Greek character notes

Updated 20 July, 2017 • tags greek, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered or copied from various places.

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If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

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Letters

Ά

U+0386 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0391 0301

Modern Greek a

Έ

U+0388 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0395 0301

Modern Greek e

Ή

U+0389 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0397 0301

Modern Greek i

Ί

U+038A GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0399 0301

Modern Greek o

Ό

U+038C GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 039F 0301

Modern Greek o

Ύ

U+038E GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03A5 0301

Modern Greek i

Ώ

U+038F GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03A9 0301

Modern Greek o

ΐ

U+0390 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DIALYTIKA AND TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03CA 0301

Modern Greek i

Α

U+0391 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA

Modern Greek Alone a. In combination αι is e.

Accented versions: ά Ά

Β

U+0392 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA

Modern Greek v

Γ

U+0393 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= gamma function
→ (double-struck capital gamma - 213E)

Modern Greek ɣ before consonants or α, ο, ω, ου; j before ε, ι, η, υ. In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle.

Δ

U+0394 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (increment - 2206)

Modern Greek ð

Ε

U+0395 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON

Modern Greek Alone e. In combination ει is i.

Accented versions: έ Έ

Ζ

U+0396 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA

Modern Greek z

Η

U+0397 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA

Modern Greek i

Accented versions: ή Ή

Θ

U+0398 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA

Modern Greek θ

Ι

U+0399 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= iota adscript

Modern Greek Alone i. In combination ει, υι, and οι are also i, and αι is e.

Accented versions: ί Ί ϊ Ϊ ΐ

Κ

U+039A GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA

Modern Greek Normally k.

In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is g, eg. έναν καφέ.

Λ

U+039B GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA

Modern Greek l

Μ

U+039C GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU

Modern Greek m.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle.

Ν

U+039D GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU

Modern Greek n.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle.

Ξ

U+039E GREEK CAPITAL LETTER XI

Modern Greek ks.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is gz, eg. τον ξέρω.

Ο

U+039F GREEK CAPITAL fLETTER OMICRON

Modern Greek o.

In combination οι is i.

Accented versions: ό Ό

Π

U+03A0 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (double-struck capital pi - 213F)
→ (n-ary product - 220F)

Modern Greek p.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is b, eg. δεν πάω.

Ρ

U+03A1 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO

Modern Greek r

Σ

U+03A3 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin capital letter esh - 01A9)
→ (n-ary summation - 2211)

Modern Greek s before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, z before β γ μ.

At the end of a word the lower case version of this letter is ς.

Τ

U+03A4 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU

Modern Greek t.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is d, eg. στην Τήνο.

Υ

U+03A5 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON

Modern Greek i.

In combination υι is also i.In αυ and ευ, pronounced f before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, but v before β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ or any vowel.

Accented versions: ύ Ύ ϋ Ϋ ΰ

Φ

U+03A6 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI

Modern Greek f

Χ

U+03A7 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI

Modern Greek χ. h before consonants or α ο ω ου,x before ε ι η υ.

Ψ

U+03A8 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PSI

Modern Greek ps.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is bz, eg. την ψάχνω.

Ω

U+03A9 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (ohm sign - 2126)
→ (inverted ohm sign - 2127)

Modern Greek o

Accented versions: ώ Ώ

Ϊ

U+03AA GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA WITH DIALYTIKA

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0399 0308

Modern Greek i

Ϋ

U+03AB GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON WITH DIALYTIKA

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03A5 0308

Modern Greek i

ά

U+03AC GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03B1 0301

Modern Greek a

έ

U+03AD GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03B5 0301

Modern Greek e

ή

U+03AE GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03B7 0301

Modern Greek i

ί

U+03AF GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03B9 0301

Modern Greek i

ΰ

U+03B0 GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DIALYTIKA AND TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03CB 0301

Modern Greek i

α

U+03B1 GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter alpha - 0251)
→ (proportional to - 221D)

Modern Greek Alone a.

In combination αι is e.

Accented versions: ά Ά

β

U+03B2 GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter sharp s - 00DF)
→ (latin small letter b with stroke - 0180)
→ (latin small letter beta - A7B5)

Modern Greek v

γ

U+03B3 GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter gamma - 0263)
→ (double-struck small gamma - 213D)

Modern Greek ɣ before consonants or α, ο, ω, ου; j before ε, ι, η, υ. In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle.

δ

U+03B4 GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA

Modern Greek ð.

ε

U+03B5 GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter open e - 025B)

Modern Greek Alone e.

In combination ει is i.

Accented versions: έ Έ

ζ

U+03B6 GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA

Modern Greek z.

η

U+03B7 GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA

Modern Greek i

Accented versions: ή Ή

θ

U+03B8 GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter barred o - 0275)
→ (cyrillic small letter fita - 0473)

Modern Greek θ

ι

U+03B9 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter iota - 0269)
→ (turned greek small letter iota - 2129)

Modern Greek Alone i.

In combination ει, υι, and οι are also i, and αι is e.

Accented versions: ί Ί ϊ Ϊ ΐ

κ

U+03BA GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA

Modern Greek Normally k.

In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is g, eg. έναν καφέ.

λ

U+03BB GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= lambda

Modern Greek l

μ

U+03BC GREEK SMALL LETTER MU

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (micro sign - 00B5)

Modern Greek m.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle.

ν

U+03BD GREEK SMALL LETTER NU

Modern Greek n.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle.

ξ

U+03BE GREEK SMALL LETTER XI

Modern Greek ks.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is gz, eg. τον ξέρω.

ο

U+03BF GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON

Modern Greek o. In combination οι is i.

Accented versions: ό Ό

π

U+03C0 GREEK SMALL LETTER PI

Description in the Unicode standard:

• math constant 3.141592...

Modern Greek p.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is b, eg. δεν πάω.

ρ

U+03C1 GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO

Modern Greek r

ς

U+03C2 GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= stigma (the Modern Greek name for this letterform)
• not to be confused with the actual stigma letter
→ (greek small letter stigma - 03DB)

Modern Greek s.

Used only in word final position. Typically there is a separate key for this on the keyboard.

σ

U+03C3 GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used symbolically with a numeric value 200

Modern Greek s before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, z before β γ μ.

τ

U+03C4 GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU

Modern Greek t.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is d, eg. στην Τήνο.

υ

U+03C5 GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter upsilon - 028A)
→ (latin small letter v with hook - 028B)

Modern Greek i.

In combination υι is also i.In αυ and ευ, pronounced f before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, but v before β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ or any vowel.

Accented versions: ύ Ύ ϋ Ϋ ΰ

φ

U+03C6 GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter phi - 0278)
→ (greek phi symbol - 03D5)
• the ordinary Greek letter, showing considerable glyph variation
• in mathematical contexts, the loopy glyph is preferred, to contrast with 03D5

Modern Greek f

χ

U+03C7 GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter chi - AB53)

Modern Greek χ. h before consonants or α ο ω ου, x before ε ι η υ.

ψ

U+03C8 GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI

Modern Greek ps. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is bz, eg. την ψάχνω.

ω

U+03C9 GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter omega - A7B7)

Modern Greek o

Accented versions: ώ Ώ

ϊ

U+03CA GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DIALYTIKA

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03B9 0308

Modern Greek i

ϋ

U+03CB GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DIALYTIKA

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03C5 0308

Modern Greek i

ό

U+03CC GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03BF 0301

Modern Greek o

ύ

U+03CD GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03C5 0301

Modern Greek i

ώ

U+03CE GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03C9 0301

Modern Greek o

ϳ

U+03F3 GREEK LETTER YOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• uppercase is 037F
Ϳ

U+037F GREEK CAPITAL LETTER YOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• lowercase is 03F3

Punctuation

;

U+037E GREEK QUESTION MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= erotimatiko
• sentence-final punctuation
• 003B is the preferred character
→ (question mark - 003F)
≡ 003B semicolon

Equivalent to '?' in English, but note that you should use U+003B SEMICOLON rather than this character. During normalization this character is changed to the ASCII semicolon.

·

U+0387 GREEK ANO TELEIA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• functions in Greek like a semicolon
• 00B7 is the preferred character
≡ 00B7 middle dot

Equivalent to semi-colon in English.

Archaic letters

Ͱ

U+0370 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER HETA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin capital letter half h - 2C75)
ͱ

U+0371 GREEK SMALL LETTER HETA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter half h - 2C76)
Ͳ

U+0372 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ARCHAIC SAMPI

ͳ

U+0373 GREEK SMALL LETTER ARCHAIC SAMPI

Ͷ

U+0376 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PAMPHYLIAN DIGAMMA

ͷ

U+0377 GREEK SMALL LETTER PAMPHYLIAN DIGAMMA

Ϙ

U+03D8 GREEK LETTER ARCHAIC KOPPA

ϙ

U+03D9 GREEK SMALL LETTER ARCHAIC KOPPA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• the Q-shaped archaic koppas are the ordinary alphabetic letters and can also be used as symbols with a numeric value of 90 in classical and pre-classical texts
Ϛ

U+03DA GREEK LETTER STIGMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• apparently in origin a cursive form of digamma
• the name 'stigma' originally applied to a medieval sigma-tau ligature, whose shape was confusably similar to the cursive digamma
• used as a symbol with a numeric value of 6
→ (roman numeral six late form - 2185)
ϛ

U+03DB GREEK SMALL LETTER STIGMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (greek small letter final sigma - 03C2)
Ϝ

U+03DC GREEK LETTER DIGAMMA

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

ϝ

U+03DD GREEK SMALL LETTER DIGAMMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used as a symbol with a numeric value of 6

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

Ϟ

U+03DE GREEK LETTER KOPPA

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

ϟ

U+03DF GREEK SMALL LETTER KOPPA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used in modern Greek as a symbol with a numeric value of 90, as in the dating of legal documentation

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

Ϡ

U+03E0 GREEK LETTER SAMPI

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

ϡ

U+03E1 GREEK SMALL LETTER SAMPI

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used as a symbol with a numeric value of 900

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

Ϻ

U+03FA GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SAN

ϻ

U+03FB GREEK SMALL LETTER SAN

Numeral signs

ʹ

U+0374 GREEK NUMERAL SIGN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= dexia keraia
• indicates numeric use of letters
→ (modifier letter acute accent - 02CA)
≡ 02B9 modifier letter prime

Used after a sequence of letters used to indicate a number.

͵

U+0375 GREEK LOWER NUMERAL SIGN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= aristeri keraia
• indicates numeric use of letters
→ (modifier letter low acute accent - 02CF)

Iota subscript

ͺ

U+037A GREEK YPOGEGRAMMENI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= iota subscript
→ (combining greek ypogegrammeni - 0345)
≈ 0020 0345

Editorial symbols

Ͻ

U+03FD GREEK CAPITAL REVERSED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= antisigma
Ͼ

U+03FE GREEK CAPITAL DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= sigma periestigmenon
Ͽ

U+03FF GREEK CAPITAL REVERSED DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= antisigma periestigmenon

Lowercase of editorial symbols

ͻ

U+037B GREEK SMALL REVERSED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

ͼ

U+037C GREEK SMALL DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

ͽ

U+037D GREEK SMALL REVERSED DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Spacing accent marks

΄

U+0384 GREEK TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (acute accent - 00B4)
→ (combining vertical line above - 030D)
≈ 0020 0301

Indicates location of primary stress. If a vowel is composed of 2 characters, the second carries the accent, eg. νούμερο. An accent can appear on the last, second to last, or third to last syllables (eg. εποχή, μέτρο and τονόμετρο.

This accent is dropped for upper case letters if the whole word is in upper case.

΅

U+0385 GREEK DIALYTIKA TONOS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• compatibility decomposition (NFKD) is 0020 0308 0301
≡ 00A8 0301

Variant letterforms

Ϗ

U+03CF GREEK CAPITAL KAI SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (greek kai symbol - 03D7)
ϐ

U+03D0 GREEK BETA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= curled beta
≈ 03B2 greek small letter beta
ϑ

U+03D1 GREEK THETA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= script theta
• used as a technical symbol
≈ 03B8 greek small letter theta
ϒ

U+03D2 GREEK UPSILON WITH HOOK SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 03A5 greek capital letter upsilon
ϓ

U+03D3 GREEK UPSILON WITH ACUTE AND HOOK SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03D2 0301
ϔ

U+03D4 GREEK UPSILON WITH DIAERESIS AND HOOK SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 03D2 0308
ϕ

U+03D5 GREEK PHI SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used as a technical symbol, with a stroked glyph
• maps to 'phi1' symbol entities
≈ 03C6 greek small letter phi
ϖ

U+03D6 GREEK PI SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= omega pi
• used as a technical symbol
• a variant of pi, looking like omega
≈ 03C0 greek small letter pi
ϗ

U+03D7 GREEK KAI SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used as an ampersand
→ (coptic symbol kai - 2CE4)
ϰ

U+03F0 GREEK KAPPA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= script kappa
• used as technical symbol
≈ 03BA greek small letter kappa
ϱ

U+03F1 GREEK RHO SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tailed rho
• used as technical symbol
≈ 03C1 greek small letter rho
ϲ

U+03F2 GREEK LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= greek small letter lunate sigma (1.0)
≈ 03C2 greek small letter final sigma
Ϲ

U+03F9 GREEK CAPITAL LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 03A3 greek capital letter sigma

Variant letterforms and symbols

ϴ

U+03F4 GREEK CAPITAL THETA SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic capital letter fita - 0472)
≈ 0398 greek capital letter theta
ϵ

U+03F5 GREEK LUNATE EPSILON SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= straight epsilon
→ (small element of - 220A)
≈ 03B5 greek small letter epsilon
϶

U+03F6 GREEK REVERSED LUNATE EPSILON SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= reversed straight epsilon
→ (small contains as member - 220D)

Coptic letters derived from Demotic

Ϣ

U+03E2 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER SHEI

ϣ

U+03E3 COPTIC SMALL LETTER SHEI

Ϥ

U+03E4 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER FEI

ϥ

U+03E5 COPTIC SMALL LETTER FEI

Ϧ

U+03E6 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER KHEI

ϧ

U+03E7 COPTIC SMALL LETTER KHEI

Ϩ

U+03E8 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER HORI

ϩ

U+03E9 COPTIC SMALL LETTER HORI

Ϫ

U+03EA COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER GANGIA

ϫ

U+03EB COPTIC SMALL LETTER GANGIA

Ϭ

U+03EC COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER SHIMA

ϭ

U+03ED COPTIC SMALL LETTER SHIMA

Ϯ

U+03EE COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER DEI

ϯ

U+03EF COPTIC SMALL LETTER DEI

Additional archaic letters for Bactrian

Ϸ

U+03F7 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SHO

ϸ

U+03F8 GREEK SMALL LETTER SHO

Symbol

ϼ

U+03FC GREEK RHO WITH STROKE SYMBOL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used with abbreviations containing 03C1
First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2017-07-20 7:51 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.