Mongolian character notes

Updated 13 July, 2018 • tags mongolian, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For a summary of the script and its use in writing systems, see the page Mongolian script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

We have usage data for 0 languages that use the Traditional Mongolian script.

Find

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

Read more about how to use this page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the character or the hex number in the Find control above.

To view this page as intended, you need a Mongolian font. This page comes with a Noto Sans Mongolian webfont, however it displays better if you have either Mongolian Universal White, or Mongolian Baiti on your system. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font. The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. (If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.)

Information about languages that use these characters is taken from the list maintained for the Character Use app. The list is not exhaustive.

References are indicated by superscript characters. Wherever possible, those contain direct links to the source material. When such a pointer is alongside an arrow → it means that it's worth following the link for the additional information it provides. Digits refer to the main sources, which are listed at the bottom of a set of notes.

When you are using UniView and you turn on Show notes, UniView will pull in information about characters from this page.

Until I can generate graphics for the tables you should view this document in Firefox, and ideally have Mongolian Baiti font on your system. Safari makes a pig's breakfast of vertical Mongolian text. Chrome does a better job, but fails to maintain cursive connections when a span is used to highlight a character in a sequence.

Unfortunately, browser support for Mongolian is still rather fragile. Fonts typically behave differently from each other with regards to implementing the necessary OpenType rules for Mongolian contextual forms, and don't always do what you'd expect. (In particular, not all of the variant forms are produced by a given font.) Since the examples and tables in this page are not graphics, they may not always reflect what is intended, and are perhaps better treated as small tests, rather than canonical representations.

I found that some fonts didn't interact correctly with the zero width joiner on Safari and Chrome, so I had to resort to using nirugu characters instead.

Variant forms. Many of the characters have variant forms. The number and standard character sequences to create these variants have not yet been completely standardised. Work is going on to resolve this. Where a character has variant forms, you will see a link to another document; that document summarises the latest information I have about intended variation sequences and their support in fonts.

Shape tables. Inside the Mongolian letter descriptions there are also syllable tables, showing what the letter looks like when combined with a vowel. Only the red text is an expected combination for Mongolian – the grey examples are there to simply show what your font does when an unexpected combination appears.

Format controls

᠋

U+180B MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR ONE

᠌

U+180C MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR TWO

᠍

U+180D MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR THREE

᠎

U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR

Mongolian vowel separator (MVS)

Used where a final [U+1820 MONGOLIAN LETTER A] or [U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E] vowel is separated from the rest of a word. Unlike characters following U+202F NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE, the A or E following a word is not a suffix, but an integral part of the word. Whether a final A or E is joined or separated is a purely lexical decision, and not an instance of varying orthography. MVS always requires the forward tail form of the following A or E letter. The preceding letter form varies according to the letter, and in some cases whether this is traditional or modern orthography. Examples:

Without MVS: ᠬᠠᠨᠠ qana outer casing of a vein

With MVS: ᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ qana wall of a tent

Refs: Unicode

Not used for Todo, Manchu or Sibe.

Basic vowels

U+1820 MONGOLIAN LETTER A

Masculine vowel a

Cyrillic а

See variant forms.

Chakhar ɑ

Khalkha a, ə

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠠᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠠᠢ ai
  • ᠊ᠠᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠠᠤ

ai is sometimes pronounced æ or e

Shapes:

vc- -cvc- -cv -c+mvs+v nnbsp+
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ ᠊ᠲ᠎
ᠴᠠ
ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ
2 ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ ᠊ᠪ᠎
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Final is used after n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w.
  • Final , is used after b, p, ts, dz, h.
  • is used after MVS.
  • and are used after NNBSP.

Other variants include: (isolate)(medial).

Historical variants include: (isolate, Todo)(initial, Todo) (medial) and .

Confusables:

  • The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of [U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E] except in initial position (where this character has an additional stroke).
  • The glyphs and are also visually identical to syllable final glyphs for [U+1828 MONGOLIAN LETTER NA], and are distinguished only by context. For example, ᠰᠠᠮ sam sam comb and ᠰᠡᠮ səm sem quietly look the same, but if you click on the red text you will see that the characters make it clear which is which.

Derived from: Old Uyghur aleph, written twice for isolate and initial forms.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E

Feminine vowel e

Cyrillic є

See variant forms.

Chakhar ə

Khalkha i, e, ə

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠡᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠢ əi
  • ᠊ᠡᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠦ əu

An alternate form which is only used for foreign words is encoded as [U+1827 MONGOLIAN LETTER EE].

Shapes:

vc- -cvc- -cv -c+mvs+v nnbsp+
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ ᠊ᠲ᠎
ᠴᠡ
ᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ
2 ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ ᠊ᠪ᠎
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Final is used after n, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w.
  • Final is used after b, p, q, g, ts, dz, h. (Note that q and b are here, whereas they were in the other group for a.)
  • is used after MVS.
  • and are used after NNBSP.

Other variants include the traditional form (initial).

Historical variants include: (medial) and .

Confusables:

  • The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of [U+1820 MONGOLIAN LETTER A] except in initial position (where this character has one stroke less).
  • The glyphs and are also visually identical to syllable final glyphs for [U+1828 MONGOLIAN LETTER NA], and are visually distinguished only by context.

Derived from: Old Uyghur aleph.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1822 MONGOLIAN LETTER I

Neutral vowel i

Cyrillic и, й, ы, ь

See variant forms.

Chakhar i, ɪ

Khalkha i, ə

Often absorbed into the preceding syllable at the end of a word in modern Mongolian.

Following a consonant, Latin transliteration of the default medial glyph is i. Following a vowel, Latin transliteration of the alternate medial glyph may be yi, with rare exceptions like naim (eight) or Naiman.

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠠᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠠᠢ ai
  • ᠊ᠡᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠢ əi
  • ᠊ᠢᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢᠢ ii
  • ᠊ᠣᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠢ ɔi
  • ᠊ᠤᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠤᠢ ʊi
  • ᠊ᠥᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠢ oi
  • ᠊ᠦᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠦᠢ ui
  • ᠊ᠢᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠢᠦ iu

Shapes:

vc- -cvc- -cv nnbsp+v
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ
ᠶᠠᠷ/ ᠶᠡᠷ
ᠶᠠᠨ/ ᠶᠡᠨ
2 ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • A trailing i in a diphthong is represented using two strokes (see examples above), .
  • Final is used after n, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w.
  • Final is used after b, p, q, g, ts, dz, h. Note that q and b are in this group, since this is a neutral vowel.
  • and are used after NNBSP.

Other variants include a handwritten inner mongolian variant on the sequence yi (medial), eg. ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ|ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ sayin good, which is written ᠰᠠᠢ᠋ᠨ sain.w

Historical variants include: (final for after NNBSP) and (final).

Derived from: Old Uyghur yodh, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1823 MONGOLIAN LETTER O

Masculine vowel o

Cyrillic о

See variant forms.

Chakhar ɔ

Khalkha ɔ, ə

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠣᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠢ ɔi
  • ᠊ᠣᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠤ ɔʊ

ɔi is sometimes pronounced œ.

Shapes:

vc- -cvc- -cv
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ
2 ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Final is used after n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w.
  • Final is used after b, p, ts, dz, h. Note that q and b are in the other group, since this is a feminine vowel.
  • The latter medial and final glyphs make a ligature with the preceding consonant.

Other variants include (medial).

Confusables:

Derived from: Old Uyghur waw, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1824 MONGOLIAN LETTER U

Masculine vowel u

Cyrillic у

See variant forms.

Chakhar ʊ

Khalkha ʊ, ə

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠤᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠤᠢ ʊi
  • ᠊ᠣᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠤ ɔʊ
  • ᠊ᠤᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤᠤ ʊʊ

Shapes:

vc- -cvc- -cv nnbsp+v
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ

ᠷᠤᠭᠤ
2 ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Final is used after n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w.
  • Final is used after b, p, ts, dz, h. Note that q and b are in pattern 1, since this is a masculine vowel.
  • The latter medial and final glyphs make a ligature with the preceding consonant.
  • and are used after NNBSP.

Other variants include (medial), and or (final & nnbsp).

Historical variants include (medial) and (final).

Confusables:

Derived from: Old Uyghur waw, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1825 MONGOLIAN LETTER OE

Feminine vowel ö

Cyrillic ө

See variant forms.

Chakhar o

Khalkha o, ə

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠥᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠢ oi
  • ᠊ᠥᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠦ ou

Shapes:

vc- -cvc- -cv
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ
2 ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Final is used after n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w.
  • Final is used after b, p, ts, dz, h. Note that q and b are in the previous pattern, since this is a feminine vowel.
  • The latter medial and final glyphs make a ligature with the preceding consonant.

Other variants include and (medial), and (final). The latter is an older form, also used in loanwords.w

Historical variants include (isolated), (initial) and (final).

Confusables:

Derived from: Old Uyghur waw, in a digraph with yodh in word-initial syllables; preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1826 MONGOLIAN LETTER UE

Feminine vowel ü

Cyrillic ү

See variant forms.

Chakhar u

Khalkha u, ə

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠦᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠦᠢ ui
  • ᠊ᠡᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠦ əu
  • ᠊ᠢᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠢᠦ iu
  • ᠊ᠥᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠦ ou
  • ᠊ᠦᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦᠦ uu

Shapes:

vc- -cvc- -cv nnbsp+v
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ


ᠭᠡᠢ
2 ᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪ
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Final is used after n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w.
  • Final is used after b, p, q, g, ts, dz, h. Note that q and b are in pattern 2, since this is a feminine vowel.
  • The latter medial and final glyphs make a ligature with the preceding consonant.
  • , and are used after NNBSP.

Other variants include (isolated), and (medial), and (final) and (final nnbsp). The latter is an older form, also used in loanwords.w

Historical variants include (initial), (medial) and (final).

Confusables:

Derived from: Old Uyghur waw, in a digraph with yodh in word-initial syllables; preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1827 MONGOLIAN LETTER EE

Description in the Unicode standard:

Vowel ē/é

Cyrillic э

No variant forms.

Chakhar ə

Khalkha i, e, ə

This is an alternate form of [U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E] which is used for foreign loanwords, eg. ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ viḳipēdiya Wikipedia.

vc- -cvc- -cv
1 ᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲ
shapes

Confusables: The medial and final forms of this letter are identical to those of [U+1838 MONGOLIAN LETTER WA].

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

Consonants

Basic consonants

U+1828 MONGOLIAN LETTER NA

Consonant n

Cyrillic н

See variant forms.

Chakhar n, ŋ

Khalkha n

ŋ in syllable-final position.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs nnbsp
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv nc-
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠭᠤᠳ/ ᠦᠭᠦᠳ
ᠠᠷ/ ᠨᠡᠷ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ᠊᠊ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ᠊᠊ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

Other variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • (initial)

Historical variants:

  • Medial and (the last is used for Todo NNBSP only)
  • Final

Confusables:

  • Visually, in syllable-final position, this letter is distinguished from from medial and final a/e only by its position in the syllable sequence.

Derived from: Old Uyghur nun.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1829 MONGOLIAN LETTER ANG

Description in the Unicode standard:

Consonant ng

Cyrillic н, нг

See variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalkha ŋ

Only used at end of word (medial form used for composites).

Transcribes Tibetan U+0F44 TIBETAN LETTER NGA ; Sanskrit U+0919 DEVANAGARI LETTER NGA .

Shapes:

  syll. final
  -vc- -vc
a ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ
ə ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ
i ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ
ɔ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ
ʊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ
o ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ
u ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ
shapes

Variants:

There are no variants in normal Mongolian text, but the following historical variants are attested:

  • medial
  • final

Derived from: Old Uyghur nun-kaph digraph.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+182A MONGOLIAN LETTER BA

Consonant b

Cyrillic б, в

See variant forms.

Chakhar b

Khalkha p, w

v when used to transcribe foreign words in classical Mongolian. This is the most common use of Cyrillic в in Mongolian.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs nnbsp
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv ncv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷ/ᠡᠷ
ᠠᠨ/ᠡᠨ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors:

  • Forms ligatures with ɔ, ʊ, o, and u.

Other variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • Final , an older variant form.w

Derived from: Old Uyghur pe.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+182B MONGOLIAN LETTER PA

Consonant p

Cyrillic п

No variant forms.

Chakhar p

Khalkha

Mostly used for foriegn words. One source says mostly used at the beginning of foreign wordsw, but another indicates use in medial and final positions only.

Transcribes [U+0F54 TIBETAN LETTER PA].

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Forms ligatures with ɔ, ʊ, o, and u.

Derived from: The letter BA as a Galik letter.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+182C MONGOLIAN LETTER QA

Consonant q

Cyrillic х

See variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalka x

Mostly used in masculine words, eg. ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ qaɣan kahn

Appears to be used only before a vowel.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs nnbsp
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv ncv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ ᠢ᠊
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • As a velar consonant, this character uses different visual shapes before masculine and feminine vowels.
  • The shape forms ligatures with o, and u.
  • The information above about the shape following the NNBSP is from Wikipedia, but I don't see elsewhere any information about a suffix beginning with this character.

Other variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • Isolate
  • Initial
  • Medial

Confusables:

Derived from: Old Uyghur merger of gimel and hath (masculine) or kaph (feminine).w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+182D MONGOLIAN LETTER GA

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant ɣ, cyrillic г

ɣ before masculine vowels, eg. ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ γaʤar place, ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ qaɣan kahn. However, unless reading classical literary Mongolian, when used between two vowels this sound is typically elided, leaving a long vowel. For example, ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ qaɣan kahn is pronounced as if it was written like qaan. Some exceptions exist, such as ᠼᠠᠭᠠᠨ tsaɣan white.

g before feminine vowels or non-vowels, eg. ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ eduge now , ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ʤɔrigtai to be brave, ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠭ beleg gift

k also before feminine vowels, eg. ᠭᠦᠮᠦᠨ kumun person

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • As a velar consonant, this character uses different visual shapes before masculine and feminine vowels.
  • The shape forms ligatures with o, and u.
  • If it appears before another vowel or before no vowel, the shape should be determined by the vowel harmony category of the word. For example, it takes a default masculine form at the end of the masculine word ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ jarlig order , but a feminine form at the end of ᠴᠢᠷᠢᠭ᠌ chirig soldier. (To make this look right in the Mongolian White/Writing fonts I had to use FS2 – which is actually illegal in this position – whereas the font takes care of it in Mongolian Baiti and Noto Sans Mongolian.)
  • The medial form with two dots is used between vowels. The one with no dots is used when followed by a consonant.
  • is used before U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR.

As an example of a situation where a variant selector is needed, consider the word ᠭ᠋ᠠᠯ gal fire. The first variant selector is needed immediately after the first letter, g, to prevent the standard two dots appearing (ᠭᠠᠯ is incorrect).

Other variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • Isolate
  • Initial
  • Medial

Historical variants:

  • Final

Confusables:

Derived from: Old Uyghur merger of gimel and hath (masculine) or kaph (feminine).w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+182E MONGOLIAN LETTER MA

Consonant m

Cyrillic м

No variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalkha m

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:According to Wikipediaw, there is a ligated form when m is followed by l medially.

Derived from: Old Uyghur mem.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+182F MONGOLIAN LETTER LA

Consonant l

Cyrillic л

No variant forms.

Chakhar l

Khalkha ɮ

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs nnbsp
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv ncv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠦᠭᠡ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ

 

shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Ligated forms occur when l follows a bow-shaped consonant in loanwords, such as ᠪᠯᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ blam-a lama.w (This ligature is produced by Baiti and Noto fonts, but not by Universal White.)
  • According to Wikipediaw, there is a ligated form when m is followed by l medially.

Derived from: Old Uyghur hooked resh.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1830 MONGOLIAN LETTER SA

Consonant s

Cyrillic с

See variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalkha s, ʃ

ʃ is the pronunciation before i.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ᠊  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes require variation selectors.

  • is an older final variant derived from old uyghur zayin (though sometimes rendered as as a purely stylistic preference), eg. ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠋ činggis on the Stele of Yisünggew.
  • The final shape is used in Manchu, but not traditional Mongolian.

Derived from: Old Uyghur merged samekh and shin.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1831 MONGOLIAN LETTER SHA

Consonant š

Cyrillic ш

No variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalkha ʃ

This only occurs in word-final position when it is in modern Mongolian words.w

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Derived from: Old Uyghur merged samekh and shin.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1832 MONGOLIAN LETTER TA

Consonant t

Cyrillic т

See variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalkha t

This character is not used in word or syllable final position for Mongolian words.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs nnbsp
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv ncv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ /
ᠤᠷ/ᠦᠷ
ᠠᠢ/ᠡᠢ
ᠠᠭᠠᠨ/ᠡᠭᠡᠨ
ᠠᠦᠶᠢᠭᠠᠨ/ᠡᠦᠶᠢᠭᠡᠨ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:Other variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • Medial .

Confusables:In word or syllable initial position it is visually identical to [U+1833 MONGOLIAN LETTER DA].

Derived from: Old Uyghur taw (initial form) and lamedh (medial form).w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1833 MONGOLIAN LETTER DA

Consonant d

Cyrillic д

See variant forms.

Chakhar d

Khalkha t, tʰ

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs nnbsp
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv ncv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ /
ᠤᠷ/ᠦᠷ
ᠠᠬᠢ/ᠡᠬᠢ
ᠠᠭᠠᠨ/ᠡᠭᠡᠨ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph change should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

Other variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • Initial
  • Final in final position, both used for foreign words.w

Confusables:In word or syllable initial position it is visually identical to [U+1832 MONGOLIAN LETTER TA].

Derived from: Old Uyghur taw (initial form) and lamedh (medial form).w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1834 MONGOLIAN LETTER CHA

Consonant č

Cyrillic ч, ц

See variant forms.

Chakhar ʧʰ

Khalkha ʧʰ, tsʰ

ts is used in Modern Mongolian owing to phonetic change in the Khalka dialect.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:Historical variants:

  • Medial , , and

Derived from: Old Uyghur tsade.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1835 MONGOLIAN LETTER JA

Consonant j

Cyrillic ж, з

See variant forms.

Chakhar ʤ

Khalkha ʤ, dz

dz is used in Modern Mongolian owing to phonetic change in the Khalka dialect.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:Variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • Medial. However, this is produced automatically by Baiti, Universal White, and Noto fonts before an MVS when the JA has nothing preceding it. Otherwise, the form shown in the chart is shown. Wikipedia, on the other hand, shows ᠵᠠ᠋.

Historical variants:

  • Medial , , and

Derived from: Old Uyghur yodh (initial) and tsade (medial).w

Refs: Bathrobe

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1836 MONGOLIAN LETTER YA

Consonant y

Cyrillic -й, е*, ё*, ю*, я*

See variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalkha j

Not used in syllable final position, except before MVS. (?)

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs nnbsp
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv ncv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠨ

ᠤᠭᠠᠨ/ᠦᠭᠡᠨ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Syllable final (ie. no upturn to the left) is used when followed by [U+1822 MONGOLIAN LETTER I].
  • Medial initial when followed by [U+1822 MONGOLIAN LETTER I] is produced by the Mongolian Baiti font, but not Mongolian White or Noto Sans Mongolian.
  • After NNBSP the same distinction of shape is produced, depending on the presence or not of a following i.

Historic variants:

  • Medial
  • Final

Derived from: Old Uyghur yodh (and distinguished from JA in the 19thC by borrowing Manchu hooked yodh).w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1837 MONGOLIAN LETTER RA

Consonant r

Cyrillic р

No variant forms.

Chakhar, Khalkha r

Examples: ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ʤɔrigtai to be brave, ᠵᠣᠷᠲᠠᠢ ʤɔrtai lucky,ᠵᠣᠷ ʤɔr good fortune, luck.

Not normally used at the beginning of Mongolian words. Transcribed foreign words usually get a vowel prepended, for example, transcribing Русь (Russia) results in Oros.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Derived from: Old Uyghur resh.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

Consonants for transcription

U+1838 MONGOLIAN LETTER WA

Consonant v

Cyrillic в

See variant forms.

Chakhar w, v

Used to transcribe foreign words. (Originally used to transcribe Sanskrit U+0935 DEVANAGARI LETTER VA .)

Not used in syllable final position, except before MVS.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

Variants, requiring a variation selector:

  • Media

Confusables: The medial and final forms of this letter are identical to those of [U+1827 MONGOLIAN LETTER EE].

Derived from: Old Uyghur beh and waw before a separated vowel.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1839 MONGOLIAN LETTER FA

Consonant f

Cyrillic ф

No variant forms.

Chakhar f

Used to transcribe foreign words, such as Tibetan ཕ .

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Ligates with a following o, u, ö, or ü.

Derived from: Galik letter, originally from Mongolian b.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+183A MONGOLIAN LETTER KA

Consonant

Cyrillic к

No variant forms.

Chakhar k

Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for Tibetan ག ga and Sanskrit ग ga), eg. ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ viḳipēdiya Wikipedia.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Variants:The following glyph changes should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

  • Ligates with a following o, u, ö, or ü.

Derived from: Galik letter.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+183B MONGOLIAN LETTER KHA

No variant forms.

U+183C MONGOLIAN LETTER TSA

Consonant c

Cyrillic ц

No variant forms.

Chakhar ʦ

Used to transcribe foreign words. (Originally for Tibetan ཚ tsʰ and Sanskrit छ cha.)

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Derived from: Preclassical Mongolian tsade č-ǰ .w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+183D MONGOLIAN LETTER ZA

Consonant z

Cyrillic з

No variant forms.

Chakhar ʣ

Used to transcribe foreign words. (Originally used to transcribe Tibetan dz ཛ; Sanskrit ज).

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Derived from: Preclassical Mongolian tsade č-ǰ .w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+183E MONGOLIAN LETTER HAA

Consonant h

Cyrillic х

No variant forms.

Chakhar x

Used to transcribe foreign words. (Originally used to transcribe Tibetan /h/ ཧ, ྷ; Sanskrit ह).

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Derived from: Galik letter, preceded by an aleph for initial form.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+183F MONGOLIAN LETTER ZRA

Consonant ř

Cyrillic ж

No variant forms.

Chakhar ʐ

Used in Inner Mongolia to transcribe Chinese r ɻ ~ ʐ, always followed by an i. Transliterates ʒ in Tibetan ཞ /ʒa/.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1840 MONGOLIAN LETTER LHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

Consonant lh

Cyrillic лх

No variant forms.

Chakhar lh

Transcribes Tibetan lh, eg. ᡀᠠᠰᠠ lhasa.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Derived from: Digraph composed of l and h.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1841 MONGOLIAN LETTER ZHI

Description in the Unicode standard:

Consonant zh

Cyrillic з

No variant forms.

Chakhar ʈʂɻ

Transcribes Chinese zhi - used in Inner Mongolia.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

Derived from: Galik letter.w

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

U+1842 MONGOLIAN LETTER CHI

Description in the Unicode standard:

Consonant chi

Cyrillic ч

No variant forms.

Chakhar ʈʂʰɻ

Transcribes Chinese chi - used in Inner Mongolia.

Shapes:

  syllable initial syll. final mvs
  cv- -cv- -vc- -vc -cmv
a ᠠ᠊ ᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠠ ᠊ᠠ ᠎ᠠ
ə ᠡ᠊ ᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠡ ᠊ᠡ ᠎ᠡ
i ᠢ᠊ ᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢ ᠊ᠢ  
ɔ ᠣ᠊ ᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠣ ᠊ᠣ  
ʊ ᠤ᠊ ᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤ ᠊ᠤ  
o ᠥ᠊ ᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠥ ᠊ᠥ  
u ᠦ᠊ ᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦ ᠊ᠦ  
shapes

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

Todo letters

U+1843 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO LONG VOWEL SIGN

Description in the Unicode standard:

U+1844 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO E

U+1845 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO I

U+1846 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO O

U+1847 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO U

U+1848 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO OE

U+1849 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO UE

U+184A MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO ANG

Description in the Unicode standard:

U+184B MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO BA

U+184C MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO PA

U+184D MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO QA

U+184E MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO GA

U+184F MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO MA

U+1850 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO TA

U+1851 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO DA

U+1852 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO CHA

U+1853 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO JA

U+1854 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO TSA

U+1855 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO YA

U+1856 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO WA

U+1857 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO KA

U+1858 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO GAA

U+1859 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO HAA

U+185A MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO JIA

U+185B MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO NIA

U+185C MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO DZA

Sibe letters

U+185D MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE E

U+185E MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE I

U+185F MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE IY

U+1860 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE UE

U+1861 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE U

U+1862 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE ANG

U+1863 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE KA

U+1864 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE GA

U+1865 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE HA

U+1866 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE PA

U+1867 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE SHA

U+1868 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE TA

U+1869 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE DA

U+186A MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE JA

U+186B MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE FA

U+186C MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE GAA

U+186D MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE HAA

U+186E MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE TSA

U+186F MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE ZA

U+1870 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE RAA

U+1871 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE CHA

U+1872 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE ZHA

Manchu letters

U+1873 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU I

U+1874 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU KA

U+1875 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU RA

U+1876 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU FA

U+1877 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ZHA

Extensions for Sanskrit and Tibetan

U+1880 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI ANUSVARA ONE

U+1881 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI VISARGA ONE

U+1882 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DAMARU

U+1883 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI UBADAMA

U+1884 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI INVERTED UBADAMA

U+1885 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI BALUDA

U+1886 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI THREE BALUDA

U+1887 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI A

U+1888 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI I

U+1889 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI KA

U+188A MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI NGA

U+188B MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI CA

U+188C MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI TTA

U+188D MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI TTHA

U+188E MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DDA

U+188F MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI NNA

U+1890 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI TA

U+1891 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DA

U+1892 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI PA

U+1893 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI PHA

U+1894 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI SSA

U+1895 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI ZHA

U+1896 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI ZA

U+1897 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI AH

U+1898 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO ALI GALI TA

U+1899 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO ALI GALI ZHA

U+189A MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI GHA

U+189B MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI NGA

U+189C MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI CA

U+189D MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI JHA

U+189E MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI TTA

U+189F MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI DDHA

U+18A0 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI TA

U+18A1 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI DHA

U+18A2 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI SSA

U+18A3 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI CYA

U+18A4 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI ZHA

U+18A5 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI ZA

U+18A6 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI HALF U

U+18A7 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI HALF YA

U+18A8 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI BHA

U+18A9 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DAGALGA

U+18AA MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI LHA

Punctuation

U+1800 MONGOLIAN BIRGA

Mongolian punctuation, birga

Marks the start of a passage or the recto side of a folio. It appears in several glyph variants. Refs: Unicode

U+1801 MONGOLIAN ELLIPSIS

U+1802 MONGOLIAN COMMA

Mongolian punctuation, comma

U+1803 MONGOLIAN FULL STOP

Mongolian punctuation, full stop

U+1804 MONGOLIAN COLON

U+1805 MONGOLIAN FOUR DOTS

Mongolian punctuation, four dots

Marks the end of a passage or chapter.

U+1806 MONGOLIAN TODO SOFT HYPHEN

Todo soft hyphen

Functions like [U+2010 HYPHEN] for words broken at the end of a line, except that it appears at the beginning of the second line, not at the end of the first. Refs: Unicode

U+1807 MONGOLIAN SIBE SYLLABLE BOUNDARY MARKER

Description in the Unicode standard:

U+1808 MONGOLIAN MANCHU COMMA

U+1809 MONGOLIAN MANCHU FULL STOP

U+180A MONGOLIAN NIRUGU

Description in the Unicode standard:

Mongolian nirugu, stem extender, hyphen

Used in traditional typography to physically extend the stem of joining letters to increase the separation between all letters of the word. Ideally, this stretching would be carried out by the font, rather than by inserting this character.

May also separate two parts of a compound word, like [U+2010 HYPHEN] except that it is non-breaking, eg. altan-agula The Golden Mountains.

General sources: Unicode, Wikipedia, Daniels

Digits

U+1810 MONGOLIAN DIGIT ZERO

U+1811 MONGOLIAN DIGIT ONE

U+1812 MONGOLIAN DIGIT TWO

U+1813 MONGOLIAN DIGIT THREE

U+1814 MONGOLIAN DIGIT FOUR

U+1815 MONGOLIAN DIGIT FIVE

U+1816 MONGOLIAN DIGIT SIX

U+1817 MONGOLIAN DIGIT SEVEN

U+1818 MONGOLIAN DIGIT EIGHT

U+1819 MONGOLIAN DIGIT NINE

References

  1. [U] The Unicode Standard v10, Mongolian.
  2. [W] Wikipedia, Mongolian script.
  3. [D] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0, pp 545-556.
  4. [B] Bathrobe's East Asian Writing Systems, Making Sense of the Traditional Mongolian Script
  5. [M] Mongolian NNBSP - Connected Suffixes, Greg Eck
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