanif and his colleagues.

More information: Scriptsource and Endangered Alphabets.

Basic features

The Hanifi Rohingya script is an alphabet. Both consonants and vowels are indicated by letters. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the Rohingya language.

Hanifi Rohingya is mostly a simple and largely phonetic orthography, clearly modelled on Arabic script, and yet with significant differences. All vowels are written as spacing letters. The only combining characters are for the 3 tones and a gemination marker. The script has no case distinction.

Hanifi Rohingya runs right to left in horizontal lines. Words are separated by spaces.

The script is cursive, but mostly simple joins at the baseline.

❯ consonantSummary

Rohingya has 25 consonant letters.

Hanifi Rohingya indicates gemination, but consonant clusters are written simply as a sequence of consonants

❯ basicV

This orthography is an alphabet, and vowel sounds are written using 6 vowel letters, plus 2 semi-vowels used in diphthongs. Standalone vowel sounds, whether word-initial or -medial, are preceded by 𐴀.

All vowels can be nasalised by following them with 𐴣. Vowel length is affected by the application of the tones. Vowel absence is usually only marked at the end of a word and for certain characters only by the addition of 𐴢.

There are 3 tone marks, all combining characters.

There is a set of native digit shapes.

Punctuation is a mixture of Western and Arabic, and some texts use punctuation like the Myanmar section dividers.

Justification involves stretching the baseline between characters.

Distinctive characteristics: cursive and tonal; optional word-final vowel-absence marker; letter for nasalisation; one letter that joins only to the left.

Character index

Letters

Show

Basic consonants

𐴋␣𐴆␣𐴅␣𐴑␣𐴎␣𐴔␣𐴕␣𐴛␣𐴚␣𐴌␣𐴍␣𐴂␣𐴁␣𐴃␣𐴊␣𐴄␣𐴒␣𐴉␣𐴖␣𐴏␣𐴐␣𐴈␣𐴇␣𐴓␣𐴘

Vowels

𐴞␣𐴟␣𐴠␣𐴡␣𐴀␣𐴝␣𐴙␣𐴗

Other

𐴣␣𐴢␣ـ

Not used for modern Rohingya

𐴜

Combining marks

Show

Tones

𐴤␣𐴥␣𐴦

Other

𐴧

Numbers

Show
𐴰␣𐴱␣𐴲␣𐴳␣𐴴␣𐴵␣𐴶␣𐴷␣𐴸␣𐴹

Punctuation

Show
،␣؛␣؟␣۔␣‘␣’␣“␣”

ASCII

!␣(␣)␣.␣:

Other

Show
⁧␣‫␣⁦␣‪␣⁨␣⁩␣‬␣‏␣‎

To be investigated

%␣[␣]␣§␣ʼ␣͏␣؜␣‌␣‍␣‑␣–␣—␣†␣‡␣…␣′␣″
Items to show in lists

Phonology

The following represents the repertoire of the Rohingya language.

Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned.

Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. Source Wikipedia.

Vowel sounds

i u e o ɔ a

Vowels can be nasalised.

Diphthongs often start or end in j or w, but vowels can also appear together with no intervening consonant.

Consonant sounds

labial alveolar post-
alveolar
retroflex palatal velar glottal
stop p b t d   ʈ ɖ c ɟ k É¡ ʔ
fricative f s z ʃ   ç x h
nasal m n     ɲ ŋ
approximant w l     j  
trill/flap   ɾ   ɽ

Tone

Rohingya has 3 tones. They indicate stress and vowel length.

  1. short and high
  2. long and falling
  3. long and rising

Structure

tbd

Vowels

Vowel summary table

The following table summarises the main vowel to character assigments.

The right-hand column shows word-initial forms.

Plain
𐴞␣ ␣𐴟
𐴀𐴞␣ ␣𐴀𐴟
𐴠␣ ␣𐴡
𐴀𐴠␣ ␣𐴀𐴡
𐴀
𐴀
𐴝
𐴀𐴝
Diphthongs
𐴗␣𐴙

For additional details see vowel_mappings.

The following is the set of characters needed to write vowels, as described in this section, grouped by general category.

𐴀␣𐴇␣𐴓␣𐴗␣𐴙␣𐴝␣𐴞␣𐴟␣𐴠␣𐴡␣𐴢␣𐴣
𐴤␣𐴥␣𐴦␣𐴧

Post-consonant vowels

Vowel sounds after a consonant are written using 6 vowel letters, plus 2 semi-vowels used in diphthongs.

Basic vowels

Rohingya uses the following vowel letters.

𐴞␣𐴟␣𐴠␣𐴡␣𐴀␣𐴝

Rohingya vowel letters are all normal, spacing characters.

Long vowels are indicated by the tone mark applied.

Diphthongs

Rohingya also has dedicated letters to use as glides in diphthongs. They appear alongside the main vowel of the syllable.

𐴗␣𐴙

Diphthongs beginning or ending in the glides j or w can be written using 𐴙 and 𐴗, respectively. eg. 𐴉𐴗𐴝 𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴙𐴓𐴢

Observation: It appears that 𐴘 can also be used to create diphthongs, eg. 𐴁𐴝𐴘

Vowel length

Vowel length is primarily affected by tone.

Observation: Also, it seems possible to repeat a vowel to lengthen a sound, eg. 𐴈𐴡𐴀𐴡 xoʔo xo:

Nasalisation

Nasalised vowels are indicated by writing 𐴣 after the vowel, eg. 𐴔𐴦𐴝𐴣 𐴈𐴝𐴣𐴓𐴞

Standalone vowels

A standalone vowel at the beginning of a word is always preceded by 𐴀, which acts as a vowel carrier, eg. 𐴀𐴝𐴣𐴍𐴥𐴝𐴓𐴞 𐴀𐴦𐴟𐴘

Similarly, in a sequence of vowels inside a word, the non-initial vowels are preceded by the carrier, eg. 𐴅𐴝𐴕𐴟𐴀𐴝𐴌𐴞

When 𐴀 occurs without a following vowel letter at the beginning or in the middle of a word, it represents the vowel ɔ, eg. 𐴁𐴡𐴀𐴌 𐴉𐴝𐴃𐴝

Tones

Rohingya has 3 tones. They indicate stress and vowel length, and are indicated in writing using dedicated combining characters, as follows.

  1. short and high, 10D24
  2. long and falling, 10D25
  3. long and rising, 10D26

These usually appear above the consonant in a syllable, however in some fonts the mark drifts to the left, so that it appears between the consonant and the vowel, eg. 𐴁𐴤𐴝 ba¹ ba 𐴁𐴥𐴝 ba² ba 𐴁𐴦𐴝 ba³ ba

Observation: In order to achieve the best positioning using the Noto Sans Hanifi Rohingya and the Rohingya Noories One fonts, it is necessary to type the tone mark after the consonant (rather than after the vowel, as suggested in Pandey's script proposal).

When both 10D27 and a tone mark appear together, it is important to type in and store both in the correct order for display. The tassi is typed and stored first,u,684 eg. 𐴔𐴡𐴙𐴅𐴧𐴤𐴙𐴠𐴊𐴠 moiɟ&¹iede

These diacritics may appear side-by-side, with the tone mark to the left, when they occur together.u,684

Consonants with no following vowel

𐴢

Consonant clusters are typically written just as a sequence of consonant letters, eg. 𐴑𐴡𐴔𐴂𐴘𐴟𐴄𐴝𐴌

At the end of a word, or when just the consonant is written alone, 𐴢 is used after some consonants when there is no following vowel.

Consonants that typically take the sakin include the following:

𐴂𐴢␣𐴁𐴢␣𐴃𐴢␣𐴊𐴢␣𐴄𐴢␣𐴒𐴢␣𐴉𐴢␣𐴏𐴢␣𐴐𐴢␣𐴈𐴢␣𐴇𐴢␣𐴖𐴢␣𐴗𐴢␣𐴓𐴢␣𐴙𐴢

And those that don't:

𐴋␣𐴆␣𐴅␣𐴑␣𐴎␣𐴔␣𐴕␣𐴛␣𐴚␣𐴌␣𐴍

However, these rules are not hard and fast. For example, m may be written either way (see the example of 'turnip' below).

Examples: 𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴙𐴓𐴢 𐴐𐴥𐴝𐴓𐴒𐴡𐴔𐴢 𐴄𐴝𐴘𐴧𐴡𐴕 𐴋𐴥𐴠𐴙𐴇𐴝𐴑

Vowel sounds to characters

This section maps Rohingya vowel sounds to common graphemes in the Hanifi Rohingya orthography.

The left column shows dependent vowels, and the right column independent vowel letters.

Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.

Plain vowels

i
 

𐴞

𐴈𐴝𐴣𐴓𐴞

𐴀𐴞

𐴀𐴞𐴏𐴃𐴞𐴌𐴞

Ä©
 

𐴞𐴣

u
 

𐴟

𐴑𐴟𐴌𐴥𐴏𐴞

𐴀𐴟

Å©
 

𐴟𐴣

e
 

𐴠

𐴎𐴠𐴌𐴉𐴗𐴝

𐴀𐴠

ẽ
 

𐴠𐴣

o
 

𐴡

𐴁𐴡𐴌𐴈𐴡𐴘𐴞𐴏𐴥𐴡𐴛

𐴀𐴡

õ
 

𐴡𐴣

ɔ
 

𐴀 when used without a following vowel.

𐴁𐴡𐴀𐴌 𐴉𐴝𐴃𐴝

a
 

𐴝

𐴅𐴝𐴕𐴟𐴀𐴝𐴌𐴞

𐴀𐴝

𐴀𐴝𐴣𐴍𐴥𐴝𐴓𐴞

ã
 

𐴝𐴣

𐴔𐴦𐴝𐴣

Diphthongs (semi-vowels only)

w
 

𐴗

𐴉𐴗𐴝

j
 

𐴙

𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴙𐴓𐴢

Consonants

Consonant summary table

The following table summarises the main consonant to character assigments.

Stops
𐴂␣𐴁␣𐴃␣𐴊␣𐴄␣𐴋␣𐴆␣𐴅␣𐴑␣𐴒
Fricatives
𐴉␣𐴖␣𐴜␣𐴏␣𐴎␣𐴐␣𐴈␣𐴇
Nasals
𐴔␣𐴕␣𐴛␣𐴚
Other
𐴖␣𐴌␣𐴍␣𐴓␣𐴘

For additional details see consonant_mappings.

Consonant letters

𐴂␣𐴁␣𐴃␣𐴊␣𐴄␣𐴋␣𐴆␣𐴅␣𐴑␣𐴒␣𐴉␣𐴖␣𐴏␣𐴎␣𐴐␣𐴈␣𐴇␣𐴔␣𐴕␣𐴛␣𐴚␣𐴖␣𐴌␣𐴍␣𐴓␣𐴘

The sound v

Some people have used 𐴜 to represent the sound v, although it was not formally approved as part of the script. The normal letter to use for both w and v is 𐴖.

Consonant clusters

Consonant clusters are written simply as a sequence of consonants. 𐴑𐴟𐴌𐴥𐴏𐴞 𐴀𐴞𐴏𐴃𐴞𐴌𐴞 𐴇𐴥𐴠𐴚𐴒𐴝𐴌

Gemination

Geminated consonant sounds are indicated using 10D27, which is typed immediately after the consonant and before any following vowel, and which is rendered above the consonant letter, eg. compare the z sounds in the following 𐴎𐴥𐴞𐴘𐴡𐴎𐴧𐴝𐴔𐴝𐴘

Consonant sounds to characters

This section maps Rohingya consonant sounds to common graphemes in the Hanifi Rohingya orthography. Sounds listed as 'infrequent' are allophones, or sounds used for foreign words, etc.

The right-hand column shows joining forms for the letter.

Click on a grapheme to find other mentions on this page (links appear at the bottom of the page). Click on the character name to see examples and for detailed descriptions of the character(s) shown.

p
 

𐴂

𐴑𐴡𐴔𐴂𐴘𐴟𐴄𐴝𐴌

10D0210D0210D02 ⏴

b
 

𐴁

𐴁𐴝𐴘

10D0110D0110D01 ⏴

t
 

𐴃

𐴀𐴞𐴏𐴃𐴞𐴌𐴞

10D0310D0310D03 ⏴

d
 

𐴊

10D0A10D0A10D0A ⏴

ʈ
 

𐴄

𐴄𐴝𐴘𐴧𐴡𐴕

10D0410D0410D04 ⏴

ɖ
 

𐴋

𐴋𐴥𐴠𐴙𐴇𐴝𐴑

10D0B10D0B10D0B ⏴

c
 

𐴆

10D0610D0610D06 ⏴

ɟ
 

𐴅

𐴅𐴝𐴕𐴟𐴀𐴝𐴌𐴞

10D0510D0510D05 ⏴

k
 

𐴑

𐴑𐴟𐴌𐴥𐴏𐴞

10D1110D1110D11 ⏴

g
 

𐴒

𐴐𐴥𐴝𐴓𐴒𐴡𐴔𐴢

10D1210D1210D12 ⏴

f
 

𐴉

𐴉𐴗𐴝

10D0910D0910D09 ⏴

ʋ
 

𐴖

10D1610D1610D16 ⏴

s
 

𐴏

𐴀𐴞𐴏𐴃𐴞𐴌𐴞

10D0F10D0F10D0F ⏴

z
 

𐴎

𐴎𐴠𐴌𐴉𐴗𐴝

10D0E10D0E10D0E ⏴

ʃ
 

𐴐

𐴐𐴥𐴝𐴓𐴒𐴡𐴔𐴢

10D1010D1010D10 ⏴

x
 

𐴈

𐴈𐴝𐴣𐴓𐴞

10D0810D0810D08 ⏴

h
 

𐴇

𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴙𐴓𐴢

10D0710D0710D07 ⏴

m
 

𐴔

𐴔𐴦𐴝𐴣

10D1410D1410D14 ⏴

n
 

𐴕

𐴄𐴝𐴘𐴧𐴡𐴕

10D1510D1510D15 ⏴

ɲ
 

𐴛

𐴁𐴡𐴌𐴈𐴡𐴘𐴞𐴏𐴥𐴡𐴛

10D1B10D1B10D1B ⏴

ŋ
 

𐴚

𐴇𐴥𐴠𐴚𐴒𐴝𐴌

10D1A10D1A10D1A ⏴

w
 

𐴖

𐴗

𐴎𐴠𐴌𐴉𐴗𐴝

10D1710D1710D17 ⏴

ɾ
 

𐴌

𐴀𐴞𐴏𐴃𐴞𐴌𐴞

10D0C10D0C10D0C ⏴

ɽ
 

𐴍

𐴀𐴝𐴣𐴍𐴥𐴝𐴓𐴞

10D0D10D0D10D0D ⏴

l
 

𐴓

𐴈𐴝𐴣𐴓𐴞

10D1310D1310D13 ⏴

j
 

𐴘

𐴀𐴦𐴟𐴘

10D1810D1810D18 ⏴

 
 

𐴙

𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴙𐴓𐴢

10D1910D1910D19 ⏴

Numbers

Digits

Hanifi Rohingya has a set of native digits

𐴰␣𐴱␣𐴲␣𐴳␣𐴴␣𐴵␣𐴶␣𐴷␣𐴸␣𐴹

Numbers are written left-to-right within the overall right-to-left flow.

Text direction

Hanifi Rohingya text is written horizontally and right-to-left in the main but, as in most right-to-left scripts, numbers and embedded text in other scripts are written left-to-right (producing 'bidirectional' text).

 𐴔𐴠 𐴔𐴥𐴝𐴐𐴢 𐴲𐴰𐴱𐴴 𐴐𐴤𐴡𐴕𐴡𐴃𐴢 𐴊𐴞𐴘𐴧𐴞 ، 𐴊𐴟𐴘𐴀𐴡𐴔 𐴑𐴞𐴏𐴃𐴡 𐴔𐴠 𐴔𐴥𐴝𐴐𐴢 𐴲𐴰𐴱𐴹 𐴐𐴤𐴡𐴕𐴡𐴃𐴢 ، 𐴈𐴝𐴓𐴝 𐴓𐴠𐴉𐴝𐴁𐴝 𐴁𐴤𐴡𐴌𐴞 𐴴𐴰𐴰𐴰𐴰  ۔
Rohingya words are read right-to-left, starting from the right of this line, but numbers (highlighted) and Latin text are read left-to-right.

The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm automatically takes care of the ordering for all the text in fig_bidi, as long as the 'base direction' is set to RTL. In HTML this can be set using the dir attribute, or in plain text using formatting controls.

Show default bidi_class properties for characters in the Rohingya language.

For other aspects of dealing with right-to-left writing systems see the following sections:

For more information about how directionality and base direction work, see Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm basics. For information about plain text formatting characters see How to use Unicode controls for bidi text. And for working with markup in HTML, see Creating HTML Pages in Arabic, Hebrew and Other Right-to-left Scripts.

For authoring HTML pages, one of the most important things to remember is to use <html dir="rtl" … > at the top of the page. Also, use markup to manage direction, and do not use CSS styling.

Managing text direction

Unicode provides a set of 10 formatting characters that can be used to control the direction of text when displayed. These characters have no visual form in the rendered text, however text editing applications may have a way to show their location.

202B (RLE), 202A (LRE), and 202C (PDF) are in widespread use to set the base direction of a range of characters. RLE/LRE comes at the start, and PDF at the end of a range of characters for which the base direction is to be set.

In Unicode 6.1, the Unicode Standard added a set of characters which do the same thing but also isolate the content from surrounding characters, in order to avoid spillover effects. They are 2067 (RLI), 2066 (LRI), and 2066 (PDI). The Unicode Standard recommends that these be used instead.

There is also 2068 (FSI), used initially to set the base direction according to the first recognised strongly-directional character.

061C (ALM) is used to produce correct sequencing of numeric data. Follow the link and see expressions for details.

200F (RLM) and 200E (LRM) are invisible characters with strong directional properties that are also sometimes used to produce the correct ordering of text.

For more information about how to use these formatting characters see How to use Unicode controls for bidi text. Note, however, that when writing HTML you should generally use markup rather than these control codes. For information about that, see Creating HTML Pages in Arabic, Hebrew and Other Right-to-left Scripts.

Glyph shaping & positioning

Experiment with examples using the Hanifi Rohingya character app.

Cursive text

Hanifi Rohingya is cursive, ie. letters in a word are joined up.

Nearly all letters join on both sides. 𐴢 joins only to the right. And 𐴀 joins only to the left, which is very unusual. Fonts automatically produce the appropriate joining form for a code point, according to its visual context.

𐴃𐴞𐴕𐴑𐴟𐴙𐴕𐴧𐴝 𐴐𐴡𐴑𐴥𐴡𐴓𐴢
Cursive connections in the word 𐴃𐴞𐴕𐴑𐴟𐴙𐴕𐴧𐴝 𐴐𐴡𐴑𐴥𐴡𐴓𐴢.

The cursive treatment produces only minor changes to glyph shapes in most cases, other than extensions to the baseline. 𐴔 is an exception, with different final and medial/initial shapes (see fig_joining_forms).

There is a style of font which behaves slightly differently, and appears to be quite commonly used. fig_cursive_triangle_noories shows an example. Note how the n doesn't join to the right, and the o falls short of the l. The glyphs in this font don't have joining strokes to the right, and taper off and barely touch (if they do) to the left.

𐴃𐴞𐴕𐴑𐴟𐴙𐴕𐴧𐴝 𐴐𐴡𐴑𐴥𐴡𐴓𐴢
Cursive connections in the same word as in fig_cursive_triangle using the Rohingya Noories One font.

 

The following tables show all joining forms.

isolatedright-joineddual-joinleft-joinedjoining groups
𐴂 ـ𐴂 ـ𐴂ـ 𐴂ـ
𐴂␣𐴉␣𐴜
𐴁 ـ𐴁 ـ𐴁ـ 𐴁ـ
𐴁
𐴃 ـ𐴃 ـ𐴃ـ 𐴃ـ
𐴃
𐴊 ـ𐴊 ـ𐴊ـ 𐴊ـ
𐴊
𐴄 ـ𐴄 ـ𐴄ـ 𐴄ـ
𐴄
𐴋 ـ𐴋 ـ𐴋ـ 𐴋ـ
𐴋
𐴆 ـ𐴆 ـ𐴆ـ 𐴆ـ
𐴆
𐴅 ـ𐴅 ـ𐴅ـ 𐴅ـ
𐴅
𐴑 ـ𐴑 ـ𐴑ـ 𐴑ـ
𐴑
𐴒 ـ𐴒 ـ𐴒ـ 𐴒ـ
𐴒
𐴏 ـ𐴏 ـ𐴏ـ 𐴏ـ
𐴏
𐴎 ـ𐴎 ـ𐴎ـ 𐴎ـ
𐴎
𐴐 ـ𐴐 ـ𐴐ـ 𐴐ـ
𐴐
𐴈 ـ𐴈 ـ𐴈ـ 𐴈ـ
𐴈
𐴇 ـ𐴇 ـ𐴇ـ 𐴇ـ
𐴇
𐴔 ـ𐴔 ـ𐴔ـ 𐴔ـ
𐴔
𐴕 ـ𐴕 ـ𐴕ـ 𐴕ـ
𐴕
𐴛 ـ𐴛 ـ𐴛ـ 𐴛ـ
𐴛
𐴚 ـ𐴚 ـ𐴚ـ 𐴚ـ
𐴚
𐴖 ـ𐴖 ـ𐴖ـ 𐴖ـ
𐴖
𐴗 ـ𐴗 ـ𐴗ـ 𐴗ـ
𐴗
𐴌 ـ𐴌 ـ𐴌ـ 𐴌ـ
𐴌
𐴍 ـ𐴍 ـ𐴍ـ 𐴍ـ
𐴍
𐴓 ـ𐴓 ـ𐴓ـ 𐴓ـ
𐴓
𐴘 ـ𐴘 ـ𐴘ـ 𐴘ـ
𐴘
𐴙 ـ𐴙 ـ𐴙ـ 𐴙ـ
𐴙␣𐴣␣𐴞␣𐴠
𐴟 ـ𐴟 ـ𐴟ـ 𐴟ـ
𐴟
𐴡 ـ𐴡 ـ𐴡ـ 𐴡ـ
𐴡
𐴝 ـ𐴝 ـ𐴝ـ 𐴝ـ
𐴝
𐴢 ـ𐴢 ـ𐴢ـ 𐴢ـ
𐴢
Joining forms for shapes that join on both sides. Those showing significant shape change are highlighted.
isolatedleft-joined letters
𐴀 𐴀ـ
𐴀
Joining forms for the shape that joins on the left only.
isolatedright-joined letters
𐴢 ـ𐴢
𐴢
Joining forms for the shape that joins on the right only.

Context-based shaping

tbd

See just above for shaping related to cursive joining.

Typographic units

Word boundaries

Words are separated by spaces.

Graphemes

tbd

Punctuation & inline features

Phrase & section boundaries

،␣:␣؛␣۔␣.␣؟␣!

Rohingya uses a mixture of Arabic and ASCII punctuation, and may also use Myanmar signs.

phrase

،

؛

:

sentence

۔

.

؟

!

Observation: It seems to be standard practise to separate the punctuation from the foregoing text with a space.

Observation: Two online sites use punctuation that looks like the Burmese section marks, ၊ and ။, except that they use different characters. One uses a single or double 𐴱 [U+10D31 HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT ONE], the other uses | [U+007C VERTICAL LINE] or |𐴱 [U+007C VERTICAL LINE + U+10D31 HANIFI ROHINGYA DIGIT ONE]. (The page from which the example in fig_section_signs is taken also uses other strange punctuation choices, such as the Arabic thousands separator instead of the Arabic comma, that can be seen in the bottom line of the example.)

An example of a page using an approximation of Myanmar section signs for punctuation. (The text has been right-aligned to make the example simpler. The original lacks directional markup.)

Bracketed text

(␣)

Rohingya commonly uses ASCII parentheses to insert parenthetical information into text.

  start end
standard

(

)

Mirrored characters

It is important to note that the Unicode names for parentheses, brackets, and other paired characters should be ignored. LEFT should be read as if it said START, and RIGHT as END. The direction in which the glyphs point will be automatically determined according to the base direction of the text.

a > b > c
𐴀 > 𐴁 > 𐴃
Both of these lines use > U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN, but the direction it faces depends on the base direction at the point of display.

The number of characters that are mirrored in this way is around 550, most of which are mathematical symbols. Some are single characters, rather than pairs. The following are some of the more common ones used for Rohingya.

(␣)␣<␣>␣[␣]␣{␣}

Quotations & citations

‘␣’␣“␣”

Rohingya texts use quotation marks around quotations. Of course, due to keyboard design, quotations may also be surrounded by ASCII double and single quote marks. Note, however, that the order of use is different from that in LTR text, because they are not automatically mirrored.

  start end
initial

“

”

nested

‘

’

Unlike the bracketing quotation marks, these characters are not mirrored during display. This means that LEFT means use on the left, and RIGHT means use on the right.

Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

tbd

Observation: Lines appear to be broken at word boundaries.

Show (default) line-breaking properties for characters in the Rohingya language.

Breaking between Latin words

When a line break occurs in the middle of an embedded left-to-right sequence, the items in that sequence need to be rearranged visually so that it isn't necessary to read lines from top to bottom.

Of course, the rearragement is only that of the visual glyphs: nothing affects the order of the characters in memory.

Text alignment & justification

Examples of printed matter show full justification. A baseline extension is frequently used to stretch words in order to achieve flush lines (see fig_justification).

Example of full justification, with the word at the end of the 3rd line from the bottom also showing signs of being stretched.

Pandey recommends using ـ for this.p,12 However, it should be noted that the tatweel character is only useful if the text is static. If window resizing or inserted text cause the line breaks to appear between different words, the tatweels will end up in the wrong place.

Baselines, line height, etc.

tbd

Rohingya uses the so-called 'alphabetic' baseline, which is the same as for Latin and many other scripts.

Counters, lists, etc.

You can experiment with counter styles using the Counter styles converter. Patterns for using these styles in CSS can be found in Ready-made Counter Styles, and we use the names of those patterns here to refer to the various styles.

Hanifi Rohingya uses numeric counters.

Numeric

The numeric style is decimal-based and uses these digits.

𐴱␣𐴲␣𐴳␣𐴴␣𐴵␣𐴶␣𐴷␣𐴸␣𐴹␣𐴰

Examples:

𐴲␣𐴳␣𐴴␣𐴵␣𐴶␣𐴲𐴲␣𐴳𐴳␣𐴴𐴴␣𐴵𐴵␣𐴲𐴲𐴲␣𐴳𐴳𐴳␣𐴴𐴴𐴴␣𐴵𐴵𐴵

Prefixes and suffixes

Observation: Further examples are needed to clarify the standard prefix and/or suffix for lists. The examples in fig_counters show circled numbers followed by a hyphen, and numbers followed by an equals sign.

Examples of counters in Rohingya.

Page & book layout

General page layout & progression

Arabic books, magazines, etc., are bound on the right-hand side, and pages progress from right to left.

عنوان كتاب

Binding configuration for Arabic books, magazines, etc.

Columns are vertical but run right-to-left across the page.

Online resources

  1. 𐴌𐴟𐴇𐴝𐴙𐴚𐴒𐴙𐴝 𐴖𐴞𐴐𐴠𐴕 (Rohingya Vision)

References