Bengali character notes

Updated Sun 18 Jan 2015• tags bengali, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in Unicode's Bengali block and provides information about them. For information about Bengali script and its features in general, see the companion document Bengali Script Notes.

To view this page as intended, you need a Bengali font. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

The Bengali text transliterations follow a method used by Radice3, except that conjuncts are not underlined. This transcription method is slightly more indicative of pronunciation than the ISO method.

If you click on any red example text, you will see a list of the characters that make up the example appear at the bottom right of the page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase.

Index

Click on a character in the table to jump to its description. Only characters with a line below have descriptive notes attached (apart from any descriptions in the Unicode database).

 

Various signs  ◌ঁ  ◌ং  ◌ঃ  ◌়  ◌ৗ
Independent vowels
Consonants
Additional consonants
Dependent vowel signs  ◌া  ◌ি  ◌ী  ◌ু  ◌ূ  ◌ৃ  ◌ৄ  ◌ে  ◌ৈ
Two-part dependent vowel signs  ◌ো  ◌ৌ
Virama  ◌্
Additional vowels for Sanskrit  ◌ৢ  ◌ৣ
Additions for Assamese
Digits
Historic symbols for fractional values
Currency signs

Various signs

U+0981 BENGALI SIGN CANDRABINDU

in ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ~, cɔndrôbindu চন্দ্রবিন্দু

Vowel nasalisation marker. This appears over the top of an independent vowel, but over the basic consonant when a vowel sign is attached, not over the vowel sign, eg. হ্যাঁ hyã yes, হাঁপান hãpanô to pant.

In the sequence of characters, this should occur after any combining vowel sign associated with the same syllable.

cɔndrôbindu means moon dot.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p19-20; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0982 BENGALI SIGN ANUSVARA

in ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ɱ, ônusvar অনুস্বার or ônusvôr অনুস্বর

ŋ, eg. বাংলা baɱla baŋla Bengali [language].

Never has a vowel sign.

Sometimes spelling is inconsistent, especially when this or are used in a conjunct, eg. সাঙঘাতিক or সাংঘাতিক (terrible, tremendous); রঙ or রং (colour).

In certain words the spelling is fixed, however. বাংলা is one such word. However, since this cannot support vowel signs, the word for Bengali nation (rather than language) has to be spelled with , ie. বাঙালী baŋalī.

In the sequence of characters, this should occur after any combining vowel sign associated with the same syllable.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p13-14; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0983 BENGALI SIGN VISARGA

in ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, , bisɔrgô বিসর্গ

This sign has two different effects:

  • নিঃশব্দ niʃʃɔbdô, here the bisɔrgô lengthens the following consonant. There is no aspiration.
  • বাঃ baːɦ (left), here it is pronounced with vigorous final aspiration.

The only common colloquial words containing this sign are বাঃ baːɦ (left) and দুঃখ dukkʰô (sorrow).

In the sequence of characters, this should occur after any combining vowel sign associated with the same syllable.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p255; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09BC BENGALI SIGN NUKTA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• for extending the alphabet to new letters

Bengali mark, nukta

For extending the alphabet to create more characters.

In the sequence of characters in a syllable, this comes before any combining vowel sign.

U+09BD BENGALI SIGN AVAGRAHA

' in ISO 15919

U+09D7 BENGALI AU LENGTH MARK

Bengali mark, length mark

Should not be used. Provided for compatibility with character sets that represent U+09CC BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AU as two characters.

Notes. Refs: [1] The Unicode Standard 5.2 p313

U+09FA BENGALI ISSHAR

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ishvar
• represents the name of a deity
= svargiya
• written before the name of a deceased person

Bengali symbol

Placed before a dead person's name.

Notes. Refs: [1] Correspondence [Bhattacharya]

Independent vowels

U+0985 BENGALI LETTER A

a in ISO 15919

Bengali independent vowel, ɔ or ô, ɔ-kar

ɔ, eg. অঙ্ক ɔŋkô mathematics.

o where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of i or u, eg. অভিধান ôbhidhan dictionary.

There is no equivalent vowel sign, since this equates to the inherent vowel when preceded by a consonant.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp9, 275; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0986 BENGALI LETTER AA

ā in ISO 15919

Bengali independent vowel, a, a-kar

ɑ, eg. আকাশ akaʃ sky.

See also U+09BE BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AA .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2-4; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0987 BENGALI LETTER I

i in ISO 15919

Bengali independent vowel, i, hrɔsvô i হ্রস্ব ই

i, eg. ইংরেজ iɱrej English, ভাই bhai brother.

e where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e or a.

See also U+09BF BENGALI VOWEL SIGN I ি.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 4-5; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0988 BENGALI LETTER II

ī in ISO 15919

Bengali independent vowel, ī, dīrghô ī দীর্ঘ ঈ

i, eg. ঈদ īd Eid.

Bengali has lost the distinction between short and long i vowels in pronunciation, but retains the difference in spelling.

See also U+09C0 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN II .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 4-5; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0989 BENGALI LETTER U

u in ISO 15919

Bengali independent vowel, u, hrɔsvô u হ্রস্ব উ

u pronounced with the lips very rounded, eg. উঁচু ũcu height.

o where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e a, , eg. উচ্চারন uccarɔn pronunciation.

See also U+09C1 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN U .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 5, 11, 275; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+098A BENGALI LETTER UU

ū in ISO 15919

Bengali independent vowel, ū, dīrghô ū দীর্ঘ ঊ

u pronounced with the lips very rounded.

Bengali has lost the distinction between short and long u vowels in pronunciation, but retains the difference in spelling.

See also 09C2 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN UU.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 5, 11, 275; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+098B BENGALI LETTER VOCALIC R

in ISO 15919

Bengali independent vowel, , vocalic r

ri pronounced with the lips very rounded, eg. ঋতু ṛtu season.

See also U+09C3 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R  ৃ.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p41; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+098C BENGALI LETTER VOCALIC L

Bengali vocalic

Historic character, only used to write Sanskrit in Bengali.

See also U+09E2 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC L  ৢ.

Notes. Refs: [1] Unicode Standard 5.2 p279

U+098F BENGALI LETTER E

ISO 15919 e

Bengali indepent vowel, e or æ, e-kar

e where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of i u, eg. একটু ekʈu a little.

æ where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e a, eg. একবার ækbar once.

See also U+09C7 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN E  ে.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p12-13, 16-17; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0990 BENGALI LETTER AI

ISO 15919 ai

Bengali indepent vowel, , oǐ-kar

oj diphthong.

See also U+09C8 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AI  ৈ.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p35; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0993 BENGALI LETTER O

ISO 15919 ō

Bengali indepent vowel, o, o-kar

o pronounced with the lips very rounded.

u where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of i u, eg. ওদিকে odike in that direction.

ɔ if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e a, eg. ওড়া oɽa to fly.

See also U+09CB BENGALI VOWEL SIGN O  ো.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p8, 10, 275; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0994 BENGALI LETTER AU

ISO 15919 au

Bengali indepent vowel, , oǔ-kar

ow diphthong, eg. ঔষুধ oŭʂɔdh medecine.

See also U+09CC BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AU  ৌ.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p17; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

Consonants

U+0995 BENGALI LETTER KA

ISO 15919 k

Bengali consonant, k,

k, eg. কলম kɔlôm pen.

Conjuncts with unusual pronunciations:

ক্ষ , when initial, kːʰ in the middle of a word. Note: this conjunct is called khiyɔ and is often treated as a letter of the alphabet in that some dictionaries give it it's own section, eg. ক্ষুদ্র kʂudrô small, trifling.

ক্ষ্ন kʂn, kkʰn

ক্ষ্ম kʂm, kkʰ

ক্ষ্য kʂy̌, kkʰ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp16, 17, 32, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0996 BENGALI LETTER KHA

ISO 15919 kh

Bengali consonant, kh, khɔ

, eg. খবর khɔbôr news.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp12-13; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0997 BENGALI LETTER GA

ISO 15919 g

Bengali consonant, g,

ɡ, eg. গতকাল gɔtôkal yesterday.

Shape variants. When combined with the form গু is common in handwriting and older typefaces. The u can also be written below the consonant, especially in newspapers.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp3,4; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0998 BENGALI LETTER GHA

ISO 15919 gh

Bengali consonant, gh, ghɔ

ɡʰ, eg. ঘর ghɔr room, house.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p42; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+0999 BENGALI LETTER NGA

ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ŋ, uŋɔ

ŋ or ŋɡ

Some speakers will pronounce a hard ɡ in a word like বাঙালী baŋɡali (Bengali), while others will either soften it or omit it.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp9, 10; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+099A BENGALI LETTER CA

ISO 15919 c

Bengali consonant, c,

c, eg. চক্র cɔkrô wheel.

Conjuncts with unusual pronunciations:

চ্ছ্ব cchb, ccʰ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp35, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+099B BENGALI LETTER CHA

ISO 15919 ch

Bengali consonant, ch, chɔ

, eg. ছাতা chata umbrella.

Aspiration is stronger at the beginning of a word than in the middle or at the end.

s when pronounced by some people.

Conjuncts with unusual pronunciations:

চ্ছ্ব cchb, ccʰ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp19-20, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+099C BENGALI LETTER JA

ISO 15919 j

Bengali consonant, j, bôr͟gīyô jɔ বর্গীয় জ

ʤ, eg. জগৎ jɔgôṯ world.

z In Bangladesh this can sound more like z, especially in words of Perso-Arabic origin, eg. নামাজ namaj, prayers, pronounced namaz.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations:

জ্ঞ , ɡ at the beginning of a word, eg. জ্ঞান jñan, knowledge, pronounced ɡæn, or ɡɡ between vowels, eg. বিজ্ঞান bijñan, science, pronounced biɡɡæn. (Note how it also changes a following a to æ.)

জ্জ্ব jjb, jj

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp 25, 26, 82, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+099D BENGALI LETTER JHA

ISO 15919 jh

Bengali consonant, jh, jhɔ

ʤʰ, eg. ঝড় jhɔɽ storm.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp 38; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+099E BENGALI LETTER NYA

ISO 15919 ñ

Bengali consonant, ñ, niyô / iyô

n It is pronounced the same as .

Its use independently, in words like গাঞি gañi, is very rare 4. Usually only used in conjuncts such as ñc, ñj, ñjh, , etc.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations:

জ্ঞ , ɡ at the beginning of a word, eg. জ্ঞান jñan, knowledge, pronounced ɡæn, or ɡɡ between vowels, eg. বিজ্ঞান bijñan, science, pronounced biɡɡæn. (Note how it also changes a following a to æ.)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp 44, 82; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script; [4] Correspondance [Bhattacharya]

U+099F BENGALI LETTER TTA

ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ʈ, ʈɔ

ʈ, eg. টাকা ʈaka money.

Note that Bengali retroflex consonants do not involve the tongue being curled around or pointed vertically upwards, as in other Indic languages. The tip of the tongue is touched against the alveolar ridge.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p 23; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09A0 BENGALI LETTER TTHA

ISO 15919 ṭh

Bengali consonant, ʈh, ʈhɔ

ʈʰ, eg. ঠাণ্ডা ʈhaɳɖa cold.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p38; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09A1 BENGALI LETTER DDA

ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ɖ, ɖɔ

ɖ, eg. ডাক্তার ɖaktar doctor.

With nukta. ɽ with U+09BC BENGALI SIGN NUKTA  ়, ie. ড় (ISO 15919 ; here ɽ) is a retroflex flap, eg. ওড়া oɽa to fly. Curl tongue as if for ɖ but before making contact with the alveolar ridge flap the tongue down smartly to make audible contact with the bottom of the mouth.

In Sanskrit this was merely an allophone of between vowels. The distinguishing dot was added to the Bengali script in the 19th century. Now it is regarded as a letter of the alphabet.

The precomposed character U+09DC BENGALI LETTER RRA  ড় is equivalent to this decomposed sequence, but the decomposed sequence is produced by NFC, so should be used in preference.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Wikipedia: Bengali Script; [3] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p28, 29

U+09A2 BENGALI LETTER DDHA

ISO 15919 ḍh

Bengali consonant, ɖh, ɖhɔ ɖh

ɖʰ, eg. ঢেউ ɖheu wave.

Rather uncommon, even though it is used in the name of the Bangladeshi capital, ঢাকা ɖhaka ɖʱaka, and some other quite common words4.

With nukta. ɽ or ɽh with U+09BC BENGALI SIGN NUKTA ঢ় (ISO 15919 ṛh; here ɽh), eg. আষাঢ় aʂaɽh June-July. Theoretically this is the aspirated version of ɽɔ, but in practice not normally pronounced with aspiration, although it occasionally may be, as in রাঢ়. A very rare letter, the only common word in which it appears is the Bengali month given in the example above.

The precomposed character U+09DD BENGALI LETTER RHA  ঢ় is equivalent to this decomposed sequence, but the decomposed sequence is produced by NFC, and so should be used in preference.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp38, 39; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script; [4] Correspondance [Bhattacharya]

U+09A3 BENGALI LETTER NNA

ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ɳ, mūrdhônyô ɳɔ মূর্ধন্য ণ

n, eg. হরিণ hôriɳ deer. This is pronounced exactly the same as dɔntyô nɔ.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations:

হ্ণ , nh or nn

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p32; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09A4 BENGALI LETTER TA

ISO 15919 t

Bengali consonant, t,

t, eg. তারা tara star. The tongue is further forward than the English t.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations:

ত্ম tm,

ত্ব tb,

ত্ম্য tmy̌,

স্ত্য sty̌, stː

Special vowel combinations: The syllable ntu can be written in modern typefaces with the u below the nt conjunct, but in older print a special arrangement incorporates all three sounds together, eg. কিন্তু kintu but.

The combination tru is represented by ত্রু.

Khanda ta In some words a that has no following inherent or other vowel may have a shape like . It is called খণ্ড ত khɔɳɖô tɔ. It either comes at the end of words, eg. হঠাৎ hɔʈhaṯ suddenly, or before a consonant that doesn't naturally combine with , eg. উৎসব uṯsɔb festival. Many such words, however, use . It's not possible to say which will be used.

Unicode 4.1 added a separate character for khɔɳɖȏ tɔ, U+09CE BENGALI LETTER KHANDA TA , which should be used when this shape is needed. (This replaces a previous approach that required the use of U+09A4 BENGALI LETTER TA + U+09CD BENGALI SIGN VIRAMA  ্ + U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER.)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp23, 39; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09A5 BENGALI LETTER THA

ISO 15919 th

Bengali consonant, th, thɔ

, eg. থামা thama to stop.

When the English sound 'th' as in 'thin' is transliterated into Bengali, this is the sound that is used.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations:

থ্ব thb, ttʰ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp28, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09A6 BENGALI LETTER DA

ISO 15919 d

Bengali consonant, d,

d, eg. দাদী dadī grandmother. Produced with the teeth firmly against the top front teeth.

When the English sound 'th' as in 'then' is transliterated into Bengali, this is the sound that is used.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

দ্ম dm, dd

দ্ব db, dd

দ্ব্য dby̌, dd

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp9,10, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09A7 BENGALI LETTER DHA

ISO 15919 dh

Bengali consonant, dh, dhɔ

, eg. ধন্যবাদ dhônyôbad thank you.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

ধ্ব dhb, ddʰ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp42, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09A8 BENGALI LETTER NA

Transcriptions. ISO 15919 n

Bengali consonant, n, dɔntyô nɔ দন্ত্য ন

n, eg. নদী nôdī river.

Special vowel combinations. The syllable ntu can be written in modern typefaces with the u below the nt conjunct, but in older print a special arrangement incorporates all three sounds together, eg. কিন্তু kintu (but).

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

হ্ণ , nh or nn

হ্ন hn, nh or nn

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp3, 4, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09AA BENGALI LETTER PA

ISO 15919 p

Bengali consonant, p,

p, eg. পথ pɔth path, road.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p31; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09AB BENGALI LETTER PHA

ISO 15919 ph

Bengali consonant, ph, phɔ

pf or or f, eg. ফটো phôʈo photo.

Some pronounce as with aspiration, but many (especially in Bangladesh) pronounce more like f. In West Bengal it is more like the pf in the German 'pfennig', and this is a fairly standard rendering.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p28; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09AC BENGALI LETTER BA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= Bengali va, wa

ISO 15919 b

Bengali consonant, b or v,

b when not in a conjunct, eg. বড় bɔɽô big. The v in Sanskrit has disappeared in Bengali, to be replaced by b, eg. বিষ্ণু biʂɳu, Vishnu.

Called bɔ phɔla ব-ফলা when non-initial in conjuncts, when it has one of the following two pronunciations.

in word initial in a conjunct, eg. স্বামী svamī, husband, pronounced ʃamiː; জ্বর jvɔr, fever, pronounced ʤɔr.

Lengthens consonants in conjuncts between vowels, eg. বিশ্ব biʃvô, universe, pronounced biʃʃo.

Note that it is still pronounced b sometimes in ম্ব conjuncts in words of English or Sanskrit origin, eg. নম্বর nɔmbôr, number, pronounced nɔmbor. By contrast, the Bengali word সম্বন্ধে sɔmbɔndhe about is pronounced sɔmmɔndʰe.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

চ্ছ্ব cchb, ccʰ

জ্জ্ব jjb, jj

ত্ব tb, tt

থ্ব thb, ttʰ

দ্ব db, dd

দ্ব্য dby̌, dd

ধ্ব dhb, ddʰ

ম্ব mb, mm or mb

শ্ব ʃb, ʃʃ

হ্ব hb, don't quite understand this - seems to be 'v'

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp3, 4, 26, 249, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09AD BENGALI LETTER BHA

ISO 15919 bh

Bengali consonant, bh, bhɔ

, eg. ভাল bhalô good.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p35; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09AE BENGALI LETTER MA

ISO 15919 m

Bengali consonant, m,

m, eg. মজার mɔjar funny.

Lengthens consonants as the final letter in a conjunct.

mh or mm in the conjunct হ্ম hm.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

ক্ষ্ম kʂm, kkʰ

ত্ম tm, tt

ত্ম্য tmy̌, tt

দ্ম dm, dd

ম্ব mb, mm or mb

ল্ম lm, ll

শ্ম ʃm, ʃʃ

ষ্ম ʂm, ʃʃ

স্ম sm, ʃʃ with perhaps some nasalisation of the preceding vowel, eg. ভস্ম, bʰɔ̃ʃʃo; or with a vocalic r vowel sign s, eg. স্মৃতি, sriti

হ্ম hm, mh or mm

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp3, 4, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09AF BENGALI LETTER YA

ISO 15919 y

Bengali consonant, , ɔntɔḥsthô y̌ɔ অন্তঃস্থ য

ʤ at the beginning of a word, eg. যখন y̌ɔkhôn when. In Bangladesh this can sound more like z, especially in words of Perso-Arabic origin.

When it occurs as the last member of a consonant cluster it has a special shape yaphala, and is called y̌ɔ-phɔla য-ফলা.

Conjunct pronunciations.

  • Lengthens consonants when non-initial in a cluster, eg. জন্য jôny̌ô, pronounced ʤonno.
  • æ when followed by the vowel sign a-kar, eg. হ্যাঁ hyæ̃ (yes), pronounced hæ̃; ব্যাঙ্ক byæŋk (bank), pronounced bæŋk. There are exceptions to the previous rule, when the a-kar produces its normal value, eg. ব্যাখ্যা byækhya (explanation); another exception would be a word like সন্ধ্যা sôndhya (evening).
  • æ when there is no vowel sign and the following syllable is not i, eg. ব্যথা bytha (pain), pronounced bætʰa.
  • e when there is no vowel sign and the following syllable is i, eg. ব্যক্তি bykti (pain), pronounced bekti.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

ক্ষ্য kʂy̌, kkʰ

ত্ম্য tmy̌, tt

দ্ব্য dby̌, dd

স্ত্য sty̌, stt

হ্য hy̌, jj

Conjuncts formed with y̌ɔ-phɔla are unusual because the y̌ɔ-phɔla is reduced but not the preceding base, eg. + = ক্য. This is the default form when y̌ɔ-phɔla follows U+09CD BENGALI SIGN VIRAMA  ্.

An exception to the rule for shaping of y̌ɔ-phɔla can occur when U+09B0 BENGALI LETTER RA is the first letter in the conjunct. This combination is typically rendered using the reph and a full ɔntɔḥsthô y̌ɔ, ie. র্য, but may be rendered using the ordinary y̌ɔ-phɔla form after a full form , ie.

+ = র্য or র‌্য

Unicode 4.01 clarified how to address this. Use U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER to consistently produce the desired form, as shown below:

+ virama + = র্য

+ zwnj + virama + = র‌্য

y̌ɔ-phɔla can also be used after independent vowels though this doesn't appear to be common.

With nukta. When followed by a U+09BC BENGALI SIGN NUKTA  ়, ie. য়, this letter becomes ɔntɔḥsthô ɔ অন্তঃস্থ য়, which represents one of the following sounds. It is transcribed in ISO 15919 as ; here y.

j between i...e, a...u, or e...e.

e after another vowel, particularly after ɔ, a or o, eg. ভয় bʰɔe (fear).

w (light, like French 'oui') between o...a , eg. খাওয়া kʰaowa (to eat, drink).

Sometimes it is scarcely pronounced at all, eg. মেয়ে mee (girl, woman).

The dot was added in the 19th century, to contrast this with ɔntɔḥsthô y̌ɔ.

The precomposed character U+09DF BENGALI LETTER YYA is equivalent to this decomposed sequence, but the decomposed sequence is produced by NFC, so should be used in preference.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp13, 25-26, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09B0 BENGALI LETTER RA

ISO 15919 r

Bengali consonant, r,

r, eg. রওয়া rɔoya to remain. Rolled, but at the end of a word in particular the tongue only flaps once or twice.

Conjunct appearance. When it occurs as the second element in a conjunct it is typically written as a wavy horizontal line, so + = ব্র, eg. যাত্রা y̌atra journey. This mark is called rɔ-phɔla র-ফলা.

When it occurs as the first element in a conjunct it is typically written as a diagonal stroke above the consonant that follows it, so + = র্য, eg. বর্ণ bɔrɳô colour. This mark is called reph রেফ.

Unusual vowel combinations. To avoid clashing with the dot, the vowel sign for u appears to the side when attached to , ie. রু. Similarly, the vowel sign for ū appears to the side when attached to , ie. রূ. Eg. ভুরু bhuru eyebrow.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp3, 4, 33, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09B2 BENGALI LETTER LA

ISO 15919 l

Bengali consonant, l,

l, eg. লওয়া lɔoya to take. Never a dark l.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

ল্ম lm, ll

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp3, 4, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09B6 BENGALI LETTER SHA

ISO 15919 ś

Bengali consonant, ʃ, talôbyô ʃɔ তালব্য শ

ʃ, eg. শাপ ʃap curse.

s possible in Bangladesh, or in English words that use the sound s.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

শ্ম ʃm, ʃʃ

শ্র ʃr, sr

শ্ব ʃb, ʃʃ

Unusual vowel combinations. When combining with u the form শু is common in handwriting and older typefaces, eg. শুধু ʃudhu only. The u can also be written below the consonant, especially in newspapers.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp9,10, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09B7 BENGALI LETTER SSA

ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ʂ, mūrdhnyô ʂɔ মূর্ধন্য ষ

ʃ, eg. ষড়যন্ত্র ʂɔɽôy̌ɔntrô conspiracy.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

ক্ষ , kkʰ

ক্ষ্ন kʂn, kkʰn

ক্ষ্ম kʂm, kkʰ

ক্ষ্য kʂy̌, kkʰ

ষ্ম ʂm, ʃʃ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp9,10, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09B8 BENGALI LETTER SA

ISO 15919 s

Bengali consonant, s, dɔntyô sɔ দন্ত্য স s

ʃ, eg. সকাল sɔkal morning.

s possible in Bangladesh, or in English words that use the sound s.

Conjunct pronunciations. Typically pronounced s in the following conjuncts:

স্ত st, st

স্থ sth, stʰ

স্ন sn, sn

স্ত্র str, str

স্ম sm, ʃʃ may involve some nasalisation of the preceding vowel, eg. ভস্ম, bʰɔ̃ʃʃo; but s when this conjunct is followed by a vocalic r vowel sign , eg. স্মৃতি sriti memory.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] pp9,10, 265-270; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09B9 BENGALI LETTER HA

ISO 15919 h

Bengali consonant, h,

h, eg. হল hɔl (student) hall.

Unusual conjunct pronunciations.

হ্ণ , nh or nn

হ্ন hn, nh or nn

হ্ম hm, mh or mm

হ্য hy̌, jj

হ্ব hb, hu or ho or hb, depending on the speaker.

Shape variants. hṛ traditionally looks like হৃ, although modern computer typefaces tend to put the normal vowel sign under the consonant, eg. হৃদয় hṛdɔy heart.

Also, hu traditionally looks like হু.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p400; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p25; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script; [4] Corrrespondance [Bhattacharya]

Additional consonants

U+09CE BENGALI LETTER KHANDA TA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a dead consonant form of ta, without implicit vowel, used in some sequences

ISO 15919 t

Bengali consonant, , khɔɳɖȏ tɔ খণ্ড ত্‌

t The tongue is further forward than the English t.

This is a variant form of that was added to Unicode 4.1 as a separate character and should be used when this shape is needed. (This replaces an earlier approach that required the use of U+09A4 BENGALI LETTER TA + U+09CD BENGALI SIGN VIRAMA  ্ + U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER.)

In some words a that has no following inherent or other vowel may have this shape. It either comes at the end of words, eg. হঠাৎ hɔʈhaṯ suddenly, or before a consonant that doesn't naturally combine with , eg. উৎসব uṯsɔb festival or সৎমা sɔṯma step-mother. Many such words, however, use , eg. সদাত্মা. It's not possible to say which will be used.

Notes. Refs: [1] The Unicode Standard 5.2 p281; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p39; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script; [4] Correspondence [Bhattacharya]

U+09DC BENGALI LETTER RRA

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 09A1 09BC

ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, ɽ, ɽɔ

It is recommended that you use the NFC form of this letter, which is the decomposed sequence U+09A1 BENGALI LETTER DDA + U+09BC BENGALI SIGN NUKTA  ়.

ɽ retroflex flap, eg. ওড়া oɽa to fly. Curl tongue as if for ɖ but before making contact with the alveolar ridge flap the tongue down smartly to make audible contact with the bottom of the mouth.

In Sanskrit this was merely an allophone of U+09A1 BENGALI LETTER DDA between vowels. The distinguishing dot was added to the Bengali script in the 19th century. Now it is regarded as a letter of the alphabet.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p29; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09DD BENGALI LETTER RHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 09A2 09BC

ISO 15919 ṛh

Bengali consonant, ɽh, ɽhɔ

It is recommended that you use the NFC form of this letter, which is the decomposed sequence U+09A2 BENGALI LETTER DDHA + U+09BC BENGALI SIGN NUKTA  ়.

ɽ, eg. আষাঢ় aʂaɽh June-July.

Theoretically the aspirated version of ɽɔ, but in practice not normally pronounced with aspiration, although it occasionally may be, as in রাঢ়. A very rare letter, the only common word in which it appears is the Bengali month shown in the example above.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p39; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script; [4] Correspondence [Bhattacharya]

U+09DF BENGALI LETTER YYA

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 09AF 09BC

ISO 15919

Bengali consonant, y, ɔntɔḥsthô ɔ অন্তঃস্থ য়

It is recommended that you use the NFC form of this letter, which is the decomposed sequence 09AF BENGALI LETTER YA + 09BC BENGALI SIGN NUKTA.

This represents one of the following sounds.

j between i...e, a...u, or e...e.

e after another vowel, particularly after ɔ, a or o, eg. ভয় bʰɔe (fear).

w (light, like French 'oui') between o...a , eg. খাওয়া kʰaowa (to eat, drink).

Sometimes it is scarcely pronounced at all, eg. মেরে mee (girl, woman).

The dot was added in the 19th century, to contrast this with ɔntɔḥsthô y̌ɔ (U+09AF BENGALI LETTER YA ).

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p13, 26; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

Dependent vowel signs

U+09BE BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AA

ISO 15919 ā

Bengali vowel sign, a, a-kar

ɑ, eg. কাটা kaʈa to cut.

æ after জ্ঞ , eg. জ্ঞান jñan knowledge, pronounced ɡæn; বিজ্ঞান bijñan science, pronounced biɡɡæn.

æ when following y̌ɔ-phɔla, eg. হ্যাঁ hyæ̃ (yes), pronounced hæ̃; ব্যাঙ্ক byæŋk bank, pronounced bæŋk.

There are exceptions to the previous rule, when the a-kar produces its normal value, eg. ব্যাখ্যা byækhya explanation; another exception would be a word like সন্ধ্যা sôndhya evening.

See also U+0986 BENGALI LETTER AA .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2-4, 26, 82; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

ি

U+09BF BENGALI VOWEL SIGN I

Description in the Unicode standard:

• stands to the left of the consonant

ISO 15919 i

Bengali vowel sign, i, hrɔsvô i

i, eg. বিড়ি biɽi cigarette.

e where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e or a, বিড়াল biɽal cat.

This vowel sign appears to the left of the base consonant.

See also U+0987 BENGALI LETTER I .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 4-5; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09C0 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN II

ISO 15919 ī

Bengali vowel sign, ī, dīrghô ī

ī, eg. বীর bīr hero.

Bengali has lost the distinction between short and long i vowels in pronunciation, but retains the difference in spelling.

See also U+0988 BENGALI LETTER II .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 4-5; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09C1 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN U

ISO 15919 u

Bengali vowel sign, u, hrɔsvô u

u pronounced with the lips very rounded, eg. বুক buk breast, chest.

o where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e a, eg. বুড়ো buɽo old man.

Shape variants. To avoid clashing with the dot, this vowel sign appears to the side when attached to , ie. রু, eg. রুগী rugī ill, sick.

When combining with U+09B6 BENGALI LETTER SHA the form শু is common in handwriting and older typefaces. The hrɔsvô u can also be written below the consonant, especially in newspapers. A similar phenomenon occurs with the letter U+0997 BENGALI LETTER GA , ie. গু.

Also, hu traditionally looks like হু.

See also U+0989 BENGALI LETTER U .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 5, 6, 275; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09C2 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN UU

ISO 15919 ū

Bengali vowel sign, ū, dīrghô ū

u pronounced with the lips very rounded, eg. মূল mūl root.

Bengali has lost the distinction between short and long u vowels in pronunciation, but retains the difference in spelling.

Shape variants. To avoid clashing with the dot, this vowel sign appears to the side when attached to , ie. রূ, eg. রূপ rūp figure, form.

See also U+098A BENGALI LETTER UU .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p2, 5, 11, 275; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09C3 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R

ISO 15919

Bengali vowel sign, , vocalic r

ri pronounced with the lips very rounded, eg. বৃহৎ bṛhɔṯ huge, large.

Shape variants. The vowel sign is attached to the bottom of the consonant, but some computer typefaces position it slightly to the right.

hṛ traditionally looks like হৃ, although modern computer typefaces tend to put the normal vowel sign under the consonant, eg. হৃদয় hṛdɔy heart.

See also U+098B BENGALI LETTER VOCALIC R .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p41; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09C4 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR

ISO 15919 r̥̄

Bengali vocalic

Historic character, only used to write Sanskrit in Bengali.

Notes. Refs: [1] Unicode Standard 5.2 p279

U+09C7 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN E

Description in the Unicode standard:

• stands to the left of the consonant

ISO 15919 e

Bengali vowel sign, e, e-kar

e, eg. বেগ beg speed.

e where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of i u, eg. বেগুন begun brinjal.

æ where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e a, eg. বেলা bæla time of day.

The pronounciation æ is generally used in common words such as কেন kænô why or কেমন kæmôn how, and certain verb forms. Some speakers in Bangladesh may not clearly distinguish between the æ and e, but they do know which is appropriate if asked.

Shape variants. In higher quality printing the horizontal line may be omitted at the beginning of a word.

This vowel sign is written before its base.

See also U+098F BENGALI LETTER E .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p12-13, 16-17; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09C8 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AI

Description in the Unicode standard:

• stands to the left of the consonant

ISO 15919 ai

Bengali vowel sign, , oǐ-kar

oj diphthong, eg. তৈরি toĭri to make.

Note that the sound can also be represented by the inherent vowel plus hrɔsvô i, eg. বই bôi book. The combination of o-kar plus hrɔsvô i can also occur, eg. ওই oi demonstrative.

This vowel sign is written before its base.

See also U+0990 BENGALI LETTER AI .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p35; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

Two-part dependent vowel signs

U+09CB BENGALI VOWEL SIGN O

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 09C7 09BE

ISO 15919 o

Bengali vowel sign, o, o-kar

o pronounced with the lips very rounded, eg. বোন bon sister.

u where the vowel harmony effect applies, if the vowel in the following syllable is one of i u, eg. কোকিল kokil cuckoo.

ɔ if the vowel in the following syllable is one of ɔ o e a, eg. বোকা boka stupid.

Inconsistent spellings sometimes arise with this letter due to the sound o being also an inherent vowel sound.

Alternative code points. The vowel sign appears on both sides of the base. The vowel sign can also be represented in Unicode by U+09C7 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN E  ে + U+09BE BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AA  া, but this is for compatibility with encodings that represent the vowel in this way. Normally you should not use that approach.

See also U+0993 BENGALI LETTER O .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p8, 10, 275; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09CC BENGALI VOWEL SIGN AU

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 09C7 09D7

ISO 15919 au

Bengali indepent vowel, , oǔ-kar

ow diphthong, eg. নৌকো noŭko boat.

Alternative code points. The vowel sign appears on both sides of the base. The vowel sign can also be represented in Unicode by U+09C7 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN E  ে + U+09D7 BENGALI AU LENGTH MARK  ৗ, but this is for compatibility with encodings that represent the vowel in this way. Normally you should not use that approach.

See also U+0994 BENGALI LETTER AU .

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p17; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script

Virama

U+09CD BENGALI SIGN VIRAMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= hasant (Bengali term for halant)

Bengali mark, bisɔrgô বিসর্গ

Used between two consonants in a conjunct, in which case it is usually invisible, but sometimes not. Where not, it is usually because the font doesn't have a particular conjunct ligature, but it may also be visible in places where the phonology is unusual, eg. ফ্‌ল্যাট phlæʈ flat; লান্‌চ lanc lunch (though these may also be spelled with conjuncts, eg. ফ্ল্যাট phlæʈ flat). It is also quite common to see উদ্‌যাপন to distinguish it from words like উদ্যান. These words are etymologically related, but distinct phonetically.

This character should always be positioned before any combining vowel mark in memory.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p399-402; [2] Teach Yourself Bengali [Radice] p95; [3] Wikipedia: Bengali Script; [4] Correspondence [Bhattacharya]

Additional vowels for Sanskrit

U+09E0 BENGALI LETTER VOCALIC RR

ISO 15919 r̥̄

Bengali vocalic

Historic character, only used to write Sanskrit in Bengali.

See also U+09C4 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR  ৄ.

Notes. Refs: [1] Unicode Standard 5.2 p279

U+09E1 BENGALI LETTER VOCALIC LL

ISO 15919 l̥̄

Bengali vocalic

Historic character, only used to write Sanskrit in Bengali.

See also U+09E3 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC LL  ৣ.

Notes. Refs: [1] Unicode Standard 5.2 p279

U+09E2 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC L

ISO 15919

Bengali vocalic

Historic character, only used to write Sanskrit in Bengali.

See also U+098C BENGALI LETTER VOCALIC L .

Notes. Refs: [1] Unicode Standard 5.2 p279

U+09E3 BENGALI VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC LL

ISO 15919 l̥̄

Bengali vocalic

Historic character, only used to write Sanskrit in Bengali.

See also U+09E1 BENGALI LETTER VOCALIC LL .

Notes. Refs: [1] Unicode Standard 5.2 p279

Additions for Assamese

U+09F0 BENGALI LETTER RA WITH MIDDLE DIAGONAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= Assamese letter ra

Assamese consonant

Assamese version of Bengali U+09B0 BENGALI LETTER RA . Not used in Bengali.

Wikipedia: Bengali Script

U+09F1 BENGALI LETTER RA WITH LOWER DIAGONAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= Assamese letter wa
= bengali letter va with lower diagonal (1.0)

Assamese consonant

Assamese version of Bengali U+09AC BENGALI LETTER BA . Not used in Bengali.

Wikipedia: Bengali Script

Digits

U+09E6 BENGALI DIGIT ZERO

Bengali digit, sɪfar

U+09E7 BENGALI DIGIT ONE

Bengali digit, æk

U+09E8 BENGALI DIGIT TWO

Bengali digit, dui

U+09E9 BENGALI DIGIT THREE

Bengali digit, tin

U+09EA BENGALI DIGIT FOUR

Bengali digit, car

U+09EB BENGALI DIGIT FIVE

Bengali digit, pãc

U+09EC BENGALI DIGIT SIX

Bengali digit, chɔy

U+09ED BENGALI DIGIT SEVEN

Bengali digit, sat

U+09EE BENGALI DIGIT EIGHT

Bengali digit,

U+09EF BENGALI DIGIT NINE

Bengali digit, nɔy

Historic symbols for fractional values

U+09F4 BENGALI CURRENCY NUMERATOR ONE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• not in current usage

Bengali currency symbol

Part of an additive/subtractive system for specifying the number of ānā in the Bengali notation for currency used up to 1957, eg. ৷৷৴৹ 9 ānā (9 ana); ৸৴৹ 13 ānā (13 ana). There are 16 ana in one rupee, and the system works in multiples of 4. For a detailed explanation of usage, see reference 1.

Notes. Refs: [1] Proposal to Encode the Ganda Currency Mark for Bengali

U+09F5 BENGALI CURRENCY NUMERATOR TWO

Description in the Unicode standard:

• not in current usage

Bengali currency symbol

Part of an additive/subtractive system for specifying the number of ānā in the Bengali notation for currency used up to 1957, eg. ৷৵৹ 6 ānā (6 ana); ৸৵৹ 14 ānā (14 ana). There are 16 ana in one rupee, and the system works in multiples of 4. For a detailed explanation of usage, see reference 1.

Notes. Refs: [1] Proposal to Encode the Ganda Currency Mark for Bengali

U+09F6 BENGALI CURRENCY NUMERATOR THREE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• not in current usage

Bengali currency symbol

Part of an additive/subtractive system for specifying the number of ānā in the Bengali notation for currency used up to 1957, eg. ৷৷৶৹ 11 ānā (11 ana); ৸৶৹ 15 ānā (15 ana). There are 16 ana in one rupee, and the system works in multiples of 4. For a detailed explanation of usage, see reference 1.

Notes. Refs: [1] Proposal to Encode the Ganda Currency Mark for Bengali

U+09F7 BENGALI CURRENCY NUMERATOR FOUR

Bengali currency symbol

Part of an additive/subtractive system for specifying the number of ānā in the Bengali notation for currency used up to 1957, eg. ৷৹ 4 ānā (4 ana); ৷৷৴৹ 9 ānā (9 ana). There are 16 ana in one rupee, and the system works in multiples of 4. For a detailed explanation of usage, see reference 1.

Notes. Refs: [1] Proposal to Encode the Ganda Currency Mark for Bengali

U+09F8 BENGALI CURRENCY NUMERATOR ONE LESS THAN THE DENOMINATOR

Bengali currency symbol

Part of an additive/subtractive system for specifying the number of ānā in the Bengali notation for currency used up to 1957, eg. ৸৹ 12 ānā (12 ana); ৸৵৹ 14 ānā (14 ana). There are 16 ana in one rupee, and the system works in multiples of 4. For a detailed explanation of usage, see reference 1.

Notes. Refs: [1] Proposal to Encode the Ganda Currency Mark for Bengali

U+09F9 BENGALI CURRENCY DENOMINATOR SIXTEEN

Bengali currency symbol

Part of an additive/subtractive system for specifying the number of ānā in the Bengali notation for currency used up to 1957, eg. ৴৹ 1 ānā (1 ana); ৸৶৹ 15 ānā (15 ana). There are 16 ana in one rupee, and the system works in multiples of 4. For a detailed explanation of usage, see reference 1.

Notes. Refs: [1] Proposal to Encode the Ganda Currency Mark for Bengali

Currency signs

U+09F2 BENGALI RUPEE MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= taka
• historic currency sign

Bengali currency symbol

Denotes rupees in the Bengali notation for currency used up to 1957, eg. ১৲ 1 rupayā (1 rupee). For a detailed explanation of usage, see reference 1.

Notes. Refs: [1] Proposal to Encode the Ganda Currency Mark for Bengali

U+09F3 BENGALI RUPEE SIGN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= Bangladeshi taka

U+09FB BENGALI GANDA MARK

Further reading

  1. Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  2. Wikipedia, Bengali Script
  3. William Radice, Teach Yourself Bengali, Hodder & Shoughton, ISBN 0-340-86029-4
  4. The Unicode Standard v5.2
  5. Private correspondance with Tanmoy Bhattacharya, July 2004.
First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2016-03-11 9:38 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.