Osage

Updated 30 August, 2021

This page gathers basic information about the Osage script and its use for the Osage language. It aims (generally) to provide an introduction to the orthography and typographic features, and (specifically) to advise how to write Osage using Unicode.

See also the companion document, Osage character notes, for detailed information about specific Unicode characters.

Phonetic transcriptions on this page should be treated as an approximate guide, only. Many are more phonemic than phonetic, but there may be variations depending on the source of the transcription.

Related pages.
Other script summaries.
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Sample (Osage)

Select part of this sample text to show a list of characters, with links to more details.
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๐’ป๐“ฒ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ช ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“ท๐“ฃอ˜ ๐“˜๐“ต๐“Ÿ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜โ€”๐“ค๐“˜๐“ธ๐“˜ ๐“ค๐“ฏ๐“ฃ ๐“˜๐“ต๐“Ÿ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜, ๐“ช๐“ฌ๐“ธ๐“˜. ๐“๐“Ÿ๐“ฒโ€™๐“˜ ๐“ท๐“ฃอ˜ ๐“ฃ๐“ต๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ. ๐“๐“˜๐“ฒโ€™๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ค๐“ธ๐“˜ โ€œ๐’ผ๐“ช๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ก๐“˜ ๐“จ๐“˜๐“ต๐“ฃอ˜,โ€ ๐“˜๐“ค๐“ธ๐“˜. ๐’ป๐“ฒ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ช ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜, โ€œ๐“๐“ฃ๐“Ÿ ๐“ต๐“ฃ๐“Ÿ ๐“ค๐“ช๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ก๐“˜ ๐“จ๐“˜๐“ต๐“ฃอ˜ ๐“ท๐“ฃ๐“ฉ๐“˜อ˜๐“ฎ๐“ฐ๐“˜ ๐“ฐ๐“›อ˜ ๐“จ๐“ฃอ˜๐“ค๐“ฏ๐“Ÿ,โ€ ๐’ป๐“ฒ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ช ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ช๐“˜ ๐“Ÿ๐“ค๐“ฃ๐“Ÿ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜.

๐“๐“Ÿ๐“ฒโ€™๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜, โ€œ๐’ฐอ˜๐“ต๐“˜๐“ฉ๐“˜อ˜๐“ฎ๐“ฐ๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ก๐“˜ ๐“ท๐“ฃ๐“œ๐“˜๐“น๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ค๐“Ÿ ๐“ฐ๐“›อ˜ ๐“จ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ฏ๐“Ÿ.โ€

๐’ป๐“ฒ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ช ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜, โ€œ๐’ฐอ˜๐“ต๐“˜๐“น๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ค๐“Ÿ ๐“Ÿ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜ ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜ ๐“ฉ๐“˜อ˜๐“ฎ๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ.โ€ ๐“๐“˜๐“ฉ๐“˜อ˜๐“ฎ๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ ๐“˜๐“ก๐“˜ ๐“ต๐“Ÿ, ๐“๐“Ÿ๐“ฒโ€™๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜ ๐“ต๐“˜๐“น๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ค๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ ๐“ฎ๐“ฃ๐“ต๐“Ÿ๐“ฒ๐“Ÿ. ๐“๐“˜๐“น๐“ฐ๐“˜๐“ค๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ ๐“˜๐“ก๐“˜, ๐’ป๐“ฒ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ช ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ต๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜, ๐“ป๐“˜อ˜ ๐“ฃอ˜ ๐“Ÿ๐“ฒ๐“ฃ ๐“ฒ๐“Ÿ ๐“Ÿ๐“ฒ๐“ฃ ๐“ฎ๐“ฃ๐“ต๐“ฃอ˜๐“ค๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ. ๐’ฟ๐“ฃอ˜ ๐“˜๐“ค๐“น๐“˜ ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜, ๐“ฎ๐“ฃ ๐“ฒ๐“Ÿ ๐“œ๐“ช๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“ฃ๐“ฌ๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ค๐“น๐“˜.

๐’ป๐“ฒ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ช ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ค๐“น๐“˜, โ€œ๐“‚๐“ช ๐“˜อ˜๐“ฏ๐“ฃอ˜ ๐“ท๐“˜๐“ง๐“ฃ ๐“จ๐“ฃอ˜๐“ค๐“ฏ๐“Ÿ!โ€ ๐“˜๐“ค๐“น๐“˜. ๐’ฟ๐“ฃอ˜ ๐“ฏ๐“ชอ˜ ๐“˜๐“ค๐“น๐“˜ ๐“ฒโ€™๐“Ÿ ๐“ก๐“ฃอ˜๐“ค๐“ฏ๐“Ÿ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜ ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜ ๐“ฒโ€™๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ ๐“ฃ๐“ฒ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“ช ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜. ๐’ด๐“ช๐“ค๐“˜๐“ป๐“ถ๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“œ๐“ช๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“ฃ๐“ฌ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ ๐“ฐ๐“˜อ˜ ๐“ฒโ€™๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ.

Usage & history

Historically Osage was spoken in parts of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas. The Osage tribe was moved to Oklahoma in 1872. Ethnologue reports no first language speakers since the last died in 2005, but second language speakers are emerging due to a concerted effort to re-introduce the language to an Osage community of around 11,000.

๐“๐“˜๐“ป๐“˜๐“ป๐“Ÿ ๐“ฃ๐“Ÿ wษ‘ส’ษ‘ส’ษ› iษ› Osage

The Osage language has been written using Latin characters since the mid-1800s, but there was no standardised spelling. Writers simply used the Latin letters to represent the sounds as they felt fit.

Around 2006, a new orthography was developed, building on the Latin letters but creating a new set of glyphs for many sounds. This was enthusiastically received by students and teachers.

In 2014 further rationalisation of the script took place, partly driven by the aim of standardising a permanent form for encoding in the Unicode Standard. For details, see variants.

Sources Everson

See also variants.

Basic features

The Osage script is an alphabet. Both consonants and vowels are indicated by letters. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the Osage language.

Osage text runs left-to-right in horizontal lines.

Words are separated by spaces.

The script is bicameral. The shapes of the upper and lowercase forms are typically the same.

Osage pronunciation has a good deal of allophonic variation built into most sounds in its alphabet, influenced by surrounding sounds or by dialect.

It has 21 basic consonant letters. It also has letters to represent 5 pre-aspirated sounds however the language-learning curriculum of the Osage Nation doesn't use them, in order to simplify the learning experience. 3 ejective sounds are written using ʼ [U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE].

There are 10 vowel letters, including some diphthongs. Nasalisation is very common and is marked using ͘ [U+0358 COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT].

Three other combining marks can be used to indicate vowel length or accent, although they are not commonly used. None of the marks combine with their base characters to form precomposed shapes.

Numbers use ASCII digits.

Character index

Letters

Show

Consonants

๐“„โฃ๐“ฌโฃ๐’ดโฃ๐“œโฃ๐“ˆโฃ๐“ฐโฃ๐’ผโฃ๐“คโฃ๐’พโฃ๐“ฆโฃ๐“Šโฃ๐“ฒโฃ๐“Œโฃ๐“ดโฃ๐’ตโฃ๐“โฃ๐“โฃ๐“ตโฃ๐“†โฃ๐“ฎโฃ๐“’โฃ๐“บโฃ๐“‡โฃ๐“ฏโฃ๐““โฃ๐“ปโฃ๐“โฃ๐“ธโฃ๐“‘โฃ๐“นโฃ๐’นโฃ๐“กโฃ๐’บโฃ๐“ขโฃ๐“€โฃ๐“จโฃ๐“โฃ๐“ฉโฃ๐“โฃ๐“ทโฃ๐’ฟโฃ๐“ง
๐“…โฃ๐“ญโฃ๐“‰โฃ๐“ฑโฃ๐’ฝโฃ๐“ฅโฃ๐“‹โฃ๐“ณโฃ๐’ถโฃ๐“ž

Vowels

๐’ปโฃ๐“ฃโฃ๐“Žโฃ๐“ถโฃ๐’ทโฃ๐“Ÿโฃ๐“‚โฃ๐“ชโฃ๐’ณโฃ๐“›โฃ๐’ฐโฃ๐“˜โฃ๐’ฑโฃ๐“™โฃ๐’ธโฃ๐“ โฃ๐“ƒโฃ๐“ซโฃ๐’ฒโฃ๐“š

Other

สผ

Combining marks

Show

Vowels

อ˜
ฬโฃฬ„โฃฬ‹

Punctuation

Show
โ€œโฃโ€โฃโ€˜โฃโ€™โฃ(โฃ)โฃ,โฃ.โฃ:โฃ;โฃ?โฃ!โฃโ€โฃโ€“โฃโ€”โฃโ€ฆ

Symbols

Show
^
Character lists show:

Phonology

These are sounds for the Osage language.

Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned.

Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. Source Wikipedia.

Vowel sounds

Plain vowels

i ฤฉ u o รต ษ™ ษ™ฬƒ ษ™ ษ™ฬƒ ษ› a รฃ

u is variable, and may be realised as ส‰ or y following a velar plosive or near a front vowel with no intervening plosive. It may also conflate with i after รฐ or n.wl

ษ› can sometimes sound like e.

In fast speech, a is often pronounced ษ™ after a stressed syllable or at the end of a word.wl The orthography has a separate letter for the sound ษ™, although Qintero doesn't classify it as phonemic.wl An ษ™ sound may also be added to the end of English words, so that they don't end with a consonant. She gives the example of her own name, which may be pronounced carolinษ™.

รต and รฃ can often be interchangeable.q

For more details, see Wikipedia and Quintero.

Diphthongs

There are a number of permutations of adjacent vowels without intervening consonants. The items shown here are those for which there are separate letters in Osage.

eษชฬƒ oษชฬƒ aษช aษชฬƒ

For more details, see Wikipedia and Quintero.

Consonant sounds

labial dental alveolar post-
alveolar
velar glottal
stop p
pห€ สฐp px pสƒ
br
t
สฐt
    k
kห€ สฐk kx kสƒ kสฒ
ส”
affricate   tอกs
tอกsห€ สฐtอกs tอกsสฐ tx
  tอกสƒ
สฐtอกสƒ
   
fricative   รฐ s z สƒ ส’ x ษฃ h hสฒ
nasal m   n    
approximant w   l    
trill/flap     r  

Many sounds are described in terms of voiced and unvoiced, however Quintero says "The feature distinguishing s and ลก from z and ลพ is probably tenseness vs. laxness more than voicelessness vs. voicing." The sounds represented here as p, t, and k, are realised as an unaspirated sound that is halfway between voiced and unvoiced. In some words the sound may be more like one than the other.

The br sequence contains the only clearly voiced plosive phone. It appears infrequently, except in verb forms.wl,#Stop_series

As well as ejectives, the table lists pre-aspirated stops and affricates, and the sound sequences that now represent historical post-aspiration, ie. consonants followed by x or สƒ. The pre-aspirated consonants are pronounced as geminates in some dialects.

For more details, see Wikipedia and Quintero.

Structure

Osage is based on syllables of the form:wl,#Consonant_clusters

(C)(C)V(V)

Consonant clusters never appear in word-final position; only word-initial or word-medial.wl,#Consonant_clusters

Vowels

Vowel letters

The basic set of plain vowel letters is as follows.

๐’ป๐“ฃโฃ๐“Ž๐“ถโฃ๐’ท๐“Ÿโฃ๐“‚๐“ชโฃ๐’ณ๐“›โฃ๐’ฐ๐“˜

These vowels can be lengthened, accented, or nasalised using diacritics.

There is also a set of single-letter diphthongs, most of which are nasalised.

๐’ฑ๐“™โฃ๐’ธ๐“ โฃ๐“ƒ๐“ซโฃ๐’ฒ๐“š

Nasalisation

อ˜

Nasalisation is very common in Osage words. Normally it is indicated using  ͘  [U+0358 COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT] after the vowel, eg. ๐“ฏ๐“ชอ˜๐“ค๐“Ÿ However, 3 diphthongs place the dot inside the letter, and so are represented using precomposed characters.wl,#Phonology

This list shows the set of nasalised vowels.

๐“ฃอ˜โฃ๐“ชอ˜โฃ๐“›อ˜โฃ๐“˜อ˜โฃ๐“ โฃ๐“ซโฃ๐“š

It is easy to find words still written in the older style orthography, where nasalisation is indicated using ^ [U+005E CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT], eg. ๐“จ๐“˜อ˜๐“บ๐“Ÿ๐“ฎ๐“ค๐“˜ was formerly written ๐“จ๐“˜^๐“บ๐“Ÿ๐“ฎ๐“ค๐“˜

Pitch accents

ฬ

To signal pitch accents use  ́ [U+0301 COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT], eg. ๐“ก๐“˜ฬ๐“ฌ๐“˜

This list shows the set of non-lengthened vowels with pitch accents.

๐“ฃฬโฃ๐“ฃฬอ˜โฃ๐“ถฬโฃ๐“Ÿฬโฃ๐“ ฬโฃ๐“ชฬโฃ๐“ซฬโฃ๐“˜ฬโฃ๐“˜ฬอ˜โฃ๐“šฬโฃ๐“™ฬ

The Osage Nation does not use these accent marks in their online language courses. They are likely to be used only for precise phonetic labelling of words, such as one might find in a dictionary.

Vowel length

ฬ„โฃฬ‹

Although vowel length can occasionally produce contrasting pairs in Osage, it is generally difficult to perceive, can vary in application, and the rules are not clearly established. Long vowels may be shortened in unstressed positions, however short vowels can be lengthened in questions. Vowels at the end of a word are normally short.wl,#Vowel_clusters_and_long_vowels

As with the accent marks, length is not indicated in the text of the Osage Nation language-learning curricula, and these characters are only likely to be used for precise phonetic labelling of words.

Long vowels can be indicated using ̄ [U+0304 COMBINING MACRON] above the vowel, eg. ๐“ฌ๐“˜ฬ„๐“น๐“ชฬ

If the vowel is long and also accented, use ̋ [U+030B COMBINING DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT], eg. ๐“ฐ๐“˜ฬ‹๐“œ๐“˜อ˜

This list shows the set of long vowels.e

๐“ฃฬ„โฃ๐“ฃฬ„อ˜โฃ๐“ฃฬ‹โฃ๐“ฃฬ‹อ˜โฃ๐“ถฬ„โฃ๐“ถฬ‹โฃ๐“Ÿฬ„โฃ๐“Ÿฬ‹โฃ๐“ชฬ„โฃ๐“ชฬ„อ˜โฃ๐“ชฬ‹โฃ๐“ชฬ‹อ˜โฃ๐“˜ฬ„โฃ๐“˜ฬ„อ˜โฃ๐“˜ฬ‹โฃ๐“˜ฬ‹อ˜

Vowel to script mapping

The following tables show how vowel sounds map to common characters or sequences of characters.

Plain vowels

i
 

𐓣 [U+104E3 OSAGE SMALL LETTER I], eg. ๐“ฃ๐“ก๐“˜.

𐒻 [U+104BB OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER I] 

u
 

𐓶 [U+104F6 OSAGE SMALL LETTER U], eg. ๐“ถ๐“๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“˜.

𐓎 [U+104CE OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER U] 

ษ›
 

𐓟 [U+104DF OSAGE SMALL LETTER E], eg. ๐“Ÿ๐“ค๐“ชอ˜.

𐒷 [U+104B7 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER E] 

o
 

𐓪 [U+104EA OSAGE SMALL LETTER O], eg. ๐“ช๐“ก๐“ช.

𐓂 [U+104C2 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER O] 

ษ™
 

𐓛 [U+104DB OSAGE SMALL LETTER AH], eg. ๐“ง๐“Ÿ๐“œ๐“›.

𐒳 [U+104B3 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER AH]

ษ™ฬƒ
 

𐓛͘ [U+104DB OSAGE SMALL LETTER AH + U+0358 COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT], eg. ๐“ป๐“ถ๐“Ÿ๐“ฐ๐“›อ˜.

𐒳͘ [U+104B3 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER AH + U+0358 COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT]

ษ‘
 

𐓘 [U+104D8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER A], eg. ๐“˜๐“ฐ๐“›อ˜๐“ค๐“˜.

𐒰 [U+104B0 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER A] 

ษ‘ฬƒ
 

𐓘͘ [U+104D8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER A + U+0358 COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT], eg. ๐“˜อ˜๐“ค๐“ฃ๐“คสผ๐“ถ.

𐒰͘ [U+104B0 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER A + U+0358 COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT]

Diphthongs

eษชฬƒ
 

𐓠 [U+104E0 OSAGE SMALL LETTER EIN], eg. ๐“ฏ๐“Ÿ๐“ต๐“ชอ˜๐“จ๐“ .

𐒸 [U+104B8 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER EIN]

oษชฬƒ
 

𐓫 [U+104EB OSAGE SMALL LETTER OIN], eg. ๐“ท๐“˜๐“ก๐“ซ.

𐓃 [U+104C3 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER OIN]

aษช
 

𐓙 [U+104D9 OSAGE SMALL LETTER AI], eg. ๐“ค๐“™๐“ก๐“ฃ๐“ค๐“˜.

𐒱 [U+104B1 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER AI] 

aษชฬƒ
 

𐓚 [U+104DA OSAGE SMALL LETTER AIN], eg. ๐“ก๐“š.

𐒲 [U+104B2 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER AIN] 

Consonants

Basic consonants

Stops

๐“„๐“ฌโฃ๐’ด๐“œโฃ๐“ˆ๐“ฐโฃ๐’ผ๐“คโฃ๐’พ๐“ฆ

Affricates

๐“Š๐“ฒโฃ๐“Œ๐“ดโฃ๐’ต๐“

Fricatives

๐“๐“ตโฃ๐“†๐“ฎโฃ๐“’๐“บโฃ๐“‡๐“ฏโฃ๐““๐“ปโฃ๐“๐“ธโฃ๐“‘๐“นโฃ๐’น๐“กโฃ๐’บ๐“ข

Nasals

๐“€๐“จโฃ๐“๐“ฉ

Liquids

๐“๐“ทโฃ๐’ฟ๐“ง

Ejectives

สผ

Ejectives are written using ʼ [U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE], eg. compare ๐“ฒสผ๐“Ÿ๐“ค๐“˜ ๐“ฒ๐“Ÿ๐“ค๐“˜ There are only 3 ejective sounds.

๐“ฌสผโฃ๐“คสผโฃ๐“ฒสผ

Aspiration

Pre-aspiration

Osage words may contain pre-aspirated stops and affricates, however some dialects pronounce these instead as geminated consonants. For this reason, the orthography has a set of single letters that can be used to represent either a pre-aspirated or an equivalent geminated sound.

๐“…๐“ญโฃ๐“‰๐“ฑโฃ๐’ฝ๐“ฅโฃ๐“‹๐“ณโฃ๐’ถ๐“ž

The lessons offered by the Osage Nation website don't contain any of these letters, as part of the simplification of the orthography intended to help people learn to write Osage. Pre-aspirated sounds are not distinguished from normal sounds. For example, deer สฐtษ‘ฬห is written ๐“ฐ๐“˜ rather than ๐“ฑ๐“˜. These letters may be used, however, for dictionaries or other places where the orthography needs to be more precise.

Post-aspiration

Sounds that were formerly post-aspirated are mostly represented by digraphs ending in 𐓸 [U+104F8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KHA] or 𐓯 [U+104EF OSAGE SMALL LETTER SHA] , which are used in complementary fashion, eg. ๐“ช๐“ฌ๐“ธ๐“˜ However, the single letter 𐓴 [U+104F4 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TSHA] is an allograph of 𐓰𐓸 [U+104F0 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TA + U+104F8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KHA].

๐“ฌ๐“ธโฃ๐“ฌ๐“ฏโฃ๐“ฐ๐“ธโฃ๐“ดโฃ๐“ค๐“ธโฃ๐“ค๐“ฏ

Consonant clusters

Consonant clusters do occur in the Osage script, per the conventions of the syllable structure (see structure), but are not indicated in any special way.

Consonant to script mapping

The following tables show how consonant sounds map to common characters or sequences of characters.

p
 

𐓬 [U+104EC OSAGE SMALL LETTER PA], eg. ๐“ฌ๐“˜ฬ„๐“น๐“ชฬ.

𐓄 [U+104C4 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER PA]

สฐp
pp
 

𐓬 [U+104EC OSAGE SMALL LETTER PA] (and its uppercase form) is currently used in Osage Nation curricula, eg. ๐“ฌ๐“˜๐“บ๐“Ÿ, however the following letter is also available:

𐓭 [U+104ED OSAGE SMALL LETTER EHPA], eg. ๐“ญ๐“˜๐“บ๐“Ÿ.

𐓅 [U+104C5 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER EHPA]

px
pสƒ
 

𐓬𐓸 [U+104EC OSAGE SMALL LETTER PA + U+104F8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KHA], eg. ๐“ช๐“ฌ๐“ธ๐“˜.

𐓬𐓯 [U+104EC OSAGE SMALL LETTER PA + U+104EF OSAGE SMALL LETTER SHA], eg. ๐“ช๐“ค๐“ฃ๐“ฌ๐“ฏ๐“Ÿ

pห€
 

𐓬ʼ [U+104EC OSAGE SMALL LETTER PA + U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE], eg. ๐“ฌสผ๐“ช๐“ต๐“ชอ˜.

𐓄ʼ [U+104C4 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER PA + U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE]

bษน
 

𐓜 [U+104DC OSAGE SMALL LETTER BRA], eg. ๐“œ๐“Ÿ๐“ฅ๐“˜.

𐒴 [U+104B4 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER BRA]

t
 

𐓰 [U+104F0 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TA], eg. ๐“ฐ๐“ชอ˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ.

𐓈 [U+104C8 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER TA]

สฐt
tt
 

𐓰 [U+104F0 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TA] (and its uppercase form) is currently used in Osage Nation curricula, eg. ๐“ฐ๐“˜, however the following letter is also available:

𐓱 [U+104F1 OSAGE SMALL LETTER EHTA], eg. ๐“ฑ๐“˜.

𐓉 [U+104C9 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER EHTA]

tx
tสƒ
 

𐓰𐓸 [U+104F0 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TA + U+104F8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KHA], eg. ๐“ค๐“˜๐“ฐ๐“ธ๐“˜.

𐓝 [U+104DD OSAGE SMALL LETTER CHA], eg. ๐“๐“ช๐“ฌ๐“˜.

k
 

𐓤 [U+104E4 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KA], eg. ๐“ค๐“ฃ๐“ฏ๐“ฐ๐“ช๐“จ๐“š.

𐒼 [U+104BC OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER KA]

สฐk
kk
 

𐓤 [U+104E4 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KA] (and its uppercase form) is currently used in Osage Nation curricula, eg. ๐“ค๐“Ÿ, however the following letter is also available:

𐓥 [U+104E5 OSAGE SMALL LETTER EHKA], eg. ๐“ฅ๐“Ÿ.

𐒽 [U+104BD OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER EHKA]

kx
kสƒ
 

𐓤𐓸 [U+104E4 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KA + U+104F8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KHA], eg. ๐“ค๐“ธ๐“˜๐“ป๐“ฃอ˜.

𐓤𐓯 [U+104E4 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KA + U+104EF OSAGE SMALL LETTER SHA], eg. ๐“ค๐“ฏ๐“ชอ˜๐“ค๐“˜.

kห€
 

𐓤ʼ [U+104E4 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KA + U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE], eg. ๐“ช๐“คสผ๐“ชฬ.

𐒼ʼ [U+104BC OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER KA + U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE]

kสฒ
 

𐓦 [U+104E6 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KYA], eg. ๐“ฉ๐“ฃ๐“ฏ๐“ฆ๐“ถ๐“Ÿ.

𐒾 [U+104BE OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER KYA] 

ส”
 

ʼ [U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE], eg. .

tอกs
 

𐓲 [U+104F2 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TSA], eg. ๐“ฒ๐“Ÿ.

𐓊 [U+104CA OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER TSA]

สฐtอกs
 

𐓲 [U+104F2 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TSA] (and its uppercase form) is currently used in Osage Nation curricula, eg. ๐“ฒ๐“ฃ, however the following letter is also available:

𐓳 [U+104F3 OSAGE SMALL LETTER EHTSA], eg. ๐“ณ๐“ฃ.

𐓋 [U+104CB OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER EHTSA]

tอกsสฐ
 

𐓴 [U+104F4 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TSHA], eg. ๐“ท๐“˜๐“ด๐“ฃ.

𐓌 [U+104CC OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER TSHA]

tอกsห€
 

𐓲ʼ [U+104F2 OSAGE SMALL LETTER TSA + U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE], eg. ๐“ฒสผ๐“ช๐“ธ๐“Ÿ.

𐓊ʼ [U+104CA OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER TSA + U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE]

tอกสƒ
 

𐓝 [U+104DD OSAGE SMALL LETTER CHA], eg. ๐“๐“ช๐“ฌ๐“˜.

𐒵 [U+104B5 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER CHA]

สฐtอกสƒ
 

𐓝 [U+104DD OSAGE SMALL LETTER CHA] (and its uppercase form) is currently used in Osage Nation curricula, eg. ๐“ท๐“ฃ๐“๐“ช๐“ฏ๐“ฌ๐“˜, however the following letter is also available:

𐓞 [U+104DE OSAGE SMALL LETTER EHCHA], eg. ๐“ท๐“ฃ๐“ž๐“ช๐“ฏ๐“ฌ๐“˜.

𐒶 [U+104B6 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER EHCHA]

รฐ
 

𐓵 [U+104F5 OSAGE SMALL LETTER DHA], eg. ๐“ต๐“˜๐“ท๐“˜.

𐓍 [U+104CD OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER DHA]

s
 

𐓮 [U+104EE OSAGE SMALL LETTER SA], eg. ๐“ฎ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ.

𐓆 [U+104C6 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER SA]

z
 

𐓺 [U+104FA OSAGE SMALL LETTER ZA], eg. ๐“บ๐“˜อ˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ.

𐓒 [U+104D2 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER ZA]

ส’
 

𐓻 [U+104FB OSAGE SMALL LETTER ZHA], eg. ๐“ป๐“˜อ˜.

𐓓 [U+104D3 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER ZHA]

สƒ
 

𐓯 [U+104EF OSAGE SMALL LETTER SHA], eg. ๐“ฏ๐“˜๐“ญ๐“Ÿ.

𐓇 [U+104C7 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER SHA]

x
 

𐓸 [U+104F8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER KHA], eg. ๐“ธ๐“ชฬ‹อ˜๐“ฒ๐“Ÿ.

𐓐 [U+104D0 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER KHA]

ษฃ
 

𐓹 [U+104F9 OSAGE SMALL LETTER GHA], eg. ๐“น๐“˜๐“ค๐“Ÿ.

𐓑 [U+104D1 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER GHA]

h
 

𐓡 [U+104E1 OSAGE SMALL LETTER HA], eg. ๐“ก๐“ฃ.

𐒹 [U+104B9 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER HA]

hสฒ
 

𐓢 [U+104E2 OSAGE SMALL LETTER HYA], eg. ๐“ฌ๐“˜๐“ข๐“ถ.

𐒺 [U+104BA OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER HYA]

m
 

𐓨 [U+104E8 OSAGE SMALL LETTER MA], eg. ๐“จ๐“ฃ.

𐓀 [U+104C0 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER MA]

n
 

𐓩 [U+104E9 OSAGE SMALL LETTER NA], eg. ๐“ฉ๐“˜อ˜๐“น๐“Ÿ.

𐓁 [U+104C1 OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER NA]

w
 

𐓷 [U+104F7 OSAGE SMALL LETTER WA], eg. ๐“ท๐“˜๐“ด๐“ฃ.

𐓏 [U+104CF OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER WA]

l
 

𐓧 [U+104E7 OSAGE SMALL LETTER LA], eg. ๐“ง๐“ชอ˜.

𐒿 [U+104BF OSAGE CAPITAL LETTER LA]

Numbers

Digits

Osage uses ASCII digits.

Text direction

Osage text runs left to right in horizontal lines.

Show default bidi_class properties for characters in the Osage orthography described here.

Glyph shaping & positioning

This section brings together information about the following topics: writing styles; cursive text; context-based shaping; context-based positioning; baselines, line height, etc.; font styles; case & other character transforms.

You can experiment with examples using the Osage character app.

The Osage script is not cursive, and involves no significant context-based shaping or positioning.

Osage has no special requirements for baseline alignment between mixed scripts and in general.

Font styles

tbd

Case & other character transforms

Osage is bicameral, and applications may need to enable transforms to allow the user to switch between cases.

Punctuation & inline features

Grapheme boundaries

Osage graphemes are typically single characters, with an optional combining mark to indicate nasalisation. Up to 2 more combining marks can be added to indicate vowel length and accents.

Unicode grapheme clusters can be applied to Osage without problems. There are no special issues related to operations that use grapheme clusters as their basic unit of text.

Word boundaries

Osage words are separated by spaces.

In the early stages of the use of the Osage script syllables within a word were separated by periods, eg. ๐“ง๐“˜.๐“ฌ๐“ธ๐“˜อ˜.๐“ค๐“Ÿ. This is no longer the case. Syllable boundaries are, in any case, easily identified in Osage text.

Phrase & section boundaries

,โฃ;โฃ:โฃ.โฃ?โฃ!
phrase

, [U+002C COMMA]

; [U+003B SEMICOLON]

: [U+003A COLON]

sentence

. [U+002E FULL STOP]

? [U+003F QUESTION MARK]

! [U+0021 EXCLAMATION MARK]

Osage uses standard ASCII punctuation for phrase boundaries.

The following dashes are used.

โ€โฃโ€“โฃโ€”

Parentheses & brackets

(โฃ)
  start end
standard

( [U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS]

) [U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS]

Quotations

โ€œโฃโ€โฃโ€˜โฃโ€™
  start end
initial

[U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]
nested

[U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

The default quote marks for Osage are โ€œ [U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK] at the start, and โ€ [U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK] at the end.

When an additional quote is embedded within the first, the quote marks are โ€˜ [U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK] and โ€™ [U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK].

Emphasis

tbd

Abbreviation, ellipsis & repetition

โ€ฆ

Inline notes & annotations

tbd

Other inline

tbd

Other punctuation

tbd

Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

tbd

Lines are primarily broken at word boundaries.

Show (default) line-breaking properties for characters in the modern Osage orthography.

Text alignment & justification

tbd

Letter spacing

tbd

Counters, lists, etc.

Osage uses a decimal numeric counter style with ASCII digits. The default separator is a full stop + space.

Styling initials

tbd

Page & book layout

This section is for any features that are specific to Osage and that relate to the following topics: general page layout & progression; grids & tables; notes, footnotes, etc; forms & user interaction; page numbering, running headers, etc.

Page layout for Osage follows the same practices as for US English text written in Latin script.

Historical information

Orthographic development & variants

Changes introduced in 2014 include the following:e

  1. The introduction of case pairs.
  2. 'Pre-aspirate' consonants were changed from digraphs to single characters. eg. ๐“ก๐“ฌ hp became ๐“ญ pสฐ
  3. Two ligatures representing consonant clusters were abolished: stอกs became ๐“ฎ๐“ฒ; and sk became ๐“ฎ๐“ค.
  4. Nasalisation was previously indicated in one of 2 ways: using ^ after a vowel or using _ below a diphthong, eg. ๐“˜^ a^ รฃ ๐“˜ฬฑ aฬฑ aฤฉThis was replaced by a dot, generally placed at the upper right side of the vowel using a combining character, or appearing within the letter for a diphthong, in which case a new letter was created, eg. ๐“˜อ˜ aหœ รฃ
  5. The sounds x and ษฃ were previously both represented by a single character. The reform created a separate letter form for each, ie. ๐“ธ x x ๐“น ษฃ ษฃ

Another recent change in the orthography sees the discontinuation of the practice of separating syllables within a word by periods, eg. the formerly written ๐“ท๐“˜.๐“ฎ๐“˜.๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ is now written ๐“ท๐“˜๐“ฎ๐“˜๐“ฌ๐“Ÿ

Languages using the Osage script

According to ScriptSource, the Osage script is used for the Osage language only.

Online resources

  1. Osage language tools word list
  2. Osage Dictionary preview, Carolyn Quintero

References