Ethiopic character notes

Updated 20 July, 2017 • tags ethiopic, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered or copied from various places.

To view this page as intended, you need an Ethiopic font. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

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You can also find characters for which there are annotations using UniView (switch on Show notes).

The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.

Syllables

U+1200 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HA

U+1201 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HU

U+1202 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HI

U+1203 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HAA

U+1204 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HEE

U+1205 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HE

U+1206 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HO

U+1207 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HOA

U+1208 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LA

U+1209 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LU

U+120A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LI

U+120B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LAA

U+120C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LEE

U+120D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LE

U+120E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LO

U+120F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE LWA

U+1210 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHA

U+1211 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHU

U+1212 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHI

U+1213 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHAA

U+1214 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHEE

U+1215 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHE

U+1216 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHO

U+1217 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE HHWA

U+1218 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MA

U+1219 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MU

U+121A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MI

U+121B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MAA

U+121C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MEE

U+121D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ME

U+121E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MO

U+121F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MWA

U+1220 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZA

U+1221 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZU

U+1222 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZI

U+1223 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZAA

U+1224 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZEE

U+1225 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZE

U+1226 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZO

U+1227 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SZWA

U+1228 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RA

U+1229 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RU

U+122A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RI

U+122B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RAA

U+122C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE REE

U+122D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RE

U+122E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RO

U+122F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RWA

U+1230 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SA

U+1231 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SU

U+1232 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SI

U+1233 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SAA

U+1234 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SEE

U+1235 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SE

U+1236 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SO

U+1237 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SWA

U+1238 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHA

U+1239 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHU

U+123A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHI

U+123B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHAA

U+123C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHEE

U+123D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHE

U+123E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHO

U+123F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SHWA

U+1240 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QA

U+1241 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QU

U+1242 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QI

U+1243 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QAA

U+1244 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QEE

U+1245 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QE

U+1246 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QO

U+1247 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QOA

U+1248 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QWA

U+124A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QWI

U+124B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QWAA

U+124C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QWEE

U+124D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QWE

U+1250 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHA

U+1251 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHU

U+1252 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHI

U+1253 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHAA

U+1254 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHEE

U+1255 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHE

U+1256 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHO

U+1258 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHWA

U+125A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHWI

U+125B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHWAA

U+125C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHWEE

U+125D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE QHWE

U+1260 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BA

U+1261 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BU

U+1262 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BI

U+1263 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BAA

U+1264 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BEE

U+1265 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BE

U+1266 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BO

U+1267 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE BWA

U+1268 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VA

U+1269 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VU

U+126A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VI

U+126B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VAA

U+126C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VEE

U+126D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VE

U+126E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VO

U+126F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE VWA

U+1270 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TA

U+1271 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TU

U+1272 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TI

U+1273 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TAA

U+1274 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TEE

U+1275 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TE

U+1276 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TO

U+1277 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TWA

U+1278 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CA

U+1279 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CU

U+127A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CI

U+127B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CAA

U+127C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CEE

U+127D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CE

U+127E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CO

U+127F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CWA

U+1280 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XA

U+1281 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XU

U+1282 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XI

U+1283 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XAA

U+1284 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XEE

U+1285 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XE

U+1286 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XO

U+1287 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XOA

U+1288 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XWA

U+128A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XWI

U+128B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XWAA

U+128C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XWEE

U+128D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE XWE

U+1290 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NA

U+1291 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NU

U+1292 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NI

U+1293 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NAA

U+1294 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NEE

U+1295 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NE

U+1296 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NO

U+1297 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NWA

U+1298 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYA

U+1299 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYU

U+129A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYI

U+129B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYAA

Amharic

Used after a cardinal number, this gives the ordinal form, and is often rendered as a superscript.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.6.3

U+129C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYEE

U+129D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYE

U+129E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYO

U+129F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE NYWA

U+12A0 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL A

U+12A1 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL U

U+12A2 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL I

U+12A3 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL AA

U+12A4 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL EE

U+12A5 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL E

U+12A6 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL O

U+12A7 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GLOTTAL WA

U+12A8 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KA

U+12A9 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KU

U+12AA ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KI

U+12AB ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KAA

U+12AC ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KEE

U+12AD ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KE

U+12AE ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KO

U+12AF ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KOA

U+12B0 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KWA

U+12B2 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KWI

U+12B3 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KWAA

U+12B4 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KWEE

U+12B5 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KWE

U+12B8 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXA

U+12B9 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXU

U+12BA ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXI

U+12BB ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXAA

U+12BC ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXEE

U+12BD ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXE

U+12BE ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXO

U+12C0 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXWA

U+12C2 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXWI

U+12C3 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXWAA

U+12C4 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXWEE

U+12C5 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE KXWE

U+12C8 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WA

U+12C9 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WU

U+12CA ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WI

U+12CB ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WAA

U+12CC ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WEE

U+12CD ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WE

U+12CE ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WO

U+12CF ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE WOA

U+12D0 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL A

U+12D1 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL U

U+12D2 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL I

U+12D3 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL AA

U+12D4 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL EE

U+12D5 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL E

U+12D6 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHARYNGEAL O

U+12D8 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZA

U+12D9 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZU

U+12DA ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZI

U+12DB ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZAA

U+12DC ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZEE

U+12DD ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZE

U+12DE ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZO

U+12DF ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZWA

U+12E0 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHA

U+12E1 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHU

U+12E2 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHI

U+12E3 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHAA

U+12E4 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHEE

U+12E5 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHE

U+12E6 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHO

U+12E7 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE ZHWA

U+12E8 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YA

U+12E9 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YU

U+12EA ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YI

U+12EB ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YAA

U+12EC ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YEE

U+12ED ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YE

Tigrinya

Used after a cardinal number, this gives the ordinal form, and is often rendered as a superscript.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.6.3

U+12EE ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YO

U+12EF ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE YOA

U+12F0 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DA

U+12F1 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DU

U+12F2 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DI

U+12F3 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DAA

U+12F4 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DEE

U+12F5 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DE

U+12F6 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DO

U+12F7 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DWA

U+12F8 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDA

U+12F9 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDU

U+12FA ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDI

U+12FB ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDAA

U+12FC ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDEE

U+12FD ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDE

U+12FE ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDO

U+12FF ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE DDWA

U+1300 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JA

U+1301 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JU

U+1302 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JI

U+1303 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JAA

U+1304 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JEE

U+1305 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JE

U+1306 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JO

U+1307 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE JWA

U+1308 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GA

U+1309 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GU

U+130A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GI

U+130B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GAA

U+130C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GEE

U+130D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GE

U+130E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GO

U+130F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GOA

U+1310 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GWA

U+1312 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GWI

U+1313 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GWAA

U+1314 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GWEE

U+1315 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GWE

U+1318 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGA

U+1319 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGU

U+131A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGI

U+131B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGAA

U+131C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGEE

U+131D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGE

U+131E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGO

U+131F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE GGWAA

U+1320 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THA

U+1321 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THU

U+1322 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THI

U+1323 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THAA

U+1324 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THEE

U+1325 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THE

U+1326 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THO

U+1327 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE THWA

U+1328 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHA

U+1329 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHU

U+132A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHI

U+132B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHAA

U+132C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHEE

U+132D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHE

U+132E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHO

U+132F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE CHWA

U+1330 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHA

U+1331 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHU

U+1332 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHI

U+1333 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHAA

U+1334 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHEE

U+1335 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHE

U+1336 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHO

U+1337 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PHWA

U+1338 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSA

U+1339 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSU

U+133A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSI

U+133B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSAA

U+133C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSEE

U+133D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSE

U+133E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSO

U+133F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TSWA

U+1340 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZA

U+1341 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZU

U+1342 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZI

U+1343 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZAA

U+1344 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZEE

U+1345 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZE

U+1346 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZO

U+1347 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE TZOA

U+1348 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FA

U+1349 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FU

U+134A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FI

U+134B ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FAA

U+134C ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FEE

U+134D ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FE

U+134E ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FO

U+134F ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FWA

U+1350 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PA

U+1351 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PU

U+1352 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PI

U+1353 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PAA

U+1354 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PEE

U+1355 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PE

U+1356 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PO

U+1357 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE PWA

U+1358 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE RYA

U+1359 ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE MYA

U+135A ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE FYA

Combining marks

U+135D ETHIOPIC COMBINING GEMINATION AND VOWEL LENGTH MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Basketo

U+135E ETHIOPIC COMBINING VOWEL LENGTH MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Basketo

U+135F ETHIOPIC COMBINING GEMINATION MARK

Punctuation

U+1360 ETHIOPIC SECTION MARK

Amharic, Ge’ez, Tigrinya

Used to divide sections or subsections; generally three or more used together on a line of their own.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1

U+1361 ETHIOPIC WORDSPACE

Amharic ሁለት ነጥብ, Ge’ez ንዑስ ነጥብ, Tigrinya ክልተ-ነጥቢ

Punctuation used to separate words. In modern text it has become less common in published materials than in handwriting.1

Where space is used to separate words, this character is sometimes used in lieu of a comma (details).2

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1 [2] [elreq] §2.3.3

U+1362 ETHIOPIC FULL STOP

Amharic አራት ነጥብ, Ge’ez ዐቢይ ነጥብ, Tigrinya ኣርባዕተ ነጥቢ

Punctuation placed at the end of a sentence that describes a complete idea.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1

U+1363 ETHIOPIC COMMA

Amharic ነጠላ ሰረዝ, Ge’ez ነጠላ ሠረዝ, Tigrinya ንጽል ጭሕጋር (ንጽል ሰረዝ)

Often used, to separate comparative and sequential list of names, phrases, or numbers as well as to separate parts of a sentence that are not complete by themselves.

This code point and [U+1365 ETHIOPIC COLON] are in most cases regarded as glyph variants for the same punctuation symbol, although usually a document will consistently use only one or the other.

There is a tendency to use the other code point more frequently, however, in religious works.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1

U+1364 ETHIOPIC SEMICOLON

Amharic ድርብ ሰረዝ, Ge’ez ዐቢይ ሠረዝ, Tigrinya ድርብ ጭሕጋር

Used to separate equivalent main phrases in one idea. Even though it is not placed at the end of a paragraph, it can be used to separate sentences with similar ideas in a paragraph.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1

U+1365 ETHIOPIC COLON

Amharic ነጠላ ሰረዝ, Ge’ez ነጠላ ሠረዝ, Tigrinya ንጽል ጭሕጋር (ንጽል ሰረዝ)

Although the Unicode name is 'colon', this is typically used like a comma, to separate comparative and sequential list of names, phrases, or numbers as well as to separate parts of a sentence that are not complete by themselves.

This code point and [U+1363 ETHIOPIC COMMA] are in most cases regarded as glyph variants for the same punctuation symbol, although usually a document will consistently use only one or the other.

There is a tendency to use this shape more frequently, however, in religious works, and so it could be called an ecclesiastical comma.1

It is also used for biblical references where English would normally use a colon, eg. ማቴ4፥23 , ዮሐ13፥16 Matt 4:23, John 13:16.2

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1 [2] [elreq] §2.3.2

U+1366 ETHIOPIC PREFACE COLON

Amharic አስረጂ ሰረዝ, Ge’ez አስተአምሮ

Punctuation that follows clarification of a subject. It will preface validation statements and examples that support the clarification.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1

U+1367 ETHIOPIC QUESTION MARK

Amharic ሦስት ነጥብ, Ge’ez ሠለስተ ነጥብ, Tigrinya ምልክት ሕቶ (ትእምርተ ሕቶ)

Used at the end of the questioning sentence. In modern writing, ASCII U+003F QUESTION MARK ? is preferred.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1

U+1368 ETHIOPIC PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR

Amharic, Ge’ez, Tigrinya

May be used to conclude the final paragraph of a section in lieu of [U+1362 ETHIOPIC FULL STOP].

Like [U+1360 ETHIOPIC SECTION MARK], three or more may also be used together on a line of their own.1

Refs: [1] [elreq] §2.3.1

Numbers

Decimal digits

Other numbers

Reference expansions

  1. [Unicode] The Unicode Standard v10.0, Ethiopic
  2. [elreq] Daniel Yacob, Ethiopic Layout Requirements
First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2017-07-20 7:47 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.