Devanagari character notes

Updated 18 January, 2019 • tags devanagari, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For a summary of the script and its use in writing systems, see the page Devanagari script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

We have usage data for the following 9 languages that use the Devanagari script: Bhojpuri, Bodo, Hindi, Konkani, Marathi, Magahi, Maithili, Nepali, Sanskrit.

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If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

Read more about how to use this page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the character or the hex number in the Find control above.

To view this page as intended, you need a Devanagari font. This page comes with a Noto Sans Devanagari webfont. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font. The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. (If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.)

Information about languages that use these characters is taken from the list maintained for the Character Use app. The list is not exhaustive.

References are indicated by superscript characters. Wherever possible, those contain direct links to the source material. When such a pointer is alongside an arrow → it means that it's worth following the link for the additional information it provides. Digits refer to the main sources, which are listed at the bottom of a set of notes.

When you are using UniView and you turn on Show notes, UniView will pull in information about characters from this page.

Consonants

Basic consonants

U+0915 DEVANAGARI LETTER KA

Hindi consonant

eg. कोड kōɖ koːd code.

q when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See [U+0958 DEVANAGARI LETTER QA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+0916 DEVANAGARI LETTER KHA

Hindi consonant kh

x when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See ख़ [U+0959 DEVANAGARI LETTER KHHA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+0917 DEVANAGARI LETTER GA

Hindi consonant

ɣ when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See [U+095A DEVANAGARI LETTER GHHA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+0918 DEVANAGARI LETTER GHA

Hindi consonant

U+0919 DEVANAGARI LETTER NGA

Hindi consonant

Used only with a velar consonant. Rarely seen in Hindi.2 p9

U+091A DEVANAGARI LETTER CA

Hindi consonant

U+091B DEVANAGARI LETTER CHA

Hindi consonant

U+091C DEVANAGARI LETTER JA

Hindi consonant

z when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See [U+095B DEVANAGARI LETTER ZA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+091D DEVANAGARI LETTER JHA

Hindi consonant

ʒ when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (There is no precomposed version of this sequence.)

U+091E DEVANAGARI LETTER NYA

Hindi consonant

U+091F DEVANAGARI LETTER TTA

Hindi consonant

U+0920 DEVANAGARI LETTER TTHA

Hindi consonant

U+0921 DEVANAGARI LETTER DDA

Hindi consonant

ɾ when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See [U+095C DEVANAGARI LETTER DDDHA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+0922 DEVANAGARI LETTER DDHA

Hindi consonant

ɾʰ when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See [U+095D DEVANAGARI LETTER RHA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+0923 DEVANAGARI LETTER NNA

Hindi consonant

U+0924 DEVANAGARI LETTER TA

Hindi consonant

U+0925 DEVANAGARI LETTER THA

Hindi consonant

U+0926 DEVANAGARI LETTER DA

Hindi consonant

U+0927 DEVANAGARI LETTER DHA

Hindi consonant

U+0928 DEVANAGARI LETTER NA

Hindi consonant

See also [U+0929 DEVANAGARI LETTER NNNA].

U+0929 DEVANAGARI LETTER NNNA

Unlike most other Devanagari characters with nukta, although this decomposes to two characters, Unicode NFC produces this precomposed character.

U+092A DEVANAGARI LETTER PA

Hindi consonant

U+092B DEVANAGARI LETTER PHA

Hindi consonant

f when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See [U+095E DEVANAGARI LETTER FA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+092C DEVANAGARI LETTER BA

Hindi consonant

U+092D DEVANAGARI LETTER BHA

Hindi consonant

U+092E DEVANAGARI LETTER MA

Hindi consonant

U+092F DEVANAGARI LETTER YA

Hindi consonant

? when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. See [U+095F DEVANAGARI LETTER YYA], but note that Unicode NFC normalization produces the decomposed sequence.

U+0930 DEVANAGARI LETTER RA

Hindi consonant

Marathi, Newari consonant

r

When used as a half-consonant in Marathi or Newari, this character uses the 'eyelash-RA' shape, eg. र्‍. To create this shape in Unicode, use the sequence + + zwj [U+0930 DEVANAGARI LETTER RA + U+094D DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA + U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER].1 p442

The eyelash-RA is transcribed as .

U+0931 DEVANAGARI LETTER RRA

Unlike most other Devanagari characters with nukta, although this decomposes to two characters, Unicode NFC produces this precomposed character.

Hindi consonant

U+0932 DEVANAGARI LETTER LA

Hindi consonant

U+0933 DEVANAGARI LETTER LLA

Hindi consonant

Marathi, Konkani, Rajasthani consonant ɭ,, ɭ̆ ɭ

ISO 15919:

See also [U+0934 DEVANAGARI LETTER LLLA].

U+0934 DEVANAGARI LETTER LLLA

in ISO 15919

Unlike most other Devanagari characters with nukta, although this decomposes to two characters, Unicode NFC produces this precomposed character.

Not used in Hindi.

See also [U+0933 DEVANAGARI LETTER LLA].

U+0935 DEVANAGARI LETTER VA

Hindi consonant

v and w are allophones that are both represented by this letter in Hindi. Compare व्रत ʋ͓rt ʋrʌt fast and पकवान pkʋān pakwaːn food dish. Native speakers tend to use the correct pronunciation without awareness of the difference. w

U+0936 DEVANAGARI LETTER SHA

Hindi consonant

U+0937 DEVANAGARI LETTER SSA

Hindi consonant

U+0938 DEVANAGARI LETTER SA

Hindi consonant

U+0939 DEVANAGARI LETTER HA

Hindi consonant

Additional consonants

U+0958 DEVANAGARI LETTER QA

Hindi consonant

U+0959 DEVANAGARI LETTER KHHA

Hindi consonant

U+095A DEVANAGARI LETTER GHHA

Hindi consonant

U+095B DEVANAGARI LETTER ZA

Hindi consonant

U+095C DEVANAGARI LETTER DDDHA

Hindi consonant

U+095D DEVANAGARI LETTER RHA

Hindi consonant

U+095E DEVANAGARI LETTER FA

Hindi consonant

U+095F DEVANAGARI LETTER YYA

Hindi consonant

Sindhi implosives

U+097B DEVANAGARI LETTER GGA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ɠ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

U+097C DEVANAGARI LETTER JJA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ʄ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

U+097E DEVANAGARI LETTER DDDA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ɗ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

ॿ

U+097F DEVANAGARI LETTER BBA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ɓ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

Glottal stop

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+0905 DEVANAGARI LETTER A

Hindi independent vowel

There is no vowel sign for this letter, as it is the inherent vowel.

U+0906 DEVANAGARI LETTER AA

Hindi independent vowel

U+0907 DEVANAGARI LETTER I

Hindi independent vowel

U+0908 DEVANAGARI LETTER II

Hindi independent vowel

U+0909 DEVANAGARI LETTER U

Hindi independent vowel

U+090A DEVANAGARI LETTER UU

Hindi independent vowel

U+090B DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC R

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

U+090C DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC L

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

U+090D DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA E

Hindi independent vowel

U+090E DEVANAGARI LETTER SHORT E

e in ISO 15919 (IAST ē)

Hindi independent vowel

U+090F DEVANAGARI LETTER E

ē in ISO 15919 (IAST e)

Hindi independent vowel

U+0910 DEVANAGARI LETTER AI

Hindi independent vowel

U+0911 DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA O

Hindi independent vowel

U+0912 DEVANAGARI LETTER SHORT O

Hindi independent vowel

U+0913 DEVANAGARI LETTER O

Hindi independent vowel

U+0914 DEVANAGARI LETTER AU

Hindi independent vowel

Independent vowels for Kashmiri

Independent vowel for Marathi

Dependent vowel signs

U+093E DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AA

Hindi dependent vowel

ि

U+093F DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN I

Hindi independent vowel

U+0940 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN II

Hindi independent vowel

U+0941 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN U

Hindi independent vowel

U+0942 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN UU

Hindi independent vowel

U+0943 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

U+0944 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

U+0945 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA E

Hindi independent vowel

U+0946 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN SHORT E

e in ISO 15919 (IAST ē)

Hindi independent vowel

U+0947 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN E

ē in ISO 15919 (IAST e)

Hindi independent vowel

U+0948 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AI

Hindi independent vowel

U+0949 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA O

Hindi independent vowel

U+094A DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN SHORT O

Hindi independent vowel

U+094B DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN O

Hindi independent vowel

U+094C DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AU

Hindi independent vowel

Dependent vowel signs for Kashmiri

Additional vowels for Sanskrit

U+0960 DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC RR

Hindi independent vowel

U+0961 DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC LL

Sanskrit

Not an actual phoneme of Sanskrit, but rather a graphic convention included among the vowels in order to maintain the symmetry of short–long pairs of letters. w

U+0963 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC LL

Sanskrit

Not an actual phoneme of Sanskrit, but rather a graphic convention included among the vowels in order to maintain the symmetry of short–long pairs of letters. w

Virama

U+094D DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA

Various signs

U+0900 DEVANAGARI SIGN INVERTED CANDRABINDU

U+0901 DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU

Hindi

[U+0901 DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU] nasalises the vowel in a syllable, eg. मुँह muŋ̽h mouth. Any vowel in Hindi can be nasalised in this way, except for the vocalics. s

When a vowel-sign rises above the head line, the glyph for this character may be simplified to just a dot (which resembles the anusvara). s It appears that this is normally achieved by using an anusvara instead of candrabindu, eg. हैं hɛ̄m̽ ɦɛ̃ are.

U+0902 DEVANAGARI SIGN ANUSVARA

Hindi anusvara

Can represent a nasal that is homorganic with a following consonant that is the first letter in a conjunct. It is positioned over the previous consonant, eg. हिंदी him̽dī hindiː Hindi.

Most words that use the anusvara can also be written using the consonant itself, eg. हिन्दी hin͓dī, although in some cases the anusvara form is more common. For example, पंजाब pm̽jāb pañjāb Punjab is much more common than पञ्जाब pɲ͓jāb.

U+0903 DEVANAGARI SIGN VISARGA

Hindi visarga

Voiceless h used after a vowel, usually at the end of a word, eg. छः cʰh̽ (cʰəh̽) six, दुःख duh̽kʰ grief. Mostly limited to Sanskrit loan words.

U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA

Hindi mark, nukta

Adapts a consonant to represent a non-native sound. See the following Hindi consonants, but note that these are normally represented by the combination of nukta with the consonant. (There are more in the Devanagari block.)

In the sequence of characters, this comes immediately after the consonant, and before any combining vowel-sign or diacritic associated with a character.

U+093D DEVANAGARI SIGN AVAGRAHA

Hindi sign '.

A Sanskrit punctuation mark for the elision of a vowel in sandhi: एकोऽयम् ẹ̄kō´ym͓ this one from ekas+ayam. w

An original long vowel lost to coalescence is sometimes marked with a double avagraha, eg. सदाऽऽत्मा sdā´´t͓mā always from sadā+ātmā. w

In Hindi, Snell states that its main function is to show that a vowel is sustained in a cry or a shout, eg. आईऽऽऽ! ạ̄ị̄´´´! w

In Madhyadeshi languages like Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Maithili, etc. which have quite a number of verbal forms that end in that inherent vowel, the avagraha is used to mark the non-elision of word-final inherent a, which otherwise is a modern orthographic convention, eg. बइठऽ bịʈʰ´ sit versus बइठ bịʈʰ. w

U+0950 DEVANAGARI OM

U+0970 DEVANAGARI ABBREVIATION SIGN

U+0971 DEVANAGARI SIGN HIGH SPACING DOT

Vedic tone marks

U+0951 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN UDATTA

U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA

Accent marks

U+0953 DEVANAGARI GRAVE ACCENT

U+0954 DEVANAGARI ACUTE ACCENT

General punctuation for scripts of India

U+0964 DEVANAGARI DANDA

Hindi punctuation

Sentence-final punctuation, common to several indic scripts.

U+0965 DEVANAGARI DOUBLE DANDA

Hindi punctuation

Marks boundaries of text above the sentence level, common to several indic scripts.

Digits

U+0966 DEVANAGARI DIGIT ZERO

Description in the Unicode standard:

U+0967 DEVANAGARI DIGIT ONE

U+0968 DEVANAGARI DIGIT TWO

U+0969 DEVANAGARI DIGIT THREE

U+096A DEVANAGARI DIGIT FOUR

U+096B DEVANAGARI DIGIT FIVE

U+096C DEVANAGARI DIGIT SIX

U+096D DEVANAGARI DIGIT SEVEN

U+096E DEVANAGARI DIGIT EIGHT

U+096F DEVANAGARI DIGIT NINE

Special use

Cantillation marks (svara) for the Samaveda

Marks of nasalization

Editorial marks

References

  1. [ u ] The Unicode Standard v11.0, Devanagari
  2. [ s ] Rupert Snell & Simon Weightman, Teach Yourself Hindi, ISBN 978-0-340-86687-0
  3. [ w ] Wikipedia, Devanagari
  4. [ d ] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0, pp487-497
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