Mandaic character notes

Updated 12 July, 2018 • tags scriptnotes, mandaic

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For a summary of the script and its use in writing systems, see the page Mandaic script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

We have usage data for only the Mandaic language using this script.

The transliteration is based on Daniels.

Find

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

Read more about how to use this page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the character or the hex number in the Find control above.

To view this page as intended, you need a Mandaic font. This page comes with a Noto Sans Mandaic webfont. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font. The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. (If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.)

Information about languages that use these characters is taken from the list maintained for the Character Use app. The list is not exhaustive.

References are indicated by superscript characters. Wherever possible, those contain direct links to the source material. When such a pointer is alongside an arrow → it means that it's worth following the link for the additional information it provides. Digits refer to the main sources, which are listed at the bottom of a set of notes.

When you are using UniView and you turn on Show notes, UniView will pull in information about characters from this page.

Consonants

U+0841 MANDAIC LETTER AB

Consonant b

Cursive shapes: ࡁࡅࡁࡅࡁ ࡁ

Mandaic ba b

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0842 MANDAIC LETTER AG

Consonant g

Cursive shapes: ࡂࡅࡂࡅࡂ ࡂ

Mandaic ga ɡ

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0843 MANDAIC LETTER AD

Consonant d

Cursive shapes: ࡃࡅࡃࡅࡃ ࡃ

Mandaic da d

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0844 MANDAIC LETTER AH

Consonant h

Cursive shapes: ࡄࡅࡄࡅࡄ ࡄ

Mandaic ha h

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0846 MANDAIC LETTER AZ

Consonant z

Cursive shapes: ࡆࡅࡆࡅࡆ ࡆ

Mandaic za z

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0847 MANDAIC LETTER IT

Consonant

Cursive shapes: ࡇࡅࡇࡅࡇ ࡇ

Mandaic eh

w, ħuu Only appears at the end of personal names or at the end of words to indicate the third person singular suffix.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0848 MANDAIC LETTER ATT

Consonant

Cursive shapes: ࡈࡅࡈࡅࡈ ࡈ

Mandaic ṭa

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+084A MANDAIC LETTER AK

Consonant k

Cursive shapes: ࡊࡅࡊࡅࡊ ࡊ

Mandaic ka k

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+084B MANDAIC LETTER AL

Consonant l

Cursive shapes: ࡋࡅࡋࡅࡋ ࡋ

Mandaic la l

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+084C MANDAIC LETTER AM

Consonant m

Cursive shapes: ࡌࡅࡌࡅࡌ ࡌ

Mandaic ma m

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+084D MANDAIC LETTER AN

Consonant n

Cursive shapes: ࡍࡅࡍࡅࡍ ࡍ

Mandaic na n

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+084E MANDAIC LETTER AS

Consonant s

Cursive shapes: ࡎࡅࡎࡅࡎ ࡎ

Mandaic sa s

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0850 MANDAIC LETTER AP

Consonant p

Cursive shapes: ࡐࡅࡐࡅࡐ ࡐ

Mandaic pa p

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0851 MANDAIC LETTER ASZ

Consonant

Cursive shapes: ࡑࡅࡑࡅࡑ ࡑ

Mandaic ṣa

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0852 MANDAIC LETTER AQ

Consonant q

Cursive shapes: ࡒࡅࡒࡅࡒ ࡒ

Mandaic qa q

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0853 MANDAIC LETTER AR

Consonant r

Cursive shapes: ࡓࡅࡓࡅࡓ ࡓ

Mandaic ra r

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0854 MANDAIC LETTER ASH

Consonant š

Cursive shapes: ࡔࡅࡔࡅࡔ ࡔ

Mandaic ša ʃ

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0855 MANDAIC LETTER AT

Consonant t

Cursive shapes: ࡕࡅࡕࡅࡕ ࡕ

Mandaic ta t

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0856 MANDAIC LETTER DUSHENNA

Consonant

Cursive shapes: ࡖࡅࡖࡅࡖ ࡖ

Mandaic dushenna/adu

di Has a morphemic function, being used to write the relative pronoun and genitive exponent ḏ-, eg. ࡖࡍࡐࡀࡒࡕ ḏnpaqt dinpaqt who left you and ࡖࡎࡉࡍࡀ ḏsina disina of hatred.

It was derived from a digraph of + [U+0843 MANDAIC LETTER AD + U+0849 MANDAIC LETTER AKSA]. Some fonts appear to render this more like ࡅࡉ.see 1

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0857 MANDAIC LETTER KAD

Consonant kḏ

Cursive shapes: ࡗࡅࡗࡅࡗ ࡗ

Mandaic kad

kḏi Used to write the word when, as, like.

It was derived from a digraph of + [U+084A MANDAIC LETTER AK + U+0856 MANDAIC LETTER DUSHENNA].

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0858 MANDAIC LETTER AIN

Consonant ʕ

Cursive shapes: ࡘࡅࡘࡅࡘ ࡘ

Mandaic ayin

ʕ Borrowed from ع [U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN] to represent the Arabic sound.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

Vowels

U+0840 MANDAIC LETTER HALQA

Vowel ā

Cursive shapes: ࡀࡅࡀࡅࡀ ࡀ

Mandaic a aː, a

 ࡚ [U+085A MANDAIC VOCALIZATION MARK​] can be used below this letter in teaching materials to clarify that the sound should be a, rather than , eg. compare ࡁࡉ baː and ࡁࡉ࡚ ba.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0845 MANDAIC LETTER USHENNA

Vowel u

Cursive shapes: ࡅࡅࡅࡅࡅ ࡅ

Mandaic wa/ushenna u, uː, o

u, uː When used at the start of a word this letter is preceded by a silent [U+084F MANDAIC LETTER IN], ie. ࡏࡅ....

o  ࡚ [U+085A MANDAIC VOCALIZATION MARK​] can be used below this letter in teaching materials to clarify that the sound should be o, rather than u, eg. compare ࡁࡅ bu and ࡁࡅ࡚ bo.

w is rare.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+0849 MANDAIC LETTER AKSA

Vowel i

Cursive shapes: ࡉࡅࡉࡅࡉ ࡉ

Mandaic ya i, iː, e

i, iː When used at the start of a word this letter is preceded by a silent [U+084F MANDAIC LETTER IN], ie. ࡏࡉ....

at the end of a word may be written as ࡉࡀ (although this is commonly read as ja), but may also be written using [U+084F MANDAIC LETTER IN].

e  ࡚ [U+085A MANDAIC VOCALIZATION MARK​] can be used below this letter in teaching materials to clarify that the sound should be e, rather than i, eg. compare ࡁࡉ bi and ࡁࡉ࡚ be. Inside a word, if two of these characters would appear together, they are replaced by [U+084F MANDAIC LETTER IN]. That character is also preferred to represent e when it follows a consonant with a point below the baseline, ie. ࡊ ࡍ ࡐ ࡑ.

j is rare.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+084F MANDAIC LETTER IN

Vowel ʿ

Cursive shapes: ࡏࡅࡏࡅࡏ ࡏ

Mandaic e -, e, i, iː, u

e when used alone at the start of a word.

It is also used with vowel characters or on its own to form vowels, in ways that are sometimes similar to the use of AIN in other writing systems, including the following situations:

  1. silently before [U+0849 MANDAIC LETTER AKSA] and [U+0845 MANDAIC LETTER USHENNA] for word-initial i and u, respectively.
  2. to replace two adjacent [U+0849 MANDAIC LETTER AKSA] letters in a word.
  3. as a preference instead of [U+0849 MANDAIC LETTER AKSA] when it occurs after a letter with a downwards point, ie. ࡊ ࡍ ࡐ ࡑ.
  4. in place of ࡉࡀ at the end of a word when it represents rather than ja.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

diacritics

U+0859 MANDAIC AFFRICATION MARK

Affrication mark

Mandaic

Extends the character set to cover foreign sounds. They include the following:2

  • γ ࡂ࡙ ( is g).
  • δ ࡃ࡙ ( is d).
  • ࡄ࡙ ( is h).
  • ࡈ࡙ ( is ).
  • χ ࡊ࡙ ( is k).
  • f ࡐ࡙ ( is p).
  • ž ࡑ࡙ ( is ).
  • č, ǰ ࡔ࡙ ( is š).
  • θ ࡕ࡙ ( is t).

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+085B MANDAIC GEMINATION MARK

Gemination mark

Mandaic

Indicates gemination of a consonant (referred to by native writers as 'hard' pronunciation), eg. ࡋࡉࡁ࡛ࡀ lebba heart.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

U+085A MANDAIC VOCALIZATION MARK

Vocalisation mark

Mandaic

Used in teaching materials to disambiguate the sound of a vowel:

o is indicated when used with [U+0845 MANDAIC LETTER USHENNA], eg. compare ࡁࡅ bu and ࡁࡅ࡚ bo,

e when used with [U+0849 MANDAIC LETTER AKSA], eg. compare ࡁࡉ bi and ࡁࡉ࡚ be, and

a when used with [U+0840 MANDAIC LETTER HALQA], eg. compare ࡁࡉ baː and ࡁࡉ࡚ ba.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

Punctuation

U+085E MANDAIC PUNCTUATION

Section delimiter

Mandaic

Used to start and end text sections.

Also used in colophons (historical lay text added to religious text) where it is typically displayed in a smaller size.

General sources: Daniels pp511-513, Unicode pp405-407, Wikipedia

References

  1. [D] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0, pp511-513
  2. [W] Mandaic alphabet
  3. [U] The Unicode Standard v10.0, pp405-407
  4. [E] Proposal for encoding the Mandaic script in the BMP of the UCS
Last commit 2018-07-12 18:27 GMT.  •  Make a comment  •  Licence CC-By © r12a.