Hebrew character notes

Updated Sat 30 Aug 2014 • tags hebrew, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in Unicode's Hebrew block and provides information about them.

To view this page as intended, you need a Hebrew font. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

If you click on any red example text, you will see a list of the characters that make up the example appear at the bottom right of the page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase.

Index

Click on a character in the table to jump to its description. Only characters with a line below have descriptive notes attached (apart from any descriptions in the Unicode database).

 

Based on ISO 8859-8 א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י ך כ ל ם מ ן נ ס ע ף פ ץ צ ק ר ש ת
Yiddish digraphs װ ױ ײ
Cantillation marks   ֑   ֒   ֓   ֔   ֕   ֖   ֗   ֘   ֙   ֚   ֛   ֜   ֝   ֞   ֟   ֠   ֡   ֢   ֣   ֤   ֥   ֦   ֧   ֨   ֩   ֪   ֫   ֬   ֭   ֮   ֯
Points and punctuation ׆   ׇ
Puncta extraordinaria   ׄ   ׅ
Additional punctuation ׳ ״

Based on ISO 8859-8

א

U+05D0 HEBREW LETTER ALEF

Description in the Unicode standard:

= aleph
→ (alef symbol - 2135)

Israeli Hebrew consonant, alef

ʔ eg. אִם ʔim (if). In word-initial position, alef is not usually transliterated, eg. the transliteration of the previous example would be im. In other positions, it is transliterated as ', eg. שָׁאַל ʃaʔal (asked).

ɛ, a or ɔ vowel, though it doesn't represent part of the vowel per se, just a mute indicator.

eg. רִאשׁוֹן riʃɔn (first). It is not transliterated in this case.

Refs: Wikipedia

ב

U+05D1 HEBREW LETTER BET

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (bet symbol - 2136)

Israeli Hebrew consonant, bɛt

v eg. טוֹב tɔv (good).

b, written בּ in pointed text, eg. בֵּן bɛn (son).

Refs: Wikipedia

ג

U+05D2 HEBREW LETTER GIMEL

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (gimel symbol - 2137)

Israeli Hebrew consonant, gimɛl

g eg. גַּג gag (roof).

Sometimes written גּ in pointed text (see the previous example) due to historical phonetic distinctions which are no longer relevant in modern Israeli hebrew.

ʤ when followed by geresh ג׳ , eg. ג׳וּק ʤuk (roach).

Refs: Wikipedia

ד

U+05D3 HEBREW LETTER DALET

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (dalet symbol - 2138)

Israeli Hebrew consonant, dalɛt

d eg. דּוּד dud (boiler).

Sometimes written with dagesh דּ in pointed text (see the previous example) due to historical phonetic distinctions which are no longer relevant in modern Israeli hebrew.

ʤ when followed by geresh ג׳ , eg. ג׳וּק ʤuk (roach).

ð when followed by geresh. Used for transliteration of non-Hebrew sounds such as Arabic ذ or English voiced th, eg. ד׳ו אל-חיג׳ה (Dhu al-Hijjah (ذو الحجة)‎). Sometimes just ד is used.

Refs: Wikipedia

ה

U+05D4 HEBREW LETTER HE

Israeli Hebrew consonant, he

h eg. הֵד hɛd (echo).

ɛ, a or ɔ vowel, though it doesn't represent part of the vowel per se, just a mute indicator.

This typically occurs at the end of a word, eg. פֹּה po (here). It is not transliterated in this case.

Refs: Wikipedia

ו

U+05D5 HEBREW LETTER VAV

Israeli Hebrew consonant/vowel, vav

v eg. וָו vav (hook).

u, written with dagesh in vowelled text, eg. הוּא hu (he).

o, written with holam in vowelled text, eg. לוֹ lo (to him).

w when followed by geresh as non-standard orthography, eg. עָוָנְטָה awanta (boastful act). This sound can also be written using U+05F0 HEBREW LIGATURE YIDDISH DOUBLE VAV.

Refs: Wikipedia

ז

U+05D6 HEBREW LETTER ZAYIN

Israeli Hebrew consonant, zajin

z eg. זֶה ze (this).

ʒ when followed by geresh ז׳ , eg. זָ׳רְגוֹן ʒarɡon (jargon).

Refs: Wikipedia

ח

U+05D7 HEBREW LETTER HET

Israeli Hebrew consonant, hɛt

χ eg. חַם χam (hot).

This is sometimes transcribed ch, rather than the official .

Sometimes pronounced h.

Can be followed by geresh for transliteration of non-Hebrew text, such as the Arabic خ, to indicate that the pronunciation is χ, and not h, eg. שייח׳ (Sheikh (شيخ)‎).

Refs: Wikipedia

ט

U+05D8 HEBREW LETTER TET

Israeli Hebrew consonant, tɛt

t eg. קָט kat (tiny).

Refs: Wikipedia

י

U+05D9 HEBREW LETTER YOD

Israeli Hebrew consonant/vowel, jɔd

j eg. יָם yam (sea).

i, written after the hiriq in pointed text, eg. בִּי bi (in me).

ɛ, written after the tsere in pointed text, eg. מֵידָע mɛda (information).

Refs: Wikipedia

ך

U+05DA HEBREW LETTER FINAL KAF

Israeli Hebrew word-final consonant variant, kaf sofit

See also the non-word-final variant U+05DB HEBREW LETTER KAF.

χ eg. סְכָךְ sχaχ (branch-roofing).

k, written ךּ in pointed text. This is rare, but does exist, eg. מִמֶּךָּ.

Refs: Wikipedia

כ

U+05DB HEBREW LETTER KAF

Israeli Hebrew consonant, kaf

See also the word-final variant U+05DA HEBREW LETTER FINAL KAF.

χ eg. סְכָךְ sχaχ (branch-roofing).

k, written כּ in pointed text, eg. כֹּה (so).

Refs: Wikipedia

ל

U+05DC HEBREW LETTER LAMED

Israeli Hebrew consonant, lamɛd

l eg. לִי li (to me).

Refs: Wikipedia

ם

U+05DD HEBREW LETTER FINAL MEM

Israeli Hebrew word-final consonant variant, mɛm sofit

See also the non-word-final variant U+05DE HEBREW LETTER MEM.

m eg. מוּם mum (defect).

Refs: Wikipedia

מ

U+05DE HEBREW LETTER MEM

Israeli Hebrew consonant, mɛm

See also the word-final variant U+05DD HEBREW LETTER MEM.

m eg. מוּם mum (defect).

Refs: Wikipedia

ן

U+05DF HEBREW LETTER FINAL NUN

Israeli Hebrew word-final consonant variant, nun sofit

See also the non-word-final variant U+05E0 HEBREW LETTER NUN.

n eg. נִין nin (grandson).

Refs: Wikipedia

נ

U+05E0 HEBREW LETTER NUN

Israeli Hebrew consonant, nun

See also the word-final variant U+05E0 HEBREW LETTER FINAL NUN.

n eg. נִין nin (grandson).

Refs: Wikipedia

ס

U+05E1 HEBREW LETTER SAMEKH

Israeli Hebrew word-final consonant variant, samɛχ

s eg. סוֹף sof (end).

Refs: Wikipedia

ע

U+05E2 HEBREW LETTER AYIN

Israeli Hebrew consonant, ʔajin

ʔ in word medial position, eg. מוֹעִיל moʔil (useful).

in word initial or final position, eg. עַדְלֹאיָדַע adlɔjada (Purim-parade). It is not transliterated in this case.

Refs: Wikipedia

ף

U+05E3 HEBREW LETTER FINAL PE

Israeli Hebrew word-final consonant variant,

See also the other variant, U+05E4 HEBREW LETTER PE.

f eg. פִסְפֵס fisfɛs (missed).

Refs: Wikipedia

פ

U+05E4 HEBREW LETTER PE

Israeli Hebrew consonant,

See also the other variant, U+05E3 HEBREW LETTER FINAL PE.

f eg. פִסְפֵס fisfɛs (missed).

p, written פּ in pointed text. Note that there is no final variant form for this letter when used to represent p, the regular form is always used, eg. שׁוֹפּ ʃop (shop).

Refs: Wikipedia

ץ

U+05E5 HEBREW LETTER FINAL TSADI

Israeli Hebrew word-final consonant variant, ʦadi sofit

See also the non-word-final variant U+05E6 HEBREW LETTER TSADI.

ʦ eg. צִיץ ʦiʦ (bud).

ʦ when followed by geresh ץ׳, eg. ריצ׳רץ׳ ʁiʧʁaʧ (zip).

Refs: Wikipedia

צ

U+05E6 HEBREW LETTER TSADI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= zade

Israeli Hebrew consonant, ʦadi

See also the word-final variant U+05E5 HEBREW LETTER FINAL TSADI.

ʦ eg. צִיץ ʦiʦ (bud).

ʦ when followed by geresh ץ׳, eg. ריצ׳רץ׳ ʁiʧʁaʧ (zip).

Refs: Wikipedia

ק

U+05E7 HEBREW LETTER QOF

Israeli Hebrew consonant, kɔf

k eg. קוֹל kɔl (sound).

Refs: Wikipedia

ר

U+05E8 HEBREW LETTER RESH

Israeli Hebrew consonant, ʁɛʃ

ʁ eg. עִיר (city). Sometimes pronounced ʀ. Commonly written phonemically as r.

Can be followed by geresh for transliteration of non-Hebrew text, such as the Arabic غ, to indicate that the pronunciation is ʁ, eg. ר׳ג׳ר ( Ghajar).

Refs: Wikipedia

ש

U+05E9 HEBREW LETTER SHIN

Israeli Hebrew consonant, ʃin

ʃ, written שׁ in pointed text, eg. שָׁם ʃam (there).

s, written שׂ in pointed text, eg. שָׂם sam (put).

Refs: Wikipedia

ת

U+05EA HEBREW LETTER TAV

Israeli Hebrew consonant, tav

t eg. תּוּת tut (strawberry).

Sometimes written תּ in pointed text (see the previous example) due to historical phonetic distinctions which are no longer relevant in modern Israeli hebrew.

θ when followed by geresh. Used for transliteration of non-Hebrew sounds such as Arabic or English th, eg. ת׳רסטון (Thurston).

Refs: Wikipedia

Yiddish digraphs

װ

U+05F0 HEBREW LIGATURE YIDDISH DOUBLE VAV

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tsvey vovn

Israeli Hebrew

Non-standard orthography used to represent w eg. עָוָנְטָה awanta (boastful act). Can also be written as vav followed by geresh ו׳.

Refs: Wikipedia

ױ

U+05F1 HEBREW LIGATURE YIDDISH VAV YOD

ײ

U+05F2 HEBREW LIGATURE YIDDISH DOUBLE YOD

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tsvey yudn

Cantillation marks

֑

U+0591 HEBREW ACCENT ETNAHTA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= atnah
֒

U+0592 HEBREW ACCENT SEGOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= segolta
֓

U+0593 HEBREW ACCENT SHALSHELET

֔

U+0594 HEBREW ACCENT ZAQEF QATAN

֕

U+0595 HEBREW ACCENT ZAQEF GADOL

֖

U+0596 HEBREW ACCENT TIPEHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tarha, me'ayla ~ mayla
֗

U+0597 HEBREW ACCENT REVIA

֘

U+0598 HEBREW ACCENT ZARQA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tsinorit, zinorit; tsinor, zinor
• This character is to be used when Zarqa or Tsinor are placed above, and also for Tsinorit.
→ (hebrew accent zinor - 05AE)
֙

U+0599 HEBREW ACCENT PASHTA

֚

U+059A HEBREW ACCENT YETIV

֛

U+059B HEBREW ACCENT TEVIR

֜

U+059C HEBREW ACCENT GERESH

Description in the Unicode standard:

= teres
֝

U+059D HEBREW ACCENT GERESH MUQDAM

֞

U+059E HEBREW ACCENT GERSHAYIM

֟

U+059F HEBREW ACCENT QARNEY PARA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pazer gadol
֠

U+05A0 HEBREW ACCENT TELISHA GEDOLA

֡

U+05A1 HEBREW ACCENT PAZER

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pazer qatan
֢

U+05A2 HEBREW ACCENT ATNAH HAFUKH

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (hebrew accent yerah ben yomo - 05AA)
֣

U+05A3 HEBREW ACCENT MUNAH

֤

U+05A4 HEBREW ACCENT MAHAPAKH

֥

U+05A5 HEBREW ACCENT MERKHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= yored
֦

U+05A6 HEBREW ACCENT MERKHA KEFULA

֧

U+05A7 HEBREW ACCENT DARGA

֨

U+05A8 HEBREW ACCENT QADMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= azla
֩

U+05A9 HEBREW ACCENT TELISHA QETANA

֪

U+05AA HEBREW ACCENT YERAH BEN YOMO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= galgal
→ (hebrew accent atnah hafukh - 05A2)
֫

U+05AB HEBREW ACCENT OLE

֬

U+05AC HEBREW ACCENT ILUY

֭

U+05AD HEBREW ACCENT DEHI

֮

U+05AE HEBREW ACCENT ZINOR

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tsinor; zarqa
• This character is to be used when Zarqa or Tsinor are placed above left.
→ (hebrew accent zarqa - 0598)
֯

U+05AF HEBREW MARK MASORA CIRCLE

Points and punctuation

׆

U+05C6 HEBREW PUNCTUATION NUN HAFUKHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• does not historically derive from the letter nun
→ (hebrew letter nun - 05E0)

Hebrew punctuation, reversed nun / inverted nun / nun hafukha / nun menuzerret

Rare biblical character that is not part of a word or read aloud in any way, but serves solely to mark up text. Used surrounded by spaces.

"While it depends on the particular manuscript or printed edition, it is found in nine places: twice in the Book of Numbers (prior to and after Numbers 10:34-36), and seven times in Psalm 107.[3] It is uncertain today what it was intended to signify."

There are numerous different glyph forms for this character, depending on the manuscript. For examples, see wikipedia.

Refs: Wikipedia

ׇ

U+05C7 HEBREW POINT QAMATS QATAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (hebrew point qamats - 05B8)

Hebrew point קָמַץ קָטָן

In some biblical texts a distinction is made between this and קָמַץ גָּדוֹל kamaʦ gadɔl, in which case you can use this character for kamaʦ katan and U+05B8 HEBREW POINT QAMATS for kamaʦ gadɔl. Normally, in modern hebrew, you can use U+05B8 for either.

Refs: Wikipedia, Unicode 5.2, p237

Puncta extraordinaria

ׄ

U+05C4 HEBREW MARK UPPER DOT

ׅ

U+05C5 HEBREW MARK LOWER DOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• punctum extraordinarium (Psalms 27:13)
→ (hebrew point hiriq - 05B4)

Additional punctuation

׳

U+05F3 HEBREW PUNCTUATION GERESH

Israeli Hebrew punctuation

Hebrew equivalent of a period in abbreviations.

Also used to modify consonants to create non-native sounds.

The following are found in slang and loanwords that are part of the everyday Hebrew colloquial vocabulary:

  • ʧ with צ or ץ, eg. ריצ׳רץ׳ riʧraʧ (zip)
  • ʤ with ג , eg. ג׳וּק ʤuk (roach)
  • ʒ with ז , eg. זָ׳רְגוֹן ʒarɡon (jargon)
  • w as non-standard orthography for transcriptions, eg. עָוָנְטָה awanta (boastful act). This sound can also be written using U+05F0 HEBREW LIGATURE YIDDISH DOUBLE VAV.

Geresh is also used to transcribe other sounds not in the hebrew phonology when transliterating (rather than adoption via loanwords).

  • ð with ד, ie. Arabic ذ, eg. ד׳ו אל-חיג׳ה (Dhu al-Hijjah (ذو الحجة)‎). Also used for the English voiced th. Sometimes just ד is used.
  • θ with ת or ץ, ie. Arabic , eg. ת׳רסטון (Thurston).
  • χ with ח, ie. Arabic خ, eg. שייח׳ (Sheikh (شيخ)‎). Used to specify χ rather than the possible h of ח.
  • ʁ with ר, ie. Arabic غ, eg. ר׳ג׳ר ( Ghajar).

Where keyboards do not support this character, U+0027 APOSTROPHE is commonly used. This is visually substandard, however, since it doesn't align with the top of the hebrew characters like geresh.

Refs: Wikipedia

״

U+05F4 HEBREW PUNCTUATION GERSHAYIM

Israeli Hebrew punctuation

Placed before the last character of a word to indicate that this is an acronym, eg. צה״ל .

Where keyboards do not support this character, U+0022 QUOTATION MARK is commonly used. This is visually substandard, however, since it doesn't align with the top of the hebrew characters like gershaym.

Refs: Wikipedia

First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2016-03-11 10:01 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.