Greek character notes

Updated 13 July, 2018 • tags greek, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For a summary of the script and its use in writing systems, see the page Greek script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

We have usage data for the following language that uses the Greek script: Greek.

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If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

Read more about how to use this page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the character or the hex number in the Find control above.

To view this page as intended, you need a Greek font. This page comes with a Gentium webfont. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font. The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. (If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.)

Information about languages that use these characters is taken from the list maintained for the Character Use app. The list is not exhaustive.

References are indicated by superscript characters. Wherever possible, those contain direct links to the source material. When such a pointer is alongside an arrow → it means that it's worth following the link for the additional information it provides. Digits refer to the main sources, which are listed at the bottom of a set of notes.

When you are using UniView and you turn on Show notes, UniView will pull in information about characters from this page.

Letters

Ά

U+0386 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek a

Έ

U+0388 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON WITH TONOS

Modern Greek e

Ή

U+0389 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek i

Ί

U+038A GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek o

Ό

U+038C GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON WITH TONOS

Modern Greek o

Ύ

U+038E GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON WITH TONOS

Modern Greek i

Ώ

U+038F GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek o

ΐ

U+0390 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DIALYTIKA AND TONOS

Modern Greek i

Α

U+0391 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA

Modern Greek Alone a. In combination αι is e.

Accented versions: ά Ά

Β

U+0392 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA

Modern Greek v

Γ

U+0393 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA

Modern Greek ɣ before consonants or α, ο, ω, ου; j before ε, ι, η, υ. In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle.

Δ

U+0394 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA

Modern Greek ð

Ε

U+0395 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON

Modern Greek Alone e. In combination ει is i.

Accented versions: έ Έ

Ζ

U+0396 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA

Modern Greek z

Η

U+0397 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA

Modern Greek i

Accented versions: ή Ή

Θ

U+0398 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA

Modern Greek θ

Ι

U+0399 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA

Modern Greek Alone i. In combination ει, υι, and οι are also i, and αι is e.

Accented versions: ί Ί ϊ Ϊ ΐ

Κ

U+039A GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA

Modern Greek Normally k.

In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is g, eg. έναν καφέ.

Λ

U+039B GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA

Modern Greek l

Μ

U+039C GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU

Modern Greek m.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle.

Ν

U+039D GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU

Modern Greek n.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle.

Ξ

U+039E GREEK CAPITAL LETTER XI

Modern Greek ks.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is gz, eg. τον ξέρω.

Ο

U+039F GREEK CAPITAL fLETTER OMICRON

Modern Greek o.

In combination οι is i.

Accented versions: ό Ό

Π

U+03A0 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI

Modern Greek p.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is b, eg. δεν πάω.

Ρ

U+03A1 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO

Modern Greek r

Σ

U+03A3 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA

Modern Greek s before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, z before β γ μ.

At the end of a word the lower case version of this letter is ς.

Τ

U+03A4 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU

Modern Greek t.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is d, eg. στην Τήνο.

Υ

U+03A5 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON

Modern Greek i.

In combination υι is also i.In αυ and ευ, pronounced f before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, but v before β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ or any vowel.

Accented versions: ύ Ύ ϋ Ϋ ΰ

Φ

U+03A6 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI

Modern Greek f

Χ

U+03A7 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI

Modern Greek χ. h before consonants or α ο ω ου,x before ε ι η υ.

Ψ

U+03A8 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PSI

Modern Greek ps.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is bz, eg. την ψάχνω.

Ω

U+03A9 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA

Modern Greek o

Accented versions: ώ Ώ

Ϊ

U+03AA GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA WITH DIALYTIKA

Modern Greek i

Ϋ

U+03AB GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON WITH DIALYTIKA

Modern Greek i

ά

U+03AC GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek a

έ

U+03AD GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON WITH TONOS

Modern Greek e

ή

U+03AE GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek i

ί

U+03AF GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek i

ΰ

U+03B0 GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DIALYTIKA AND TONOS

Modern Greek i

α

U+03B1 GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA

Modern Greek Alone a.

In combination αι is e.

Accented versions: ά Ά

β

U+03B2 GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA

Modern Greek v

γ

U+03B3 GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA

Modern Greek ɣ before consonants or α, ο, ω, ου; j before ε, ι, η, υ. In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle.

δ

U+03B4 GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA

Modern Greek ð.

ε

U+03B5 GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON

Modern Greek Alone e.

In combination ει is i.

Accented versions: έ Έ

ζ

U+03B6 GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA

Modern Greek z.

η

U+03B7 GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA

Modern Greek i

Accented versions: ή Ή

θ

U+03B8 GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA

Modern Greek θ

ι

U+03B9 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA

Modern Greek Alone i.

In combination ει, υι, and οι are also i, and αι is e.

Accented versions: ί Ί ϊ Ϊ ΐ

κ

U+03BA GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA

Modern Greek Normally k.

In combination γκ is g at the beginning of a word, but ŋg in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is g, eg. έναν καφέ.

λ

U+03BB GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA

Modern Greek l

μ

U+03BC GREEK SMALL LETTER MU

Modern Greek m.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle.

ν

U+03BD GREEK SMALL LETTER NU

Modern Greek n.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle.

ξ

U+03BE GREEK SMALL LETTER XI

Modern Greek ks.

At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is gz, eg. τον ξέρω.

ο

U+03BF GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON

Modern Greek o. In combination οι is i.

Accented versions: ό Ό

π

U+03C0 GREEK SMALL LETTER PI

Modern Greek p.

In combination μπ is b at the beginning of a word, but mb in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is b, eg. δεν πάω.

ρ

U+03C1 GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO

Modern Greek r

ς

U+03C2 GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA

Modern Greek s.

Used only in word final position. Typically there is a separate key for this on the keyboard.

σ

U+03C3 GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA

Modern Greek s before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, z before β γ μ.

τ

U+03C4 GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU

Modern Greek t.

In combination ντ is d at the beginning of a word, but nd in the middle. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is d, eg. στην Τήνο.

υ

U+03C5 GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON

Modern Greek i.

In combination υι is also i.In αυ and ευ, pronounced f before θ κ λ π τ φ χ, but v before β γ δ ζ λ μ ν ρ or any vowel.

Accented versions: ύ Ύ ϋ Ϋ ΰ

φ

U+03C6 GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI

Modern Greek f

χ

U+03C7 GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI

Modern Greek χ. h before consonants or α ο ω ου, x before ε ι η υ.

ψ

U+03C8 GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI

Modern Greek ps. At the beginning of a word following a word ending in ν the two words are pronounced as one and this character is bz, eg. την ψάχνω.

ω

U+03C9 GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA

Modern Greek o

Accented versions: ώ Ώ

ϊ

U+03CA GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH DIALYTIKA

Modern Greek i

ϋ

U+03CB GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH DIALYTIKA

Modern Greek i

ό

U+03CC GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON WITH TONOS

Modern Greek o

ύ

U+03CD GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON WITH TONOS

Modern Greek i

ώ

U+03CE GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA WITH TONOS

Modern Greek o

ϳ

U+03F3 GREEK LETTER YOT

Ϳ

U+037F GREEK CAPITAL LETTER YOT

Punctuation

;

U+037E GREEK QUESTION MARK

Equivalent to '?' in English, but note that you should use U+003B SEMICOLON rather than this character. During normalization this character is changed to the ASCII semicolon.

·

U+0387 GREEK ANO TELEIA

Equivalent to semi-colon in English.

Archaic letters

Ͱ

U+0370 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER HETA

ͱ

U+0371 GREEK SMALL LETTER HETA

Ͳ

U+0372 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ARCHAIC SAMPI

ͳ

U+0373 GREEK SMALL LETTER ARCHAIC SAMPI

Ͷ

U+0376 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PAMPHYLIAN DIGAMMA

ͷ

U+0377 GREEK SMALL LETTER PAMPHYLIAN DIGAMMA

Ϙ

U+03D8 GREEK LETTER ARCHAIC KOPPA

ϙ

U+03D9 GREEK SMALL LETTER ARCHAIC KOPPA

Ϛ

U+03DA GREEK LETTER STIGMA

ϛ

U+03DB GREEK SMALL LETTER STIGMA

Ϝ

U+03DC GREEK LETTER DIGAMMA

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

ϝ

U+03DD GREEK SMALL LETTER DIGAMMA

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

Ϟ

U+03DE GREEK LETTER KOPPA

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

ϟ

U+03DF GREEK SMALL LETTER KOPPA

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

Ϡ

U+03E0 GREEK LETTER SAMPI

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

ϡ

U+03E1 GREEK SMALL LETTER SAMPI

Not used for modern spelling, but may appear as numbers in numbered lists or outlines.

Ϻ

U+03FA GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SAN

ϻ

U+03FB GREEK SMALL LETTER SAN

Numeral signs

ʹ

U+0374 GREEK NUMERAL SIGN

Used after a sequence of letters used to indicate a number.

͵

U+0375 GREEK LOWER NUMERAL SIGN

Iota subscript

ͺ

U+037A GREEK YPOGEGRAMMENI

Editorial symbols

Ͻ

U+03FD GREEK CAPITAL REVERSED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Ͼ

U+03FE GREEK CAPITAL DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Ͽ

U+03FF GREEK CAPITAL REVERSED DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Lowercase of editorial symbols

ͻ

U+037B GREEK SMALL REVERSED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

ͼ

U+037C GREEK SMALL DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

ͽ

U+037D GREEK SMALL REVERSED DOTTED LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Spacing accent marks

΄

U+0384 GREEK TONOS

Indicates location of primary stress. If a vowel is composed of 2 characters, the second carries the accent, eg. νούμερο. An accent can appear on the last, second to last, or third to last syllables (eg. εποχή, μέτρο and τονόμετρο.

This accent is dropped for upper case letters if the whole word is in upper case.

΅

U+0385 GREEK DIALYTIKA TONOS

Variant letterforms

Ϗ

U+03CF GREEK CAPITAL KAI SYMBOL

ϐ

U+03D0 GREEK BETA SYMBOL

ϑ

U+03D1 GREEK THETA SYMBOL

ϒ

U+03D2 GREEK UPSILON WITH HOOK SYMBOL

ϓ

U+03D3 GREEK UPSILON WITH ACUTE AND HOOK SYMBOL

ϔ

U+03D4 GREEK UPSILON WITH DIAERESIS AND HOOK SYMBOL

ϕ

U+03D5 GREEK PHI SYMBOL

ϖ

U+03D6 GREEK PI SYMBOL

ϗ

U+03D7 GREEK KAI SYMBOL

ϰ

U+03F0 GREEK KAPPA SYMBOL

ϱ

U+03F1 GREEK RHO SYMBOL

ϲ

U+03F2 GREEK LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Ϲ

U+03F9 GREEK CAPITAL LUNATE SIGMA SYMBOL

Variant letterforms and symbols

ϴ

U+03F4 GREEK CAPITAL THETA SYMBOL

ϵ

U+03F5 GREEK LUNATE EPSILON SYMBOL

϶

U+03F6 GREEK REVERSED LUNATE EPSILON SYMBOL

Coptic letters derived from Demotic

Ϣ

U+03E2 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER SHEI

ϣ

U+03E3 COPTIC SMALL LETTER SHEI

Ϥ

U+03E4 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER FEI

ϥ

U+03E5 COPTIC SMALL LETTER FEI

Ϧ

U+03E6 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER KHEI

ϧ

U+03E7 COPTIC SMALL LETTER KHEI

Ϩ

U+03E8 COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER HORI

ϩ

U+03E9 COPTIC SMALL LETTER HORI

Ϫ

U+03EA COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER GANGIA

ϫ

U+03EB COPTIC SMALL LETTER GANGIA

Ϭ

U+03EC COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER SHIMA

ϭ

U+03ED COPTIC SMALL LETTER SHIMA

Ϯ

U+03EE COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER DEI

ϯ

U+03EF COPTIC SMALL LETTER DEI

Additional archaic letters for Bactrian

Ϸ

U+03F7 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SHO

ϸ

U+03F8 GREEK SMALL LETTER SHO

Symbol

ϼ

U+03FC GREEK RHO WITH STROKE SYMBOL

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