Devanagari character notes

Updated 13 July, 2018 • tags devanagari, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them.

This is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered and copied from various places.

For a summary of the script and its use in writing systems, see the page Devanagari script summary. For similar information related to other scripts, see this list.

We have usage data for the following 9 languages that use the Devanagari script: Bhojpuri, Bodo, Hindi, Konkani, Marathi, Magahi, Maithili, Nepali, Sanskrit.

Find

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

Read more about how to use this page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the character or the hex number in the Find control above.

To view this page as intended, you need a Devanagari font. This page comes with a Noto Sans Devanagari webfont. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font. The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. (If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.)

Information about languages that use these characters is taken from the list maintained for the Character Use app. The list is not exhaustive.

References are indicated by superscript characters. Wherever possible, those contain direct links to the source material. When such a pointer is alongside an arrow → it means that it's worth following the link for the additional information it provides. Digits refer to the main sources, which are listed at the bottom of a set of notes.

When you are using UniView and you turn on Show notes, UniView will pull in information about characters from this page.

Consonants

Basic consonants

U+0915 DEVANAGARI LETTER KA

k in ISO 15919

q when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed [U+0958 DEVANAGARI LETTER QA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant

k

q when followed by nukta.

U+0916 DEVANAGARI LETTER KHA

kh in ISO 15919

k͟h when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed ख़ [U+0959 DEVANAGARI LETTER KHHA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant kh

x when followed by nukta.

U+0917 DEVANAGARI LETTER GA

g in ISO 15919

ġ when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed [U+095A DEVANAGARI LETTER GHHA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant

ɡ

ɣ when followed by nukta.

U+0918 DEVANAGARI LETTER GHA

gh in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ɡʰ

U+0919 DEVANAGARI LETTER NGA

in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ŋ

Used only with a velar consonant. Rarely seen in Hindi.2 p9

U+091A DEVANAGARI LETTER CA

c in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

c

U+091B DEVANAGARI LETTER CHA

ch in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

U+091C DEVANAGARI LETTER JA

j in ISO 15919

z when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed [U+095B DEVANAGARI LETTER ZA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant

ɟ

z when followed by nukta.

U+091D DEVANAGARI LETTER JHA

jh in ISO 15919

zh when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA].

Hindi consonant

ɟʰ

ʒ when followed by nukta.

U+091E DEVANAGARI LETTER NYA

ñ in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ɲ

U+091F DEVANAGARI LETTER TTA

in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ʈ

U+0920 DEVANAGARI LETTER TTHA

ṭh in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ʈʰ

U+0921 DEVANAGARI LETTER DDA

in ISO 15919

when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed [U+095C DEVANAGARI LETTER DDDHA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant

ɖ

ɾ when followed by nukta.

U+0922 DEVANAGARI LETTER DDHA

ḍh in ISO 15919

ṛh when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed [U+095D DEVANAGARI LETTER RHA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant

ɖʰ

ɾʰ when followed by nukta.

U+0923 DEVANAGARI LETTER NNA

in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ɳ

U+0924 DEVANAGARI LETTER TA

t in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

t

U+0925 DEVANAGARI LETTER THA

th in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

U+0926 DEVANAGARI LETTER DA

d in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

d

U+0927 DEVANAGARI LETTER DHA

dh in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

U+0928 DEVANAGARI LETTER NA

n in ISO 15919

when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA], however for that you should use the precomposed character [U+0929 DEVANAGARI LETTER NNNA].

Hindi consonant

n

U+0929 DEVANAGARI LETTER NNNA

in ISO 15919

U+092A DEVANAGARI LETTER PA

p in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

p

U+092B DEVANAGARI LETTER PHA

in ISO 15919

f when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed [U+095E DEVANAGARI LETTER FA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant

f when followed by nukta.

U+092C DEVANAGARI LETTER BA

b in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

b

U+092D DEVANAGARI LETTER BHA

in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

U+092E DEVANAGARI LETTER MA

m in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

m

U+092F DEVANAGARI LETTER YA

y in ISO 15919

when followed by [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA]. (Do not use the precomposed [U+095F DEVANAGARI LETTER YYA], since normalization form NFC uses the decomposed sequence.)

Hindi consonant

j

? when followed by nukta.

U+0930 DEVANAGARI LETTER RA

r in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

r

Marathi, Newari consonant

r

When used as a half-consonant in Marathi or Newari, this character uses the 'eyelash-RA' shape, eg. र्‍. To create this shape in Unicode, use the sequence + + zwj [U+0930 DEVANAGARI LETTER RA + U+094D DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA + U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER].1 p442

The eyelash-RA is transcribed as .

U+0931 DEVANAGARI LETTER RRA

in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

U+0932 DEVANAGARI LETTER LA

l in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

l

U+0933 DEVANAGARI LETTER LLA

in ISO 15919

Marathi, Konkani, Rajasthani consonant

U+0934 DEVANAGARI LETTER LLLA

in ISO 15919

Not used in Hindi.

U+0935 DEVANAGARI LETTER VA

v in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ʋ

U+0936 DEVANAGARI LETTER SHA

ś in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ɕ

U+0937 DEVANAGARI LETTER SSA

in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

ʂ

U+0938 DEVANAGARI LETTER SA

s in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

s

U+0939 DEVANAGARI LETTER HA

h in ISO 15919

Hindi consonant

h

Additional consonants

U+0958 DEVANAGARI LETTER QA

q in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+0915 DEVANAGARI LETTER KA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

q

U+0959 DEVANAGARI LETTER KHHA

k͟h in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+0916 DEVANAGARI LETTER KHA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

x

U+095A DEVANAGARI LETTER GHHA

ġ in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+0917 DEVANAGARI LETTER GA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

ɣ

U+095B DEVANAGARI LETTER ZA

z in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+091C DEVANAGARI LETTER JA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

z

U+095C DEVANAGARI LETTER DDDHA

in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+0921 DEVANAGARI LETTER DDA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

ɾ

U+095D DEVANAGARI LETTER RHA

ṛh in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+0922 DEVANAGARI LETTER DDHA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

ɾʰ

U+095E DEVANAGARI LETTER FA

f in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+092B DEVANAGARI LETTER PHA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

f

U+095F DEVANAGARI LETTER YYA

in ISO 15919

Since the NFC normalised form of this character is [U+092F DEVANAGARI LETTER YA] + [U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA] it is better to use that sequence, rather than use this character.

Hindi consonant

Sindhi implosives

U+097B DEVANAGARI LETTER GGA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ɠ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

U+097C DEVANAGARI LETTER JJA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ʄ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

U+097E DEVANAGARI LETTER DDDA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ɗ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

ॿ

U+097F DEVANAGARI LETTER BBA

Sindhi, Saraiki implosive consonant

ɓ

At one point Unicode recommended using the regular character with  ॒ [U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA], but now you should use this character instead. 1 p450

Glottal stop

Vowels

Independent vowels

U+0905 DEVANAGARI LETTER A

a in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

ʌ

There is no vowel sign for this letter, as it is the inherent vowel.

U+0906 DEVANAGARI LETTER AA

ā in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ा [U+093E DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AA].

U+0907 DEVANAGARI LETTER I

i in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

i

See also  ि [U+093F DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN I].

U+0908 DEVANAGARI LETTER II

ī in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ी [U+0940 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN II].

U+0909 DEVANAGARI LETTER U

u in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

u

See also  ु [U+0941 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN U].

U+090A DEVANAGARI LETTER UU

ū in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ू [U+0942 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN UU].

U+090B DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC R

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ृ [U+0943 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R].

U+090C DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC L

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ृ [U+0943 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R].

U+090D DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA E

ê in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ॅ [U+0945 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA E].

U+090E DEVANAGARI LETTER SHORT E

e in ISO 15919 (IAST ē)

Hindi independent vowel

See also  े [U+0947 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN E].

U+090F DEVANAGARI LETTER E

ē in ISO 15919 (IAST e)

Hindi independent vowel

See also  े [U+0947 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN E].

U+0910 DEVANAGARI LETTER AI

ai in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ै [U+0948 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AI].

U+0911 DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA O

ô in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ॉ [U+0949 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA O].

U+0912 DEVANAGARI LETTER SHORT O

o in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ॊ [U+094A DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN SHORT O].

U+0913 DEVANAGARI LETTER O

ō in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ो [U+094B DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN O].

U+0914 DEVANAGARI LETTER AU

au in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also  ौ [U+094C DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AU].

Independent vowels for Kashmiri

Independent vowel for Marathi

Dependent vowel signs

U+093E DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AA

ā in ISO 15919

Hindi dependent vowel

See also [U+0906 DEVANAGARI LETTER AA].

ि

U+093F DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN I

i in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

i

See also [U+0907 DEVANAGARI LETTER I].

U+0940 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN II

ī in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+0908 DEVANAGARI LETTER II].

U+0941 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN U

u in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

u

See also [U+0909 DEVANAGARI LETTER U].

U+0942 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN UU

ū in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+090A DEVANAGARI LETTER UU].

U+0943 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+090B DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC R].

U+0944 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR

in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+090C DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC L].

U+0945 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA E

ê in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+090D DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA E].

U+0946 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN SHORT E

e in ISO 15919 (IAST ē)

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+090E DEVANAGARI LETTER SHORT E].

U+0947 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN E

ē in ISO 15919 (IAST e)

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+090F DEVANAGARI LETTER E].

U+0948 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AI

ai in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+0910 DEVANAGARI LETTER AI].

U+0949 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN CANDRA O

ô in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+0911 DEVANAGARI LETTER CANDRA O].

U+094A DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN SHORT O

o in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+0912 DEVANAGARI LETTER SHORT O].

U+094B DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN O

ō in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+0913 DEVANAGARI LETTER O].

U+094C DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN AU

au in ISO 15919

Hindi independent vowel

See also [U+0914 DEVANAGARI LETTER AU].

Dependent vowel signs for Kashmiri

Additional vowels for Sanskrit

U+0960 DEVANAGARI LETTER VOCALIC RR

r̥̄ in ISO 15919 (IAST )

Hindi independent vowel

r̩ː

See also  ॄ [U+0944 DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR].

Virama

U+094D DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA

Various signs

U+0900 DEVANAGARI SIGN INVERTED CANDRABINDU

U+0901 DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU

U+0902 DEVANAGARI SIGN ANUSVARA

in ISO 15919 (IAST ) or
ṅ ñ ṇ n m according to the following consonant

Hindi anusvara

Can represent a nasal that is homorganic with a following consonant that is the first letter in a conjunct. It is positioned over the previous consonant, eg. हिंदी hindiː hindī Hindi.

Most words that use the anusvara can also be written using the consonant itself, eg. हिन्दी hindiː hindī Hindi, although in some cases the anusvara form is more common. For example, पंजाब pañjāb pʌɲɟaːb Panjab is much more common than पञ्जाब.

U+0903 DEVANAGARI SIGN VISARGA

in ISO 15919

Hindi visarga

voiceless h used after a vowel

U+093C DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA

Hindi mark, nukta

In the sequence of characters, this comes before any combining vowel sign associated with a character.

U+093D DEVANAGARI SIGN AVAGRAHA

Hindi sign '.

U+0950 DEVANAGARI OM

U+0970 DEVANAGARI ABBREVIATION SIGN

U+0971 DEVANAGARI SIGN HIGH SPACING DOT

Vedic tone marks

U+0951 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN UDATTA

U+0952 DEVANAGARI STRESS SIGN ANUDATTA

Accent marks

U+0953 DEVANAGARI GRAVE ACCENT

U+0954 DEVANAGARI ACUTE ACCENT

General punctuation for scripts of India

U+0964 DEVANAGARI DANDA

Hindi punctuation

Sentence-final punctuation, common to several indic scripts.

U+0965 DEVANAGARI DOUBLE DANDA

Hindi punctuation

Marks boundaries of text above the sentence level, common to several indic scripts.

Digits

U+0966 DEVANAGARI DIGIT ZERO

Description in the Unicode standard:

U+0967 DEVANAGARI DIGIT ONE

U+0968 DEVANAGARI DIGIT TWO

U+0969 DEVANAGARI DIGIT THREE

U+096A DEVANAGARI DIGIT FOUR

U+096B DEVANAGARI DIGIT FIVE

U+096C DEVANAGARI DIGIT SIX

U+096D DEVANAGARI DIGIT SEVEN

U+096E DEVANAGARI DIGIT EIGHT

U+096F DEVANAGARI DIGIT NINE

Special use

Cantillation marks (svara) for the Samaveda

Marks of nasalization

Editorial marks

References

  1. [unicode] The Unicode Standard v7.0, Devanagari
  2. [snell] Rupert Snell & Simon Weightman, Teach Yourself Hindi, ISBN 978-0-340-86687-0
Last commit 2018-07-13 10:34 GMT.  •  Make a comment  •  Licence CC-By © r12a.