Gurmukhi character notes

Updated 12 July, 2018 • tags scriptnotes, gurmukhi

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For a summary of the script and its use in writing systems, see the page Gurmukhi script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

We have usage data for only 1 language that uses the Gurmukhi script: Punjabi.

The transliteration is based on ISO 15919, with some additions to ensure one-to-one mapping of characters.

Find

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

Read more about how to use this page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the character or the hex number in the Find control above.

To view this page as intended, you need a Gurmukhi font. This page comes with a Gurmukhi webfont. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font. The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. (If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.)

Information about languages that use these characters is taken from the list maintained for the Character Use app. The list is not exhaustive.

Transliterations are based largely on ISO 15919 but with some changes, mainly intended to ensure a one-to-one correspondence between characters. For example, two-letter sequences are handled by superscripting the second letter, such as ʰ in . Also, is used to indicate the inherent vowel, and the virama is shown using a diacritic, as in .

References are indicated by superscript characters. Wherever possible, those contain direct links to the source material. When such a pointer is alongside an arrow → it means that it's worth following the link for the additional information it provides. Digits refer to the main sources, which are listed at the bottom of a set of notes.

When you are using UniView and you turn on Show notes, UniView will pull in information about characters from this page.

Consonants

Basic consonants

U+0A15 GURMUKHI LETTER KA

Consonant k

Punjabi kəkːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A16 GURMUKHI LETTER KHA

Consonant

Punjabi kʰəkʰːɑ kʰə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A17 GURMUKHI LETTER GA

Consonant g

Punjabi gəgːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A18 GURMUKHI LETTER GHA

Consonant

Punjabi kə̀gːɑ kə̀

Pronounced without aspiration, and without voicing when initial. Used to indicate a low tone when at the beginning of a word or syllable, eg. ਘੋੜਾ gʰoṛā kòɽɑ horse, or medially between a short and long vowel, eg. ਪਘਾਰਨਾ pᵃgʰārnā pəɡɑ̀rnɑ to melt.

Indicates a high tone when elsewhere, eg. ਕੁਝ kujʰ kúʤ something.o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A19 GURMUKHI LETTER NGA

Consonant

Punjabi ŋɑŋːɑ̃ ŋə

Rarely used. It cannot begin a syllable or be placed between two consonants, and occurs most often as an allophone of [U+0A28 GURMUKHI LETTER NA] before specific consonant phonemes.w

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A1A GURMUKHI LETTER CA

Consonant c

Punjabi ʧəʧːɑ ʧə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A1B GURMUKHI LETTER CHA

Consonant

Punjabi ʧʰəʧʰːɑ ʧʰə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A1C GURMUKHI LETTER JA

Consonant j

Punjabi ʤəʤːɑ ʤə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A1D GURMUKHI LETTER JHA

Consonant

Punjabi ʧə̀ʤːɑ ʧə̀

Pronounced without aspiration, and without voicing when initial. Used to indicate a low tone when at the beginning of a word or syllable, or medially between a short and long vowel.

Indicates a high tone when elsewhere, eg. ਕੁਝ kujʰ kúʤ something.o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A1E GURMUKHI LETTER NYA

Consonant ñ

Punjabi ɲəɲːɑ̃ ɲə

Rarely used. It cannot begin a syllable or be placed between two consonants, and occurs most often as an allophone of [U+0A28 GURMUKHI LETTER NA] before specific consonant phonemes.w

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A1F GURMUKHI LETTER TTA

Consonant

Punjabi ʈɑtt:a ʈə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A20 GURMUKHI LETTER TTHA

Consonant ṭʰ

Punjabi ʈʰəʈʰːɑ ʈʰə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A21 GURMUKHI LETTER DDA

Consonant

Punjabi ɖəɖːɑ ɖə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A22 GURMUKHI LETTER DDHA

Consonant ḍʰ

Punjabi ʈə̀ɖːɑ ʈə̀

Pronounced without aspiration, and without voicing when initial. Used to indicate a low tone when at the beginning of a word or syllable, or medially between a short and long vowel.

Indicates a high tone when elsewhere.o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A23 GURMUKHI LETTER NNA

Consonant

Punjabi ɳɑɳɑ ɳə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A24 GURMUKHI LETTER TA

Consonant t

Punjabi t̪ət̪ːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A25 GURMUKHI LETTER THA

Consonant

Punjabi t̪ʰət̪ʰːɑ tʰə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A26 GURMUKHI LETTER DA

Consonant d

Punjabi d̪əd̪ːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A27 GURMUKHI LETTER DHA

Consonant

Punjabi t̪ə̀d̪ːɑ tə̀

Pronounced without aspiration, and without voicing when initial. Used to indicate a low tone when at the beginning of a word or syllable, or medially between a short and long vowel.

Indicates a high tone when elsewhere.o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A28 GURMUKHI LETTER NA

Consonant n

Punjabi nənːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A2A GURMUKHI LETTER PA

Consonant p

Punjabi pəpːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A2B GURMUKHI LETTER PHA

Consonant

Punjabi pʰəpʰːɑ pʰə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A2C GURMUKHI LETTER BA

Consonant b

Punjabi bəbːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A2D GURMUKHI LETTER BHA

Consonant

Punjabi pə̀bːɑ pə̀

Pronounced without aspiration, and without voicing when initial. Used to indicate a low tone when at the beginning of a word or syllable, or medially between a short and long vowel.

Indicates a high tone when elsewhere.o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A2E GURMUKHI LETTER MA

Consonant m

Punjabi məmːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A2F GURMUKHI LETTER YA

Consonant y

Punjabi jəjːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A30 GURMUKHI LETTER RA

Consonant r

Punjabi ɾɑɾɑ

Also appears in subjoined form as a syllable medial consonant, eg. ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧ prəbə́nd̪ management, government.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A5C GURMUKHI LETTER RRA

Consonant

Punjabi ɽɑɽɑ ɽə

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A32 GURMUKHI LETTER LA

Consonant l

Punjabi ləlːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A35 GURMUKHI LETTER VA

Consonant v

Punjabi ʋɑʋːɑ ʋə, wə

The pronunciation varies between ʋə and depending on the word.w

Can also appear in subjoined form as a syllable medial consonant, eg. ਸ੍ਵਰਗ svərəg heaven. However, this is much less common than the subjoined form of [U+0A30 GURMUKHI LETTER RA].

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A38 GURMUKHI LETTER SA

Consonant s

Punjabi səsːɑ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A39 GURMUKHI LETTER HA

Consonant h

Punjabi ɦɑɦɑ ɦə

Only pronounced ɦ when it occurs word initially, eg. ਹਰੀ hᵃrī həri green. In other locations it is unpronounced and indicates that the preceding vowel has a high tone, eg. ਮੀਹ mīh rain. When used after a consonant, it appears subjoined below that consonant, eg. ਚੜ੍ਹ cᵃṛ͓h ʧə́ɽ climb.d

When it follows a short i or u, it changes the vowel's phonetic value from [ɪ] and [ʊ] to [é] and [ó], respectively, and indicates a high tone.

According to Omniglot, the conjuncts ਗ੍ਹ gʰa, ਜ੍ਹ jʰa, ਢ੍ਹ ḍʰa, ਦ੍ਹ dʰa, and ਬ੍ਹ bʰa indicate a level tone when at the beginning of a word or syllable, and a low rising tone when elsewhere.o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Extended consonants

U+0A59 GURMUKHI LETTER KHHA

Consonant x

NFC produces the sequence + [U+0A16 GURMUKHI LETTER KHA + U+0A3C GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA].

Punjabi kʰəkʰːɑ pɛɾ bɪnd̪i

Represents an extended sound used for foriegn words, particularly Urdu or Persian.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A5A GURMUKHI LETTER GHHA

Consonant ġ

NFC produces the sequence + [U+0A17 GURMUKHI LETTER GA + U+0A3C GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA​].

Punjabi gəgːɑ pɛɾ bɪnd̪i ɣə

Represents an extended sound used for foriegn words, particularly Urdu or Persian.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A33 GURMUKHI LETTER LLA

Consonant

NFC produces the sequence + [U+0A32 GURMUKHI LETTER LA + U+0A3C GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA​].

Punjabi ləlːɑ pɛɾ bɪnd̪i ɭə

Was only recently added to the Gurmukhī alphabet. It was not a part of the traditional orthography, the phonological difference between 'l' and 'ɭ' is not reflected in the script. Some sources do not consider it a separate letter.w

Represents an extended sound used for foriegn words, particularly Urdu or Persian.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A5B GURMUKHI LETTER ZA

Consonant z

NFC produces the sequence + [U+0A1C GURMUKHI LETTER JA + U+0A3C GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA​].

Punjabi ʤəʤːɑ pɛɾ bɪnd̪i

Represents an extended sound used for foriegn words, particularly Urdu or Persian.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A5E GURMUKHI LETTER FA

Consonant f

NFC produces the sequence + [U+0A2B GURMUKHI LETTER PHA + U+0A3C GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA​].

Punjabi pʰəpʰːɑ pɛɾ bɪnd̪i

Represents an extended sound used for foriegn words, particularly Urdu or Persian.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Vowel carriers

U+0A72 GURMUKHI IRI

Vowel support

Punjabi iɽi

Functions as a vowel-sign carrier for independent vowels (ie. vowels with no preceding consonant).

Never used on its own, and the Unicode Standard advises against using it at all, but advises authors to instead use the precomposed characters [U+0A08 GURMUKHI LETTER II], [U+0A07 GURMUKHI LETTER I], and [U+0A0F GURMUKHI LETTER EE].

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A73 GURMUKHI URA

Vowel support

Punjabi uɽɑ

Functions as a vowel-sign carrier for independent vowels (ie. vowels with no preceding consonant).

Never used on its own, and the Unicode Standard advises against using it at all, but advises authors to instead use the precomposed characters [U+0A09 GURMUKHI LETTER U], [U+0A0A GURMUKHI LETTER UU], and [U+0A13 GURMUKHI LETTER OO].

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A05 GURMUKHI LETTER A

Vowel support & independent vowel a

Punjabi æɽɑ ə

Functions as a vowel-sign carrier for independent vowels (ie. vowels with no preceding consonant).

Used on its own, it is regarded as a null consonant with an inherent vowel. Usage with other vowel-sign characters is discouraged by the Unicode Standard in favour of the precomposed characters [U+0A06 GURMUKHI LETTER AA], [U+0A10 GURMUKHI LETTER AI], and [U+0A14 GURMUKHI LETTER AU].

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+0A06 GURMUKHI LETTER AA

Independent vowel ạ̄

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A3E GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AA​].

Punjabi kannā ɑ, ä

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A07 GURMUKHI LETTER I

Independent vowel

The corresponding vowel-sign is ਿ [U+0A3F GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN I​].

Punjabi sihārī ɪ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A08 GURMUKHI LETTER II

Independent vowel ị̄

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A40 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN II​].

Punjabi bihārī i

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A09 GURMUKHI LETTER U

Independent vowel

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A41 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN U​].

Punjabi onkaṛ ʊ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A0A GURMUKHI LETTER UU

Independent vowel ụ̄

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A42 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN UU​].

Punjabi dulankaṛ u

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A0F GURMUKHI LETTER EE

Independent vowel

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A47 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN EE​].

Punjabi lāvā̃ e

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A10 GURMUKHI LETTER AI

Independent vowel ạʲ

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A48 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AI​].

Punjabi dulāvā̃ ɛ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A13 GURMUKHI LETTER OO

Independent vowel

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A4B GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN OO​].

Punjabi hōṛā o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A14 GURMUKHI LETTER AU

Independent vowel ạʷ

The corresponding vowel-sign is [U+0A4C GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AU​].

Punjabi kanōṛā ɔ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Vowel signs

U+0A3E GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AA

Vowel sign ā

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A06 GURMUKHI LETTER AA].

Punjabi kannā ɑ, ä

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

ਿ

U+0A3F GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN I

Vowel sign i

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A07 GURMUKHI LETTER I].

Punjabi sihārī ɪ

é with a high tone, eg. ਕਿਹੜਾ kihṛā kéɽɑ who.d

ǽ when combined with a preceding ah, eg. ਕਹਿਣਾ kᵃhiṇā kǽɳɑ to say.d

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A40 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN II

Vowel sign ī

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A08 GURMUKHI LETTER II].

Punjabi bihārī i

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A41 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN U

Vowel sign u

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A09 GURMUKHI LETTER U].

Punjabi onkaṛ ʊ

ó with a high tone, eg. ਕੁਹੜਾ kuhṛā kóɽɑ leper.d

ɔ́ when combined with a preceding ah, eg. ਵਹੁਟੀ wᵃhuṭī wɔ́ʈi bride.d

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A42 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN UU

Vowel sign ū

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A0A GURMUKHI LETTER UU].

Punjabi dulankaṛ u

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A47 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN EE

Vowel sign e

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A0F GURMUKHI LETTER EE].

Punjabi lāvā̃ e

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A48 GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AI

Vowel sign

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A10 GURMUKHI LETTER AI].

Punjabi dulāvā̃ ɛ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A4B GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN OO

Vowel sign o

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A13 GURMUKHI LETTER OO].

Punjabi hōṛā o

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A4C GURMUKHI VOWEL SIGN AU

Vowel sign

The corresponding independent vowel is [U+0A14 GURMUKHI LETTER AU].

Punjabi kanōṛā ɔ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Diacritics

U+0A4D GURMUKHI SIGN VIRAMA

Virama ͓

Punjabi halant

Mostly used to indicate subjoined characters in syllable-initial clusters, eg. ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧ prəbə́nd̪ government. Otherwise, unlike other indic scripts, Gurmukhi generally doesn't use the virama to indicate dropped vowel sounds. The reader just needs to know how to pronounce the word.

The virama may also be used occasionally to suppress the vowel in Sanskritised text, or in dictionaries for extra phonetic information.w

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A3C GURMUKHI SIGN NUKTA

Nukta ̣

Punjabi

Used with an existing consonant to represent an extended sound used for foriegn words, particularly Urdu or Persian.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A01 GURMUKHI SIGN ADAK BINDI

U+0A70 GURMUKHI TIPPI

Vowel nasalisation

Punjabi tippi

Used with vowels a, i, u, and with final ū to indicate nasalisation, eg. ਮੂੰਡਾ mūṃḍā muɳɖɑ boy. ( [U+0A02 GURMUKHI SIGN BINDI​] is used for all other vowels.)

Geminated mm and nn may be written using a nasalisation diacritic associated with the preceding vowel, eg. ਲੰਮੀ ləmmi long.d

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A02 GURMUKHI SIGN BINDI

Vowel nasalisation

Punjabi bindi

Used to indicate nasalisation, except for vowels a, i, u, and with final ū (for those, see [U+0A70 GURMUKHI TIPPI]).

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A03 GURMUKHI SIGN VISARGA

Visarga

Punjabi visarg

Used only very occasionally. In some cases it acts like a Sanskrit visarga, producing a voiceless h sound, but in others it represents an abbreviation, in the same way the period is used in English.w

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A75 GURMUKHI SIGN YAKASH

Medial y ʸ

Punjabi yakash

Occasionally, a cluster ending with y is rendered using this diacritic, eg. .ਕਲੵਚਰੈ.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A51 GURMUKHI SIGN UDAAT

High tone marker ˊ

Punjabi udaat

Used in older texts to indicate a high tone.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A71 GURMUKHI ADDAK

Gemination marker ʺ

Punjabi addak

Doubling or reinforcement of a consonant sound is indicated, unusually for an indic script, using this diacritic. It is typed before the consonant (in this way it resembles the small tsu in Japanese), and is placed to the left of the consonant it affects (not over it), eg. ਪੱਕੀ pəkki ripe.

The diacritic may appear over the right side of the preceding consonant, but if that consonant has a vowel sign or extension above the horizontal topline, it may be displayed on a short extension of the joining line. See for example ਭੁੱਲ ਭੇੱਲ ਉੱਛਲ (effect may vary by font).

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Symbols

U+0A74 GURMUKHI EK ONKAR

Symbol

Punjabi ek onkar

Religious symbol that can have various different forms. Unicode classes it as a letter. The shape in the Unicode charts is highly stylised.

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

Digits

U+0A66 GURMUKHI DIGIT ZERO

Digit 0

Punjabi ਸਿਫ਼ਰ sɪfəɾ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A67 GURMUKHI DIGIT ONE

Digit 1

Punjabi ਇੱਕ ɪkː

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A68 GURMUKHI DIGIT TWO

Digit 2

Punjabi ਦੋ d̪oː

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A69 GURMUKHI DIGIT THREE

Digit 3

Punjabi ਤਿੰਨ t̪ɪnː

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A6A GURMUKHI DIGIT FOUR

Digit 4

Punjabi ਚਾਰ tʃɑːɾ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A6B GURMUKHI DIGIT FIVE

Digit 5

Punjabi ਪੰਜ pəndʒ

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A6C GURMUKHI DIGIT SIX

Digit 6

Punjabi ਛੇ tʃʰeː

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A6D GURMUKHI DIGIT SEVEN

Digit 7

Punjabi ਸੱਤ sət̪ː

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A6E GURMUKHI DIGIT EIGHT

Digit 8

Punjabi ਅੱਠ əʈʰː

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

U+0A6F GURMUKHI DIGIT NINE

Digit 9

Punjabi ਨੌਂ nɔ̃

General sources: Daniels, Unicode, Wikipedia

References

  1. [u] The Unicode Standard v10.0, Gurmukhi, pp475-479.
  2. [d] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0, pp395-398
  3. [w] Wikipedia, Gurmukhi script
  4. [s] Sukhjinder Sidhu, Proposal to encode Gurmukhi Sign Yakash
  5. [o] Omniglot, Punjabi
  6. [b] Andrea Lynn Bowden, Punjabi Tonemics and the Gurmukhi Script: A Preliminary Study
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