Arabic character notes

Updated Wed 15 Jun 2016 • tags arabic, urdu, scriptnotes.

This page lists characters in the Unicode Arabic blocks and provides information about them.

To view this page as intended, you need Arabic naskh and nastaliq fonts. The page is served with Scheherazade and Noto Nastaliq web fonts. You can select alternative fonts for the descriptive text from the control to the right.

If you click on any red example text, you will see at the bottom right of the page a list of the characters that make up the example.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Or type the hex number here:

Find

You can also find characters for which there are annotations using UniView (switch on Show notes).

The large character in the box will not be rendered unless the webfont downloaded with the page or a system font has a glyph for it. If there is no glyph and you want to see what it looks like, click on See in UniView.

Transcription characters for Arabic follow the Library of Congress, and for Persian follow the UN scheme.

Based on ISO 8859-6

Base characters

ء

U+0621 ARABIC LETTER HAMZA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (modifier letter right half ring - 02BE)

Arabic glottal stop , hamza

ʔ

For some historical reason this is treated as an orthographic sign rather than as a letter of the alphabet. It sometimes stands alone, but usually appears with a 'carrier' letter - alef, waw, or yeh (أ إ ؤ ئ) for which separate precomposed characters are available in Unicode.

This codepoint is used for representing the standalone hamza only. On its own it has no joining behaviour.

Combined with base characters: When the hamza is above or below another character you should typically use U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE ٔ with the appropriate base character, although there are a number of exceptions.

Some exceptions arise because the NFC normalization form converts the base character and combining hamza to a precomposed character. These instances include

Other exceptions arise where the hamza is an integral part of the character itself (ie. an ijam). Examples of these characters include

Cutting and joining hamza in orthography: Classical arabic distinguishes between 'cutting' and 'joining' hamza. 'Cutting' means always pronounced, 'joining' means frequently elided. The joining hamza is of little practical importance in modern arabic pronounced without the old case endings.

In modern printed arabic, the hamza is rarely shown when it occurs at the beginning of a word.

The following are simplified rules for use of (cutting) hamza:

The sign indicating a joining hamza is called a wasla (see U+0671 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WASLA ٱ).

Urdu vowel separator / calendar indicator, hamzā hamzaː

This is the character code for the standalone hamza.

The hamza is also used in conjunction with other characters in Urdu, for which there are precomposed characters that can be used. See U+0624 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH HAMZA ABOVE ؤ, U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE ئ, U+06D3 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE WITH HAMZA ABOVE ۓ, and U+06C2 ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL WITH HAMZA ABOVE ۂ.

U+066B ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR ٫ looks like a hamza, but isn't.

A standalone hamza is sometimes used at the end of words derived from Arabic, though it is usually omitted in modern Urdu publications, eg. ضیاء ziaː light, ذکاء zakaː intelligence.

Vowel junctions: The hamzā is used to indicate the boundaries between vowel sounds when there is no intervening consonant. Depending on the vowels concerned, it is used in a number of different ways, usually combined with other characters.

In some cases this standalone form is used, eg. انشاءاللہ ɪnʃallaː God willing.

See other ways in which vowel junctions are formed when the hamza is combined with other characters.

Calendar indicator: Gregorian dates are indicated by placing U+0601 ARABIC SIGN SANAH ؁ below the year digits with the word عیسوی iːsviː Christian era. This is usually abbreviated as a hamza, eg. ۲۰۰۴؁ء.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Persian.

آ

U+0622 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH MADDA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0627 0653

This is equivalent to U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF ا + U+0653 ARABIC MADDAH ABOVE ـٓ, but since NFC produces this character it is best to use it rather than the decomposed sequence.

Arabic consonant ā, alif madda

Used when either of the two following combinations of glottal stop and a vowel appear in a word:

  • ʔaʔ (hamza, short a, hamza) eg. آثار ʔaːθaːr

  • ʔaː (hamza, long a) eg. قرآن qur'ʔaːn

Normal pronunciation in both cases is ʔaː.

The madda sign is still very often shown in print.

Shape: ـآ آ

Urdu consonant, alif madd əlɪf mədd

ɑː (used word initially), eg. آب ɑːb now. Unlike the short vowel diacritics, the diacritic madd is never omitted.

As an exception, it used in non-initial position in the word for Koran, القرآن.

madd means increasing.

See also U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF ا.

Shape: ـآ آ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

أ

U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0627 0654

This character is equivalent to U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF ا + U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE ٔ, but since NFC produces this character it is best to use it rather than the decomposed sequence.

Arabic consonant, no LOC transcription

ʔa, ʔu, ʔ

This character represents the hamza (ء).

At the beginning of a word hamza is always written on an alef carrier, regardless which vowel it takes. In this case, where the hamza appears above the alef, the vowel could be a or u. Examples: أحمد 'aḥmad, أريد 'urīd.

This character is also used to represent hamza in the middle or at the end of a word. Which of the possible alternative sequences (أ, ؤ or ئ) is used mid-word depends on the vowels preceding and following the hamza. The rules are complicated (and a common source of spelling errors among Arabs).

At the end of a word this character is only used after a short vowel. Examples: سأل sa'al, قرأ qara'.

See U+0621 ARABIC LETTER HAMZA ء for more information about hamza. See also U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW إ, U+0624 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH HAMZA ABOVE ؤ, and U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE ئ.

Shape: ـأ أ

Not used in Persian or Urdu.

ؤ

U+0624 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0648 0654

This character is equivalent to U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW و + U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE ٔ, but since NFC produces this character it is best to use it rather than the decomposed sequence.

Arabic consonant

ʔu, ʔ

This character represents the hamza (ء) in the middle of a word.

In the middle of a word the hamza is almost always written above a carrier letter. Which one depends on the vowels preceding and following the hamza, and the rules are complicated (and a common source of spelling errors among Arabs), eg. مؤمن mu'min (but cf. سأل sa'al, نائم nā'im).

See U+0621 ARABIC LETTER HAMZA ء for more information about hamza. See also U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE أ, U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW إ, and U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE ئ.

Shape:ـؤ ؤ

Urdu vowel separator+vowel

or o immediately after a preceding vowel (see below).

Vowel junctions: The hamzā is used to indicate the boundaries between vowel sounds when there is no intervening consonant. Depending on the vowels concerned, it is used in a number of different ways. It can also have two different shapes, one like the initial form of 'ain and the other more like an italic 's'.

When the second vowel is an or o represented by و, the hamzā typically sits directly on top of the و, eg. آؤ ɑːo come; جاؤں ʤɑːũː I may go. Often the hamzā is omitted in this situation.

Many words have the vowel combinations iːo, where hamzā is not typically used, eg. لڑکیوں کا laɽkiːõ kɑː of the girls.

See other ways in which vowel junctions are formed when dealing with other combinations of vowels.

Shape: ـؤ ؤ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

إ

U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 0627 0655

This character is equivalent to U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF ا + U+0655 ARABIC HAMZA BELOW ٕ, but since NFC produces this character it is best to use it rather than the decomposed sequence.

Arabic consonant, no transcription in LOC

ʔi

This character represents the hamza (ء).

At the beginning of a word hamza is always written on an alef carrier, regardless which vowel it takes. When it takes an i vowel it is written below the alef. Example: إكرام 'ikrām.

The mid-word and word-final equivalent of this character is U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE ئ.

See U+0621 ARABIC LETTER HAMZA ء for more information about hamza. See also U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE أ, U+0624 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH HAMZA ABOVE ؤ, and U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE ئ.

Shape: ـإ إ

Not used in Persian or Urdu.

ئ

U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

≡ 064A 0654

This character is equivalent to U+064A ARABIC LETTER YEH ي + U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE ٔ, but since NFC produces this character it is best to use it rather than the decomposed sequence.

Arabic consonant

ʔɪ, ʔ

This character represents the hamza (ء) in the middle of a word. When yeh is used as a mid-word carrier it loses its dots.

In the middle of a word the hamza is almost always written above a carrier letter. Which one depends on the vowels preceding and following the hamza, and the rules are complicated (and a common source of spelling errors among Arabs), eg. نائم nā'im (but cf. سأل sa'al, مؤمن mu'min).

See U+0621 ARABIC LETTER HAMZA ء for more information about hamza. See also U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE أ, U+0625 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA BELOW إ, and U+0624 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH HAMZA ABOVE ؤ.

Shape: ئئئ ئ

Urdu vowel separator / vowel

ɪ or a when following a vowel, eg. کوئلہ koɪlɑː coal; لائن lɑːɪn queue; ہیئت hɛat astronomy. The hamza indicates that this vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding one.

iːɛ when used as izafat (see below).

Otherwise functions as a soundless vowel junction indicator ('hamza on its chair').

Vowel junctions: The hamza is used to indicate the boundaries between vowel sounds when there is no intervening consonant. Depending on the vowels concerned, it is used in a number of different ways. It can also have two different shapes, one like the initial form of 'ain and the other more like an italic 's'.

When the second vowel is an or e represented by ی or ے, the hamzā 'sits on a chair' before the letter representing the second vowel, eg. کئی kaiː several; تیئیس teiːs twenty-three; کوئی koiː someone; گئے gae they went; گائے gɑːe they sang.

Many words, however, have vowel combinations iːe, where hamzā is not typically used, eg. چلیے ʧaliːe come on.

See other ways in which vowel junctions are formed when dealing with other combinations of vowels.

Izāfat: ɪzɑːfat is the name given to the short vowel ɛ used to describe a relationship between two words. It may be translated of, eg. as in the Lion of Punjab.

This sound is mostly represented using zer, but in certain cases can be represented with a combining hamza. One such case occurs when the preceding word ends in ye ی: eg. ولئکامل valiː ɛ kɑːmɪl perfect saint.

There are other ways in which izafat can be formed.

Shape: ئئئ ئ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ا

U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF

Arabic vowel lengthener, hamza carrier

aː, a, ʔa, -

Formally speaking, this letter has no sound of its own. Its main uses in arabic orthography are:

It also has one or two minor functions such as in conjunction with tawiin (nunation) (see U+064B ARABIC FATHATAN ً ).

Certain parts of the arabic verb end in a long u-vowel that is conventionally written with a following alef that has no effect on pronunciation, eg. كتبوا kætæbuː. The alef is omitted if a suffix is added, eg. كتبوها kætæbuː-haa.

Shape: ـا ا

Persian ʔ, ɔ, æ, -

Urdu vowel, alif alɪf

a/ɪ/u on its own in word initial position.

iː/e/ɛ word initial, combined with a following ye, ای

uː/o/ɔ word initial, combined with a following vāū, او

ɑː with madd آ, but see U+0622 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH MADDA ABOVE آ for this.

ʊ/∅ sometimes as part of the Arabic definite article (see below).

ɑː elsewhere, unless part of the Arabic definite article (see below).

The alternative sounds possible in the initial combinations can be disambiguated, when necessary, by the use of combining marks. The combining marks are rarely used in normal text (with the exception of madd shown above). See a table of combining marks for vowels.

Arabic definite article The pronunciation of ال (alif followed by lām) varies when it represents the Arabic definite article. This affects many words in Urdu that have come from Arabic, in particular names and adverbial expressions.

Often the alif is not pronounced after a short preceding word that ends in a vowel. If the preceding vowel was long, it is shortened in this process. Examples: بالکل bɪlkul (absolutely); فی الحال filhɑːl (at present).

Often the vowel is pronounced ʊ, eg. دارالحکومت dɑːrʊlhʊkuːmat (capital).

(The lam may also not be pronounced. See U+0644 ARABIC LETTER LAM ل.)

Shape: ـا ا

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ب

U+0628 ARABIC LETTER BEH

Arabic consonant b

b

Shape: ببب ب

Persian consonant

b

Urdu consonant, be

b

bʰe together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated b in Urdu, a distinct letter of the Urdu alphabet called bhe.

Shape: ببب ب   and   بھبھبھ بھ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ة

U+0629 ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA

Arabic consonant h/t

Usually no sound, sometimes t.

Used for historical reasons to write the feminine ending, æ – the dots are borrowed from teh (ت). Pronounced as t in specific grammatical contexts. Example: مدرسة mædræsæ.

This letter is only used in final position. If any suffix is added the ending is spelled with U+062A ARABIC LETTER TEH ت, eg. مدرستنا mædræsæt-naː.

In modern arabic it is not uncommon to find the two dots omitted, particularly on masculine proper names that have the feminine ending, eg. طلبة tulbæ.

Shape: ـة ة

Persian h, -, ɛ, æ Arabic fem. t

Not used in Urdu.

ت

U+062A ARABIC LETTER TEH

Arabic consonant t

t

Shape: تتت ت

Persian t

Urdu consonant, te

t

together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated t in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called the.

Shape: تتت ت   and   تھتھتھ تھ.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ث

U+062B ARABIC LETTER THEH

Arabic consonant th

θ

Shape: ثثث ث

Persian s

Urdu consonant, se se

s Only occurs in words of Arabic and Persian origin, and is much less common than U+0633 ARABIC LETTER SEEN س, which is also pronounced s.

Shape: ثثث ث

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ج

U+062C ARABIC LETTER JEEM

Arabic consonant j

ʒ

Shape: ججج ج

Persian ʤ

Urdu consonant, jīm ʤiːm

ʤ

ʤʰ together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated ʤ in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called jhe.

Shape: ججج ج   and   جھجھجھ جھ.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ح

U+062D ARABIC LETTER HAH

Arabic consonant

ħ

Shape: ححح ح

Persian h, -

Urdu consonant, baṛī he baɽiː he

h

Shape: ححح ح

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

خ

U+062E ARABIC LETTER KHAH

Arabic consonant kh

x

Shape: خخخ خ

Persian x

Urdu consonant, xe xe

x

Shape: خخخ خ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

د

U+062F ARABIC LETTER DAL

Arabic consonant d

d

Shape: ـد د

Persian d

Urdu consonant, dāl dɑːl

d

together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated d in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called dhe.

Shape: ـد د   and   ـدھ دھ.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ذ

U+0630 ARABIC LETTER THAL

Arabic consonant dh

ð

Shape: ـذ ذ

Persian z

Urdu consonant, zɑːl.

z

In Urdu, this letter only occurs in words of Arabic and Persian origin, and is much less common than U+0632 ARABIC LETTER ZAIN ز, which is also pronounced z. It is not counted as a regular letter of the Urdu alphabet.

Shape: ـذ ذ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ر

U+0631 ARABIC LETTER REH

Arabic consonant r

r

Shape: ـر ر

Persian r

Urdu consonant, re re

r (pronounced with a trill).

Shape: ـر ر

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ز

U+0632 ARABIC LETTER ZAIN

Arabic consonant z

z

Shape: ـز ز

Persian z

Urdu consonant, ze ze

z

Shape: ـز ز

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

س

U+0633 ARABIC LETTER SEEN

Arabic consonant s

s

Shape: سسس س

Persian s

Urdu consonant, sīn siːn

s

Shape: سسس س In Urdu nastiliq text this can have two somewhat different shapes. The main part of the shape may be a wavy line, a little like a 'w', or can sometimes be a single swash – especially when two seen characters are written together. Use the same character for both visual forms. When one or other of the possible shapes is desired, this should be produced by the font.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ش

U+0634 ARABIC LETTER SHEEN

Arabic consonant sh

ʃ

Shape: ششش ش

Persian ʃ

Urdu consonant, šīn ʃiːn

ʃ

Shape: ششش ش In Urdu nastiliq text this can have two somewhat different shapes. The main part of the shape may be a wavy line, a little like a 'w', or can sometimes be a single swash – especially when two sheen characters are written together. Use the same character for both visual forms. When one or other of the possible shapes is desired, this should be produced by the font.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ص

U+0635 ARABIC LETTER SAD

Arabic consonant

Shape: صصص ص

Persian s

Urdu consonant, svād svɑːd

s Only used in words of Arabic origin.

Shape: صصص ص

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ض

U+0636 ARABIC LETTER DAD

Arabic consonant

Shape: ضضض ض

Persian z

Urdu consonant, zvād zvɑːd

z Only used in words of Arabic origin.

Shape: ضضض ض

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ط

U+0637 ARABIC LETTER TAH

Arabic consonant

Shape: ططط ط

Persian t

Urdu consonant, toe toe

t Only used in words of Arabic origin.

Shape: ططط ط

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ظ

U+0638 ARABIC LETTER ZAH

Arabic consonant

Shape: ظظظ ظ

Persian z

Urdu consonant, zoe zoe

z Only used in words of Arabic origin.

Shape: ظظظ ظ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ع

U+0639 ARABIC LETTER AIN

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (latin small letter ezh reversed - 01B9)
→ (modifier letter left half ring - 02BF)

Arabic consonant ʻ

ʕ

Shape: ععع ع

Persian ʔ, - Preceding V → Vː

Urdu consonant, 'ain ain.

Not pronounced when preserved in Arabic words.

If it occurs at the beginning of a word, it can fulfill a similar role to alif, allowing words to begin with a vowel, but also allowing for alternative spellings for different words with the same pronunciation, eg. عرب arab (Arab) vs. ارب arab (necessity).

Note that a word-initial ɑː sound when the spelling begins with alif is written as alif with madd, eg. آج ɑːʤ (today). The same word-initial sound with 'ain is represented by 'ain followed by alif, eg. عادت ɑːdat (habit).

In non-word-initial positions an ain can cause a change in sound to preceding short vowels. This results in long vowels, but not always the long form typically associated with a given short form.

  • a short a becomes ɑː, eg. بعد bɑːd (after).

  • a short ɪ becomes e, eg. سعر ser (verse).

  • a short ʊ becomes o, eg. شعلہ ʃolɑː (flame).

ʔ occasionally between two vowels, although this is often lost in Urdu, eg. معاف mʊʔɑːf or mɑːf (forgiven); سعآدت səʔɑːdət or sɑːdət (fortunate).

Shape: ععع ع

Refs: [1] matthews, pp.xix, xxix    [2] delacy, pp.89-91

غ

U+063A ARABIC LETTER GHAIN

Arabic consonant gh

ɣ

Shape: غغغ غ

Persian ɣ Between vowels q, ɢ, x

Urdu consonant, ghain ɣain

ɣ

Used in words that came into Urdu from Arabic and Persian.

Shape: غغغ غ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ـ

U+0640 ARABIC TATWEEL

Description in the Unicode standard:

= kashida
• inserted to stretch characters or to carry tashkil with no base letter
• also used with Mandaic, Manichaean, Psalter Pahlavi, and Syriac

Arabic

Used to stretch words for simple justification, or to make a word or phrase a particular width, or as a form of emphasis.

Better quality justification systems stretch glyphs, rather than adding baseline extensions. This dynamic stretching of glyphs is often called kashida. In some typesetting systems, such as InDesign, the tatweel character serves more to indicate opportunities for stretching, and the glyph for the character itself is not shown.

Which words are stretched and how much depends on a set of rules that tends to vary for different font styles. (Elongation is not normally used at all for the ruq'a style.) The following is an example of text justified using tatweel from a newspaper column.

Justified Arabic text.

One of the major problems when using tatweel to stretch text is that when the width of the space in which the text is displayed, or when new text is added near the start of a paragraph, lines wrap differently and all the places where tatweel would be needed have to be recalibrated. Thus tatweels only work for static text with fixed dimensions.

It is very common to see baseline stretching in modern Arabic text where a word or phrase is stretched to fill a particular space, eg. the Arabic tag line (الابداع المتجدد Creativity renewed) below the word Lexus in the following image is stretched to be the same width.

Arabic text stretched to fit the width of the word Lexus.

ف

U+0641 ARABIC LETTER FEH

Arabic consonant f

f

Shape: ففف ف

In arabic material printed in North Africa this letter sometimes has one dot below. There is a separate code point for that (U+06A2 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT MOVED BELOW ڢ), but it would make more sense to use a font to make this difference than to use a different character.

Persian f

Urdu consonant, fe fe

f

Shape: ففف ف

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ق

U+0642 ARABIC LETTER QAF

Arabic consonant q

q

Shape: ققق ق

In arabic material printed in North Africa this letter sometimes has only one dot above. There is a separate code point for that (U+06A7 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH DOT ABOVE ڧ), but it would make more sense to use a font to make this difference than to use a different character.

Persian q, ɢ

Urdu consonant, qāf qɑːf

q

Used in words that came into Urdu from Arabic and Persian.

Shape: ققق ق

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ك

U+0643 ARABIC LETTER KAF

Arabic consonant k

k

Shape: ككك ك

Persian k

Not used in Urdu. See U+06A9 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH ک.

ل

U+0644 ARABIC LETTER LAM

Arabic consonant l

l

Shape: للل ل

Persian l

Urdu consonant, lām lɑːm

l

when part of the Arabic definite article (see below).

Shape: للل ل

Combined with a following alif, lām is usually written as لا, eg. گلاس gilɑːs (glass). Sometimes, however, especially in words of Arabic origin such as the equivalent of the English prefix 'un-', the more Arabic form لا is used, eg. لاعلاج lɑːʕilɑːʒ (incurable).

Note that I don't know a way to make this example work with a single font. To produce it I had to mix two different fonts. There may be a special font setting that allows you to control this.

Arabic definite article The pronunciation of ال (alif followed by lām) varies when it represents the Arabic definite article . This affects many words in Urdu that have come from Arabic, in particular names and adverbial expressions.

The lām is not pronounced if it precedes one of the following characters: ت‎062A te, ث‎062B se, د‎062F dāl, ذ‎0630 zāl, ر‎0631 re, ز‎0632 ze, س‎0633 sīn, ش‎0634 šīn, ص‎0635 svād, ض‎0636 zvād, ط‎0637 toe, ظ‎0638 zoe, ل‎0644 lām, ن‎0646 nūn. Instead, the following sound is doubled. A tašdīd (U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA ـّ ) may sometimes be used to indicate this. Example: السلام علیکم asːalɑːm alaikum (greetings).

There may also be effects to the sound of the alif too. See U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF ا.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

م

U+0645 ARABIC LETTER MEEM

Arabic consonant m

m

Shape: ممم م

Persian m

Urdu consonant, mīm miːm

m

Shape: ممم م

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

ن

U+0646 ARABIC LETTER NOON

Arabic consonant n

n

Shape: ننن ن

Persian n

Urdu consonant, nūn nuːn

n, eg. انسان insãːn human being.

◌̃ Within a word it may signal that the preceding vowel is nasalised, rather than representing an n sound, eg. ٹانگ tãːg leg. Sometimes, U+0658 ARABIC MARK NOON GHUNNA ـ٘ is used above this letter in such cases, to clarify that its function is nasalisation. Nasalisation at the end of a word is signalled using U+06BA ARABIC LETTER NOON GHUNNA ں, eg. ماں mãː, mother, کروں karũː, I may do. 1

Shape: ننن

Refs: [1] [unicode8] p383    [2] [L2/12-381]

ه

U+0647 ARABIC LETTER HEH

Arabic consonant h

h

Shape: ههه ه

Persian h, -, ɛ, æ, e

e sometimes in final position, eg. خانه xaːne

Not used in Urdu.

و

U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW

Arabic consonant or lengthener of u-vowel w

w

In certain foreign words, pronounced more like , eg. بنطلون bænt̴æloːn

The male proper name عمرو ʕæmr is written with an unpronounced final waw to distinguish it from the name عمر ʕumar that would otherwise be written identically.

Shape: ـو و.

Persian v, u, o, ow, - or lengthener of u-vowel

Not pronounced after خ, eg. خوابيدن xaːbiːdan.

Urdu consonant / vowel, vāū vɑːuː

β as consonant, eg. والد vaːlɪd (father), نومبر navambar (November).

or o or ɔ as a vowel, whether word initial after alif, او, or elsewhere on its own, eg. اوپر uːpər (above); لوگ log (people); شوق ʃɔq (keenness). The alternative vowel sounds can be disambiguated, when necessary, by the use of combining marks. The combining marks are rarely used in normal text. See a table of combining marks for vowels.

in a number of words of Persian origin beginning with خوا, eg. خواب xɑːb (dream).

ʊ in two very common words: خود xʊd (self), and خوش xʊʃ (happy).

Shape: ـو و.

Refs: [1] matthews, pp. xxii-xxiv    [2] delacy

ى

U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• represents YEH-shaped dual-joining letter with no dots in any positional form
• not intended for use in combination with 0654
→ (arabic letter yeh with hamza above - 0626)

Arabic

ɑː, مستشفى mustaʃfɑː hospital.

The long a-vowel at the end of many words is written with yeh instead of an alef. In this case the yeh is typically printed without dots, to avoid confusion, although this is not universal. This spelling only occurs with certain words, and only when the final sound is , eg. معنى mæʕnaː. If any suffix is added, the spelling reverts to the normal alef, eg. معناهم mæʕnaː-hum.

Vowelled text may omit the short æ diacritic before the teh marbuta, because the sound is always the same.

Shape: ىىى ى. Older fonts may not show dual joining.

Not used in Persian or Urdu. See U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH ی.

ي

U+064A ARABIC LETTER YEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• loses its dots when used in combination with 0654
• retains its dots when used in combination with other combining marks
→ (arabic letter yeh with two dots below and hamza above - 08A8)

Arabic consonant y

j and

In certain foreign words, pronounced more like , eg. سكرتير sɪkrɪteːr.

Use with hamza When used with U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE ٔ the two dots are suppressed in all positions. Text in NFC actually uses U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE ئ rather than the decomposed sequence, so that is recommended.

Unlike this character, U+08A8 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH TWO DOTS BELOW AND HAMZA ABOVE retains the two dots in all forms, however it also represents a semantically different character.

Shape: ييي ي

Not used in Persian or Urdu. See U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH ی.

Points

ً

U+064B ARABIC FATHATAN

Arabic vowel an

æn

In classical arabic, indefinite nouns and adjectives were marked by a final n-sound, called تنوين tænwiːn or, in English, 'nunation'. This is normally indicated by doubling the vowel diacritic. On a word ending with an a-vowel (though not with a feminine ending or some other suffixes) an extra alef was also added at the end of the word. In modern arabic printing the fathatan is usually dropped, but the alef is retained. The pronunciation of the ending æn is also retained in many words. Examples: كِتَابًا kɪtæːbæn, فَرَسًا færæsæn.

Urdu vowel

an

This is a doubled zabar (U+064E ARABIC FATHA ـَ ). These marks appear at the ends of certain Arabic adverbs. The doubled zabar is the most common of the three marks of this type. Although the mark appears over an alif the vowel sound is short. Examples, یقیناً yakiːnan (certainly); مثلاً masalan (for example).

ٌ

U+064C ARABIC DAMMATAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a common alternative form is written as two intertwined dammas, one of which is turned 180 degrees

Arabic vowel un

un

In classical arabic indefinite nouns and adjectives were marked by a final n-sound, called تنوين tænwiːn or, in English, 'nunation'. This is normally indicated by doubling the vowel diacritic. Example: جَبَلٌ or جَبَلُ ُ ʒælæbun.

Not usually shown in modern text (exceptions in the Koran, difficult older texts, and children's schoolbooks).

Urdu vowel

un

Doubled peš (U+064F ARABIC DAMMA ـُ ).

ٍ

U+064D ARABIC KASRATAN

Arabic vowel in

ɪn

In classical arabic indefinite nouns and adjectives were marked by a final n-sound, called تنوين tænwiːn or, in English, 'nunation'. This is normally indicated by doubling the vowel diacritic. Example: جَبَلٌ or قَلَمٍ qælæmɪn.

Not usually shown in modern text (exceptions in the Koran, difficult older texts, and children's schoolbooks).

Urdu vowel

in

Doubled zer (U+0650 ARABIC KASRA ـِ ).

َ

U+064E ARABIC FATHA

Arabic vowel a

æ or a after ص ض ط ظ غ ق and sometimes after خ ر ل, eg. كَتَبَ kætæbæ. Actual pronunciation varies with context.

Not usually shown in text (exceptions tend to be the Koran, difficult older texts, and children's schoolbooks)

Urdu vowel, zabar zəbər

Rarely used; only where pronunciation needs to be spelled out. Indicates a vowel following its base character. zabar means above.

ə above a consonant, eg. بَب bəb. At the begining of a word it appears above alif or 'ain, eg. اَب əb (now), and عَرَب ərəb (Arab).

When the base consonant is followed by certain other letters, zabar represents different sounds, as shown below:

  • ɑː when followed by alif, silent choṭī he, or 'ain, eg. بَاغ bɑːɣ (garden), مکَہ makːɑː (Mecca), and بَعد bɑːd (after).

  • ɛ when followed by je (both forms), eg. جَیسا ʤɛsɑː (as), اَیسا ɛsɑː (such), and ہَے (is).

  • ɛ when followed by choṭī he or baṛī he, eg. اَحمد ɛhmad (Ahmed), and رَہنا rɛhnɑː (to remain).

  • ɔ when followed by vɑːuː, eg. شَوق ʃɔq (keenness), and اَور ɔr (and).

See a table of combining marks for vowels.

ُ

U+064F ARABIC DAMMA

Arabic vowel u

u, eg. كُتُب (kutub). Actual pronunciation varies with context.

Not usually shown in text (exceptions tend to be the Koran, difficult older texts, and children's schoolbooks).

Urdu vowel, peš peʃ.

Rarely used; only where pronunciation needs to be spelled out. Indicates a vowel following its base character. peš means forward.

ʊ above a consonant, eg. بُب bʊb. At the begining of a word it appears above alif or 'ain, eg. اُب ʊb.

When the base consonant is followed by certain other letters, peš represents different sounds, as shown below:

  • when followed by vɑːuː, eg. پُورا puːrɑː (full), and اُوپر uːpar (above).

  • o when followed by 'ain, eg. شُعلہ ʃolɑː (flame), and توُّع tavaqːo (hope).

  • ɔ when followed by ʧʰoʈiː he or baṛī he, eg. شُہرت ʃɔhrat (fame), and توجُّہ tavajːɔh (attention).

ʊ, rather than a long vowel, in two very common words with a following vɑːuː: خُود xʊd (self), and خُوش xʊʃ (happy).

The word وہ vo (that, he, she, it) is irregular.

See a table of combining marks for vowels.

ِ

U+0650 ARABIC KASRA

Arabic vowel i

ɪ, eg. بِهِ bɪhɪ. Actual pronunciation varies with context.

Not usually shown in text (exceptions tend to be the Koran, difficult older texts, and children's schoolbooks.)

Urdu vowel, zer zer

Rarely used; only where pronunciation needs to be spelled out. Indicates a vowel following its base character. zer means below.

ɪ below a base consonant, eg. بِب bɪb. At the begining of a word it appears below alif or 'ain, eg. اِتْنَا ɪtnɑː (so much) and عِلْم ɪlm (knowledge).

When the base consonant is followed by certain other letters, zer represents different sounds, as shown below:

  • when followed by je, eg. سِینہ siːnɑː (breast), and اِیمان iːmɑːn (faith).

  • e when followed by ain, eg. شِعر ʃer (verse), and واقِع vɑːqe (situated).

  • ɛ when followed by ʧʰoʈiː he or baɽiː he, eg. مِہربانی mɛhrbɑːniː (kindness), and واضِح vɑːzɛh (clear).

See a table of combining marks for vowels.

ɪzāfat ɪzɑːfat is the name given to the short vowel ɛ when used to describe a relationship between two words. It may be translated of, eg. as in the Lion of Punjab.

This sound is mostly represented using zer. Sometimes, however, the combining mark is not shown, even though pronounced. Examples: شیرِ پنجاب ʃer ɛ panʤɑːb (Lion of the Panjab); طالبِ علم tɑːlɪb ɛ ɪlm (seeker of knowledge (a student)).

There are other ways in which ɪzāfat can be formed.

ّ

U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA

Arabic gemination mark

Diacritic that doubles the length of the supporting consonant, eg. رتّب rætːæbæ. Visible in arabic printing, but not always marked consistently.

A common, though not universal, practice is to display any combining kasra below the shadda, rather than below the base consonant, eg. قَبِّل qæbːɪl. Some fonts, such as Amiri, don't do this.

The sign derives from a miniature nucleus of seen, without dots.

Urdu gemination mark, tašdīd taʃdiːd.

Doubles the sound of the base consonant, eg. ستّر sattar seventy. More often than not, this is not written.

tašdīd means strengthening.

ْ

U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks absence of a vowel after the base consonant
• used in some Korans to mark a long vowel as ignored
• can have a variety of shapes, including a circular one and a shape that looks like '06E1'
→ (arabic small high dotless head of khah - 06E1)

Arabic vowel absence mark

Indicates that no vowel follows the consonant to which this is attached, eg. مَكْتَب maktab.

Not usually shown in text (exceptions tend to be the Koran, difficult older texts, and children's schoolbooks).

Urdu vowel absence mark, sukūn sukuːn or jazm ʤazm.

Rarely used; indicates absence of a vowel between consonants, eg. سَخْت saxt (hard).

It has various possible forms, including a small round circle, something that looks like peʃ, and something like a circumflex. (There is another Unicode character that provides an alternative visual form, U+06E1 ARABIC SMALL HIGH DOTLESS HEAD OF KHAH ـۡ, but it is better to use this character and select the variant required using a font.)

This diacritic is never normally written above the final character in a word, because as a rule a short vowel is not pronounced in this position.

Sukūn is an Arabic word meaning rest or pause.

Combining characters

Combining maddah and hamza

ٔ

U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• restricted to hamza and ezafe semantics
• is not used as a diacritic to form new letters

Arabic mark

ʔ (glottal stop)

The hamza sometimes stands alone (see U+0621 ARABIC LETTER HAMZA ء), but usually appears with a 'carrier' letter - alef, waw, or yeh (أ إ ؤ ئ) for which separate precomposed characters are available in Unicode.

Combined with base characters: When the hamza is above or below another character you should typically this character with the appropriate base character, however there are a number of exceptions, where you would not normally use this character.

Some exceptions arise because the NFC normalization form converts the base character and combining hamza to a precomposed character. These instances include

Other exceptions arise where the hamza is an integral part of the character itself (ie. an ijam). Examples of these characters include

Cutting and joining hamza in orthography: Classical arabic distinguishes between 'cutting' and 'joining' hamza. 'Cutting' means always pronounced, 'joining' means frequently elided. The joining hamza is of little practical importance in modern arabic pronounced without the old case endings.

In modern printed arabic, the hamza is rarely shown when it occurs at the beginning of a word.

The following are simplified rules for use of (cutting) hamza:

The sign indicating a joining hamza is called a wasla (see U+0671 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WASLA ٱ).

Other combining marks

ٖ

U+0656 ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF

Urdu mark

Used to indicate that the vowel is or i rather than e, eg. نُحْیٖ.

This diacritic is not usually needed, and serves only to emphasise that the vowel is long.

ٗ

U+0657 ARABIC INVERTED DAMMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ulta pesh
• Kashmiri, Urdu

Urdu mark

Used to indicate that the vowel is or ʊ rather than ɔ, eg. حبل حلالہٗ.

This diacritic is not usually needed, and serves only to emphasise that the vowel is long.

٘

U+0658 ARABIC MARK NOON GHUNNA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Baluchi
• indicates nasalization in Urdu

Urdu mark

Nasalisation of Urdu vowels is normally indicated by U+06BA ARABIC LETTER NOON GHUNNA ں at the end of a word (eg. کروں karũː, I may do), and U+0646 ARABIC LETTER NOON ن in the middle of a word (eg. ٹانگ tãːg leg).

This diacritic is used when people want to make it clear that a noon character represents nasalisation rather than the sound n, eg. ٹان٘گ tãːg leg.

It is not used in a standard way, just when the user prefers, and is fairly uncommon.

Refs: [1] [unicode8] p383    [2] [L2/12-381]

ٙ

U+0659 ARABIC ZWARAKAY

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
ٚ

U+065A ARABIC VOWEL SIGN SMALL V ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• African languages
ٛ

U+065B ARABIC VOWEL SIGN INVERTED SMALL V ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• African languages
ٜ

U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• African languages
ٝ

U+065D ARABIC REVERSED DAMMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• African languages
ٞ

U+065E ARABIC FATHA WITH TWO DOTS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kalami
ٟ

U+065F ARABIC WAVY HAMZA BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kashmiri
ٰ

U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF

Description in the Unicode standard:

• actually a vowel sign, despite the name

Arabic diacritic

Used in certain Arabic words such as هٰذَا this or ذٰلِكَ that, and not forgetting اللّهٰ Allah.

Urdu vowel

ɑː

Used in a few Arabic words over the final form of U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH ی to produce the sound ɑː: eg. اعلیٰ alɑː (paramount, highest); دعویٰ davɑː (law suit, claim).

Extended Arabic letters

Various

ٱ

U+0671 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WASLA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Koranic Arabic

Arabic consonant

ʔ (glottal stop)

Classical arabic distinguishes between 'cutting' and 'joining' hamza. 'Cutting' means always pronounced, 'joining' means frequently elided. The sign indicating a joining hamza is called a wasla.

The joining hamza is of little practical importance in modern arabic pronounced without the old case endings.

Not used in Persian or Urdu.

ٲ

U+0672 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Baluchi, Kashmiri
ٴ

U+0674 ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kazakh
• forms digraphs
ٵ

U+0675 ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA ALEF

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kazakh
≈ 0627 0674
ٶ

U+0676 ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA WAW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kazakh
≈ 0648 0674
ٷ

U+0677 ARABIC LETTER U WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kazakh
≈ 06C7 0674
ٸ

U+0678 ARABIC LETTER HIGH HAMZA YEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kazakh
≈ 064A 0674
ٹ

U+0679 ARABIC LETTER TTEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu

Urdu consonant, ṭe ʈe

ʈ

ʈʰ together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated retroflex t in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called ṭhe.

Shape:ٹٹٹ ٹ   and   ٹھٹھٹھ ٹھ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ٺ

U+067A ARABIC LETTER TTEHEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ٻ

U+067B ARABIC LETTER BEEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ټ

U+067C ARABIC LETTER TEH WITH RING

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
ٽ

U+067D ARABIC LETTER TEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE DOWNWARDS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
پ

U+067E ARABIC LETTER PEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian, Urdu, ...

Persian consonant, pe

p

Urdu consonant, pe

p

together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated p in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called phe.

Shape:پپپ پ   and   پھپھپھ پھ

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ٿ

U+067F ARABIC LETTER TEHEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڀ

U+0680 ARABIC LETTER BEHEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ځ

U+0681 ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
• represents the phoneme /dz/

Pashto consonant

dz

This character does not decompose. It is treated as a separate letter, and is not equivalent to U+062D ARABIC LETTER HAH ح + U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE ٔ.

Shape:ځځځ ځ

ڂ

U+0682 ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH TWO DOTS VERTICAL ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• not used in modern Pashto
ڃ

U+0683 ARABIC LETTER NYEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڄ

U+0684 ARABIC LETTER DYEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
څ

U+0685 ARABIC LETTER HAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto, Khwarazmian
• represents the phoneme /ts/ in Pashto

Pashto consonant

ts

Shape:څڅڅ څ

چ

U+0686 ARABIC LETTER TCHEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian, Urdu, ...

Urdu consonant, ce ʧe

ʧ

ʧʰ together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated ʧ in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called che.

Shape: چچچ چ   and   چھچھچھ چھ.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ڇ

U+0687 ARABIC LETTER TCHEHEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڈ

U+0688 ARABIC LETTER DDAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu

Urdu consonant, ḍāl ɖɑːl

ɖ

ɖʰ together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated retroflex d in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called ḍhe.

Shape:ـڈ ڈ   and   ـڈھ ڈھ.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ډ

U+0689 ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH RING

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
ڊ

U+068A ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH DOT BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi, early Persian
ڋ

U+068B ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH DOT BELOW AND SMALL TAH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Lahnda
ڌ

U+068C ARABIC LETTER DAHAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڍ

U+068D ARABIC LETTER DDAHAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڎ

U+068E ARABIC LETTER DUL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• older shape for DUL, now obsolete in Sindhi
• Burushaski
ڏ

U+068F ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE DOWNWARDS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
• current shape used for DUL
ڐ

U+0690 ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH FOUR DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• old Urdu, not in current use
ڑ

U+0691 ARABIC LETTER RREH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu

Urdu consonant, ṛe ɽe

ɽ

ɽʰ together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated retroflex r in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called ṛhe.

Shape:ـڑ ڑ  and  ـڑھ ڑھ.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ڒ

U+0692 ARABIC LETTER REH WITH SMALL V

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish
ړ

U+0693 ARABIC LETTER REH WITH RING

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
ڔ

U+0694 ARABIC LETTER REH WITH DOT BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish, early Persian
ڕ

U+0695 ARABIC LETTER REH WITH SMALL V BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish
ږ

U+0696 ARABIC LETTER REH WITH DOT BELOW AND DOT ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
ڗ

U+0697 ARABIC LETTER REH WITH TWO DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Dargwa
ژ

U+0698 ARABIC LETTER JEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian, Urdu, ...

Urdu consonant, že ʒe

ʒ

Shape:ـژ ژ .

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ڙ

U+0699 ARABIC LETTER REH WITH FOUR DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ښ

U+069A ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH DOT BELOW AND DOT ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
ڛ

U+069B ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• early Persian
ڜ

U+069C ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH THREE DOTS BELOW AND THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Moroccan Arabic
ڝ

U+069D ARABIC LETTER SAD WITH TWO DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Turkic
ڞ

U+069E ARABIC LETTER SAD WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Berber, Burushaski
ڟ

U+069F ARABIC LETTER TAH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• old Hausa
ڠ

U+06A0 ARABIC LETTER AIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• old Malay
ڡ

U+06A1 ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS FEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Adighe
ڢ

U+06A2 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT MOVED BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Maghrib Arabic

Arabic consonant

f

An alternative form of U+0641 ARABIC LETTER FEH ف used in Arabic in North Africa. It would make more sense to use a font to make this difference than to use a different character.

Shape:ڢڢڢ ڢ

ڣ

U+06A3 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH DOT BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Ingush
ڤ

U+06A4 ARABIC LETTER VEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Middle Eastern Arabic for foreign words
• Kurdish, Khwarazmian, early Persian
ڥ

U+06A5 ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• North African Arabic for foreign words
ڦ

U+06A6 ARABIC LETTER PEHEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڧ

U+06A7 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH DOT ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Maghrib Arabic, Uighur

Arabic consonant

q

An alternative form of U+0642 ARABIC LETTER QAF ق used in Arabic in North Africa. It would make more sense to use a font to make this difference than to use a different character.

Shape:ڧڧڧ ڧ

ڨ

U+06A8 ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Tunisian Arabic
ک

U+06A9 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian, Urdu, ...

Urdu consonant, kāf kɑːf

k

together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated k in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called khe.

Shape:ککک ک and کھکھکھ کھ.

When followed by alif or lām, this has a special rounded shape, eg. کا kɑː (of); کل kal (yesterday).

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ڪ

U+06AA ARABIC LETTER SWASH KAF

Description in the Unicode standard:

• represents a letter distinct from Arabic KAF (0643) in Sindhi
ګ

U+06AB ARABIC LETTER KAF WITH RING

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
• may appear like an Arabic KAF (0643) with a ring below the base
ڬ

U+06AC ARABIC LETTER KAF WITH DOT ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• old Malay
ڭ

U+06AD ARABIC LETTER NG

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Uighur, Kazakh, old Malay, early Persian, ...
ڮ

U+06AE ARABIC LETTER KAF WITH THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Berber, early Persian
گ

U+06AF ARABIC LETTER GAF

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian, Urdu, ...

Urdu consonant, gāf gɑːf

g

together with U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE ھ, to represent the aspirated g in Urdu, a distinct letter of the alphabet called ghe.

Shape:گگگ گ and گھگھگھ گھ.

When followed by alif or lām, this has a special rounded shape, eg. گام gɑːm (step); گل gul (rose).

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ڰ

U+06B0 ARABIC LETTER GAF WITH RING

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Lahnda
ڱ

U+06B1 ARABIC LETTER NGOEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڲ

U+06B2 ARABIC LETTER GAF WITH TWO DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• not used in Sindhi
ڳ

U+06B3 ARABIC LETTER GUEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڴ

U+06B4 ARABIC LETTER GAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• not used in Sindhi
ڵ

U+06B5 ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH SMALL V

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish
ڶ

U+06B6 ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH DOT ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish
ڷ

U+06B7 ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish
ں

U+06BA ARABIC LETTER NOON GHUNNA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu, archaic Arabic
• dotless in all four contextual forms

Urdu nasalisation indicator, nun ghunna nuːn ɣunna.

◌̃ Indicates that the preceding vowel is nasalised. It is normally only used at the end of a word, eg. ماں mãː, mother, کروں karũː, I may do. Nasalization within a word usually uses U+0646 ARABIC LETTER NOON ن, eg. ٹانگ tãːg leg.

Occasionally noon ghunna is found in the middle of a word where a final form is used, eg. لکھیں‌گے vs. لکھینگے for likhēge he,they will write.

It may also be used to represent the noon skeleton in representations of early Arabic and Quranic texts.

This is not counted as a regular letter of the Urdu alphabet.

Shape:ںںں ں

According to the Unicode Standard, all four forms of this character should be dotless, however when it appears initially or medially some fonts use a dotted form (eg. Scheherazade) or a dotted form with a noon ghunna diacritic above (eg. Noto Nastaliq Urdu).

Refs: [1] [unicode8] p383    [2] [L2/12-381]

Not used in Arabic.

ڻ

U+06BB ARABIC LETTER RNOON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Sindhi
ڼ

U+06BC ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH RING

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto
ڽ

U+06BD ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• old Malay
ھ

U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• forms aspirate digraphs in Urdu and other languages of South Asia
• represents the glottal fricative /h/ in Uighur

Urdu aspiration marker / calendar indicator, do cašmī he.

Aspiration: Used to create the aspirated letters of the Urdu alphabet. Each letter is composed of two characters. The letters are: بھ bʰe, پھ pʰe, تھ tʰe, ٹھ ʈʰe, جھ ʤʰe, چھ ʧʰe, دھ dʰe, ڈھ ɖʰe, ڑھ ɽʰe, کھ kʰe, and گھ gʰe.

Until recently choṭī he (U+06C1 ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL ہ) and do cašmī he could be used interchangeably to express aspiration, eg. ہاں or ھاں for hãː yes. Modern practice is to use this character exclusively for aspiration, though people do still occasionally confuse the two.

Calendar indicator: Dates using the Muslim calendar are followed by the word ہجری hɪʤriː, which is abbreviated with the symbol ھ.

ۀ

U+06C0 ARABIC LETTER HEH WITH YEH ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

= arabic letter hamzah on ha (1.0)
• for ezafe, use 0654 over the language-appropriate base letter
• actually a ligature, not an independent letter
≡ 06D5 0654
ہ

U+06C1 ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu

Urdu consonant, choṭī he ʧʰoʈiː he

h

ɑː as 'silent he' (see below).

ɛ occasionally as a variant of 'silent he' (see below).

when doubled at the end of a word (see below).

Silent he: In Urdu words this letter is pronounced ɑː at the end of a word. Many Arabic and Persian words end in a he that is pronounced ɑː (just like alif), eg. مکّہ məkkɑː (Mecca).

A word like rɑːʤɑː (king), can be spelled with either an alif or a he, ie. راجا or راجہ. This is because the original Indian word was borrowed into Persian, then back into Urdu. Both spellings are now acceptable.

In a few words, the pronunciation of silent he is irregular, eg. کہ (that) and نہ (no).

Doubled he: In order to distinguish some words where the final h is pronounced rather than representing ɑː (or ɛ in irregular pronunciations), the choṭī he is sometimes doubled, eg. کہہ kɛh (say) vs. کہ .

Aspiration: Until recently choṭī he ہ and do cašmī he ھ could be used interchangeably, eg. ہاں or ھاں for hãː (yes). Modern practice is to use the latter exclusively for aspiration, though people do still occasionally confuse the two.

Vowel changes: choṭī he can change the preceding vowel as follows:

  • a to ɛ, eg. رَہنا rɛhnɑː (to remain ).

  • ɪ to ɛ, eg. مہربانی mɛhrbɑːniː (kindness).

  • ʊ to o, eg. , شہرت ʃohrət (fame).

Shape:ہہہ ہ

The initial form is written with a hook beneath, eg. ہندو hinduː (Hindu). The medial can be written with or without, eg. کہاں xɑːb (dream).

A special initial form is used before alif or lam, eg. ہاں hãː (yes), and اہل ahl (people).

Refs: [1] matthews, pp. xxiv-xxvi,xxviii-xxix;    [2] delacy,pp.104-105

Not used in Arabic.

ۂ

U+06C2 ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu
• actually a ligature, not an independent letter
≡ 06C1 0654

Urdu consonant with izafat, ɪzɑːfat

when used as izafat.

NOTE: The Unicode Standard indicates that this grapheme should be represented using U+06C0 ARABIC LETTER HEH WITH YEH ABOVE ۀ, however that doesn't work with the Nafees Nastaleeq font, and I have seen evidence elsewhere that in common use this character is used for this purpose. Need to investigate further.

Izāfat ɪzɑːfat is the name given to the short vowel ɛ used to describe a relationship between two words. It may be translated of, eg. as in the Lion of Punjab.

This sound is mostly represented using zer, but in certain cases can be represented with a combining hamza. One such case occurs when the preceding word ends in choṭī he ہ: eg. قطرۂآب qatrah ɛ ɑːb drop of water.

There are other ways in which izafat can be formed.

Not used in Arabic.

ۃ

U+06C3 ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA GOAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu
ۄ

U+06C4 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kashmiri
ۅ

U+06C5 ARABIC LETTER KIRGHIZ OE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kirghiz
ۆ

U+06C6 ARABIC LETTER OE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Uighur, Kurdish, Kazakh, Azerbaijani
ۇ

U+06C7 ARABIC LETTER U

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kirghiz, Azerbaijani
ۈ

U+06C8 ARABIC LETTER YU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Uighur
ۉ

U+06C9 ARABIC LETTER KIRGHIZ YU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kazakh, Kirghiz
ۊ

U+06CA ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH TWO DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish
ۋ

U+06CB ARABIC LETTER VE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Uighur, Kazakh
ی

U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Kashmiri, ...
• initial and medial forms of this letter have dots
→ (arabic letter alef maksura - 0649)
→ (arabic letter yeh - 064A)

Urdu consonant / vowel, ye je

j as a consonant (word initial or medial), یار jɑːr (friend) and سایہ sɑːjɑː (shadow).

or e or ɛ as an initial or medial vowel (initially it is used after alif, ای), eg. ایک ek (one), سینہ siːnɑː (breast), and کیسا kɛsɑː (how).

The alternative vowel sounds can be disambiguated, when necessary, by the use of combining marks. The combining marks are rarely used in normal text. See a table of combining marks for vowels.

in word final position, eg. لڑکی ləɽkiː (girl).

Shape:ییی ی. This character has two dots below it in initial and medial position, but no dots in final or independent form.

The Urdu letter je has another, distinct visual form, used only finally or in isolation, to represent the sound e or ɛ. For that you need to use U+06D2 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE ے, eg. لڑکے ləɽke boys.

Refs: [1] [unicode8] p382 [2] Matthews [3] Delacy.

Not used in Arabic.

ۍ

U+06CD ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH TAIL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto, Sindhi
ێ

U+06CE ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH SMALL V

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kurdish
ې

U+06D0 ARABIC LETTER E

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pashto, Uighur
• used as the letter bbeh in Sindhi
ۑ

U+06D1 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• old Malay
ے

U+06D2 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu

Urdu vowel, baṛī ye baɽiː je

e or ɛ, eg. لڑکے laɽke, (boys).

The alternative sounds possible in the initial combinations can be disambiguated, when necessary, by the use of combining marks, eg. ہَے vs. بجے baʤe. The combining marks are rarely used in normal text. See a table of combining marks for vowels.

Shape:‍ے ے. This form is used only in word final or isolated position. This shape is regarded as a stylistic variant in Arabic and Persian text, but it has a functional purpose in Urdu, to help with Urdu's larger number of vowels.

The Urdu letter je has another visual form, used for sounds other than final or isolated e or ɛ. For that you need to use U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH ی, eg. لڑکی ləɽkiː (girl).

This shape is also used with a hamza to represent the izāfat ɪzɑːfat. For this you should use U+06D3 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE WITH HAMZA ABOVE ۓ.

Refs: [1] [unicode8] p382 [2] Matthews [3] Delacy.

Not used in Arabic.

ۓ

U+06D3 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu
• actually a ligature, not an independent letter
≡ 06D2 0654

Urdu Izāfat ɪzɑːfat marker

ɛ

Izāfat is the name given to the short vowel ɛ used to describe a relationship between two words. It may be translated of, eg. as in the Lion of Punjab.

This sound is mostly represented using zer, but can also be represented with a combining hamza in a couple of cases.

Izāfat may also be shown as ے with or without a combining hamzā when the preceding word ends in a long vowel: eg. صدا ۓ بلن sadɑː ɛ buland a high voice; روۓزمین ruː ɛ zamiːn the surface of the ground.

There are other ways in which izafat can be formed.

See also U+06D2 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE ے.

Refs: [1] matthews    [2] delacy

Not used in Arabic.

ە

U+06D5 ARABIC LETTER AE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Uighur, Kazakh, Kirghiz
ݙ

U+0759 ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH TWO DOTS VERTICALLY BELOW AND SMALL TAH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Saraiki
ݜ

U+075C ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH FOUR DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Shina
ݢ

U+0762 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH DOT ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• old Malay, preferred to 06AC
→ (arabic letter kaf with dot above - 06AC)
ݣ

U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Moroccan Arabic, Amazigh, Burushaski
→ (arabic letter ng - 06AD)
ݦ

U+0766 ARABIC LETTER MEEM WITH DOT BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Maba
ݧ

U+0767 ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH TWO DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Arwi
ݨ

U+0768 ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH SMALL TAH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Saraiki, Pathwari
ݩ

U+0769 ARABIC LETTER NOON WITH SMALL V

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Gojri
ݫ

U+076B ARABIC LETTER REH WITH TWO DOTS VERTICALLY ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Torwali, Ormuri
ݬ

U+076C ARABIC LETTER REH WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Ormuri
• represents a voiced alveolo-palatal laminal fricative
→ (latin small letter z with curl - 0291)

Ormuri consonant

ʑ

Shape:ـݬ ݬ

ݭ

U+076D ARABIC LETTER SEEN WITH TWO DOTS VERTICALLY ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kalami, Ormuri

Addition for Kashmiri

Additions for early Persian and Azerbaijani

ؽ

U+063D ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH WITH INVERTED V

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Azerbaijani

Extended Arabic letters for Parkari

ۯ

U+06EF ARABIC LETTER REH WITH INVERTED V

Description in the Unicode standard:

• also used in early Persian

Extended Arabic letters for African languages

U+08A1 ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Adamawa Fulfulde (Cameroon)
• used for the implosive bilabial stop
→ (latin small letter b with hook - 0253)

Adamawa Fulfulde

ɓ (bilabial implosive)

This character does not decompose. It is treated as a separate letter, and is not equivalent to U+0628 ARABIC LETTER BEH ب with U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE ٔ.

Shape:ࢡࢡࢡ ࢡ

U+08A8 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH TWO DOTS BELOW AND HAMZA ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Adamawa Fulfulde
• used for the implosive palatal approximant, realized as pharyngealization of the approximant
→ (latin small letter y with hook - 01B4)

Adamawa Fulfulde

(palatal implosive)

Unlike U+0626 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH HAMZA ABOVE ئ, which loses the two dots when combined with hamza, this character retains the two dots in all forms.

Note that this character does not decompose. It is treated as a separate letter.

Shape:ࢨࢨࢨ ࢨ

U+08A9 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH TWO DOTS BELOW AND DOT ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Adamawa Fulfulde
• used for the voiced palatal nasal
→ (latin small letter n with left hook - 0272)

Extended vowel signs for African languages

U+08F6 ARABIC KASRA WITH DOT BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• also used in Philippine languages

Dependent consonants for Rohingya

U+08AA ARABIC LETTER REH WITH LOOP

Description in the Unicode standard:

= bottya-reh

U+08AB ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH DOT WITHIN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nota-wa

U+08AC ARABIC LETTER ROHINGYA YEH

Description in the Unicode standard:

= bottya-yeh

Extended vowel signs for Rohingya

Tone marks for Rohingya

Signs for Sindhi

Additions for Khowar

Addition for Torwali

Additions for Burushaski

Arabic letters for European and Central Asian languages

U+08AD ARABIC LETTER LOW ALEF

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Bashkir, Tatar

U+08AE ARABIC LETTER DAL WITH THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Belarusian

U+08AF ARABIC LETTER SAD WITH THREE DOTS BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Belarusian

U+08B0 ARABIC LETTER GAF WITH INVERTED STROKE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Crimean Tatar, Chechen, Lak

U+08B1 ARABIC LETTER STRAIGHT WAW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Tatar

Arabic letter for Berber

Archaic letters

ٮ

U+066E ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS BEH

ٯ

U+066F ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS QAF

Punctuation

؉

U+0609 ARABIC-INDIC PER MILLE SIGN

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (per mille sign - 2030)
؊

U+060A ARABIC-INDIC PER TEN THOUSAND SIGN

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (per ten thousand sign - 2031)
؛

U+061B ARABIC SEMICOLON

Description in the Unicode standard:

• also used with Thaana and Syriac in modern text
→ (semicolon - 003B)
→ (reversed semicolon - 204F)
→ (turned semicolon - 2E35)

Urdu punctuation

؜

U+061C ARABIC LETTER MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

• commonly abbreviated ALM
→ (right-to-left mark - 200F)
؞

U+061E ARABIC TRIPLE DOT PUNCTUATION MARK

؟

U+061F ARABIC QUESTION MARK

Description in the Unicode standard:

• also used with Thaana and Syriac in modern text
→ (question mark - 003F)
→ (reversed question mark - 2E2E)

Arabic punctuation

Urdu punctuation

٪

U+066A ARABIC PERCENT SIGN

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (percent sign - 0025)

Arabic punctuation

Used with arabic-indic numerals, eg. ١٢٪1.

It is also possible to find U+0025 PERCENT SIGN %.

Refs: [1] hosny

Urdu punctuation

٫

U+066B ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR

Arabic punctuation

Used in arabic, but not in common use (possibly because it is not available on the keyboard), eg. ١٫٢٣. Khaled Hosny reports that people usually use U+002C COMMA , or even a small U+U+0631 ARABIC LETTER REH ر (mainly in newspapers, probably because it looks closer to this character than a comma) 1.

Refs: [1] hosny

Urdu punctuation, ašāriya əʃɑːrɪjɑ.

Example ۲۵۲۴٫۲۳ do hazɑːr pɑ̃ːʧ sau caubiːs aʃɑːrɪjɑː do tiːn (2524.23). In Urdu this looks like a hamza.

٬

U+066C ARABIC THOUSANDS SEPARATOR

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (apostrophe - 0027)
→ (right single quotation mark - 2019)

Arabic punctuation

Used in old documents, eg. ١٬٢٣٤, but not common in recent use 1. In Morocco, it seems that a comma or a space is more common, though there may also be no separator 2.

Refs: [1] hosny    [2] Tounsi

٭

U+066D ARABIC FIVE POINTED STAR

Description in the Unicode standard:

• appearance rather variable
→ (asterisk - 002A)
۔

U+06D4 ARABIC FULL STOP

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu

Arabic punctuation

Urdu punctuation

Currency sign

؋

U+060B AFGHANI SIGN

Subtending & supertending marks

؀

U+0600 ARABIC NUMBER SIGN

Urdu symbol

Used to indicate a number, eg. ۱۲۳؀.

The stroke may be elongated and pass under the number, but this is not a combining character, and should appear before the number in memory. The length of the symbol may vary according to the number of digits. It is terminated by a non-digit character.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] p374.

؁

U+0601 ARABIC SIGN SANAH

Urdu symbol, sanh sənh.

Dates are indicated by placing this long sweep below the year digits. For the Gregorian calendar this is followed with the word عیسوی iːsviː Christian era. This is usually abbreviated as a hamza ء.

Dates using the Muslim calendar are followed by the word ہجری hɪʤriː, which is abbreviated with the symbol ھ.

The sanh sign is typed before the digits (in a rtl context): eg. ۲۰۰۴؁ء ‎(2004). It is not a combining character, even though it displays beneath the digits. The length of the symbol may vary according to the number of digits. It is terminated by a non-digit character.

The sanh is derived from the Arabic word for year سنة.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] p374.

؂

U+0602 ARABIC FOOTNOTE MARKER

Urdu symbol

Used to indicate that a number is a footnote, eg. ؎۵.

The number sits above the symbol, although this is not a combining character. The marker should come before the number in logical order.

Do not confuse this with U+060E ARABIC POETIC VERSE SIGN ؎.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] p374.

؃

U+0603 ARABIC SIGN SAFHA

Urdu symbol, safah səfəh

Used to indicate a page number, where English would use an abbreviation such as "pp. 35-45", eg. ؃۴۵. The stroke may be elongated and pass under the number.

The symbol should come before the number in logical order.

The symbol is derived from the stroke used for U+0635 ARABIC LETTER SAD ص.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] p374.

؄

U+0604 ARABIC SIGN SAMVAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used for writing Samvat era dates in Urdu

Urdu symbol

Used in Urdu to indicate a year in the Śaka calendar. (Cf. the sign sanh which is used for dates in the Gregorian or Islamic calendar.)

The symbol should come before the number in logical order.

The symbol is a stylized abbreviation of the word samvat, the name of this calendar.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] p374.

؅

U+0605 ARABIC NUMBER MARK ABOVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• may be used with Coptic Epact numbers

Arabic symbol

Used in Arabic text with Coptic numbers, such as in early astronomical tables. Unlike the other Arabic number signs, it extends across the top of the sequence of digits, and is used with Coptic digits, rather than with Arabic digits

The symbol should come before the number in logical order.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] p374.

Radix Symbols

؆

U+0606 ARABIC-INDIC CUBE ROOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cube root - 221B)
؇

U+0607 ARABIC-INDIC FOURTH ROOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (fourth root - 221C)

Letterlike symbol

؈

U+0608 ARABIC RAY

Poetic marks

؎

U+060E ARABIC POETIC VERSE SIGN

Urdu Often used to mark the beginning of poetic verse. For an example see Figure 8 in Jonathan Kew's examples.

Do not confuse this with U+0602 ARABIC FOOTNOTE MARKER ؂.

؏

U+060F ARABIC SIGN MISRA

Urdu symbol misra misrə

Urdu poetry typically creates poems from couplets. This symbol is used to indicate a single line (misra) of a couplet (shayr) from an Urdu poem, when quoted in text.

This sign is used when quoting a line of verse in text. It is used at the beginning of the line, and is followed by the line of verse. See an example.

Honorifics

ؐ

U+0610 ARABIC SIGN SALLALLAHOU ALAYHE WASSALLAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

• represents sallallahu alayhe wasallam 'may God's peace and blessings be upon him'

Urdu Represents sallallahu alayhe wasallam sallallao alae va sallam (may God's peace and blessings be upon him) صلّى الله عليه وسلّم. Used over the name of Mohammed.

One of several marks that represent phrases expressing the status of a person, most having specifically religious meaning.

The mark is really associated with a word, rather than a character, but the placement is left to the user. The mark is often added somewhere in the middle of a name, but commonly appears towards the end. This depends to some extent on the letter shapes present and the calligraphic style in use, eg. محمّدؐ muhamːed sallallao alae va sallam.

ؑ

U+0611 ARABIC SIGN ALAYHE ASSALLAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

• represents alayhe assalam 'upon him be peace'

Urdu Represents alayhe asallam alejsallam (upon him be peace) عليه السّلام. Used over the name of prophets other than Mohammed.

One of several marks that represent phrases expressing the status of a person, most having specifically religious meaning.

The mark is really associated with a word, rather than a character, but the placement is left to the user. The mark is often added somewhere in the middle of a name, but commonly appears towards the end. This depends to some extent on the letter shapes present and the calligraphic style in use, eg. عیسؑیٰ isaː salejsallam Christ, upon him be peace!.

ؒ

U+0612 ARABIC SIGN RAHMATULLAH ALAYHE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• represents rahmatullah alayhe 'may God have mercy upon him'

Urdu Represents rahmatulla alayhe raːmatʊlla alee (may God have mercy upon him) رحمت الله عليه. Used over the names of saints, religious authorities, and other deceased pious persons.

One of several marks that represent phrases expressing the status of a person, most having specifically religious meaning.

The mark is really associated with a word, rather than a character, but the placement is left to the user. The mark is often added somewhere in the middle of a name, but commonly appears towards the end. This depends to some extent on the letter shapes present and the calligraphic style in use, eg. قاضی نور محمّدؒ kaziː nur mamed rahmatulla alayhe Qazi Nur Muhammad, may God have mercy upon him!.

ؓ

U+0613 ARABIC SIGN RADI ALLAHOU ANHU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• represents radi allahu 'anhu 'may God be pleased with him'

Urdu Represents radi allahu 'anhu raziallaːo ano (may God be pleased with him) رضي الله عنه. Used over the names of the Companions of the Prophet.

One of several marks that represent phrases expressing the status of a person, most having specifically religious meaning.

The mark is really associated with a word, rather than a character, but the placement is left to the user. The mark is often added somewhere in the middle of a name, but commonly appears towards the end. This depends to some extent on the letter shapes present and the calligraphic style in use, eg. ابوبکرؓ abu bakr, raziallaːo ano Abu Bakr, may God be pleased with him!.

ؔ

U+0614 ARABIC SIGN TAKHALLUS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• sign placed over the name or nom-de-plume of a poet, or in some writings used to mark all proper names

Urdu Sign placed over the name or nom-de-plume of a poet, or in some writings used to mark all proper names.

The mark is really associated with a word, rather than a character, but the placement is left to the user. The mark is often added somewhere in the middle of a name, but commonly appears towards the end. This depends to some extent on the letter shapes present and the calligraphic style in use, eg. عطاشادؔ ataː ʃaːd Ata Shad (author's name).

Koranic annotation signs

ؗ

U+0617 ARABIC SMALL HIGH ZAIN

ؘ

U+0618 ARABIC SMALL FATHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• should not be confused with 064E FATHA
ؙ

U+0619 ARABIC SMALL DAMMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• should not be confused with 064F DAMMA
ؚ

U+061A ARABIC SMALL KASRA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• should not be confused with 0650 KASRA
ۖ

U+06D6 ARABIC SMALL HIGH LIGATURE SAD WITH LAM WITH ALEF MAKSURA

ۗ

U+06D7 ARABIC SMALL HIGH LIGATURE QAF WITH LAM WITH ALEF MAKSURA

ۘ

U+06D8 ARABIC SMALL HIGH MEEM INITIAL FORM

ۙ

U+06D9 ARABIC SMALL HIGH LAM ALEF

ۚ

U+06DA ARABIC SMALL HIGH JEEM

ۛ

U+06DB ARABIC SMALL HIGH THREE DOTS

ۜ

U+06DC ARABIC SMALL HIGH SEEN

۝

U+06DD ARABIC END OF AYAH

Arabic

Used to indicate numbered verses in the Koran. The symbol encloses the numbers, eg. ٣۝ or ٤٣۝.

See also U+08E2 ARABIC DISPUTED END OF AYAH, which is used occasionally in Koranic text to mark a verse for which there is scholarly disagreement about the location of the end of the verse.

Refs: [1] [Unicode9] p374.

۞

U+06DE ARABIC START OF RUB EL HIZB

۟

U+06DF ARABIC SMALL HIGH ROUNDED ZERO

Description in the Unicode standard:

• smaller than the typical circular shape used for 0652
۠

U+06E0 ARABIC SMALL HIGH UPRIGHT RECTANGULAR ZERO

ۡ

U+06E1 ARABIC SMALL HIGH DOTLESS HEAD OF KHAH

Description in the Unicode standard:

= Arabic jazm
• presentation form of 0652, using font technology to select the variant is preferred
• used in some Korans to mark absence of a vowel
→ (arabic sukun - 0652)
ۢ

U+06E2 ARABIC SMALL HIGH MEEM ISOLATED FORM

ۣ

U+06E3 ARABIC SMALL LOW SEEN

ۤ

U+06E4 ARABIC SMALL HIGH MADDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• typically used with 06E5, 06E6, 06E7, and 08F3
ۥ

U+06E5 ARABIC SMALL WAW

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (arabic small high waw - 08F3)
ۦ

U+06E6 ARABIC SMALL YEH

ۧ

U+06E7 ARABIC SMALL HIGH YEH

ۨ

U+06E8 ARABIC SMALL HIGH NOON

۩

U+06E9 ARABIC PLACE OF SAJDAH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• there is a range of acceptable glyphs for this character
۪

U+06EA ARABIC EMPTY CENTRE LOW STOP

۫

U+06EB ARABIC EMPTY CENTRE HIGH STOP

۬

U+06EC ARABIC ROUNDED HIGH STOP WITH FILLED CENTRE

ۭ

U+06ED ARABIC SMALL LOW MEEM

U+08F0 ARABIC OPEN FATHATAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= successive fathatan

U+08F1 ARABIC OPEN DAMMATAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= successive dammatan

U+08F2 ARABIC OPEN KASRATAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= successive kasratan

U+08F3 ARABIC SMALL HIGH WAW

Deprecated letter

ٳ

U+0673 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Kashmiri
• this character is deprecated and its use is strongly discouraged
• use the sequence 0627 065F instead

Digits

Arabic-Indic

Eastern Arabic-Indic digits

۰

U+06F0 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ZERO

Urdu digit, sifr sɪfr.

Shape۰

۱

U+06F1 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT ONE

Urdu digit, ek ek

Shape۱

۲

U+06F2 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT TWO

Urdu digit, do do

Shape۲

۳

U+06F3 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT THREE

Urdu digit, tīn tiːn

Shape۳

۴

U+06F4 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT FOUR

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian has a different glyph than Sindhi and Urdu

Urdu digit, cār ʧɑːr

Shape۴ is different from Persian ۴ and Arabic ۴.

۵

U+06F5 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT FIVE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian, Sindhi, and Urdu share glyph different from Arabic

Urdu digit, pāṅc pɑ̃ːʧ

Shape۵ is sometimes different from Arabic ۵.

۶

U+06F6 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT SIX

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Persian, Sindhi, and Urdu have glyphs different from Arabic

Urdu digit, che ʧʰe

Shape۶ is different from Arabic ۶.

۷

U+06F7 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT SEVEN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Urdu and Sindhi have glyphs different from Arabic

Urdu digit, sāt sɑːt

Shape۷ is different from Arabic ۷.

۸

U+06F8 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT EIGHT

Urdu digit, āṭh ɑːʈʰ

Shape۸

۹

U+06F9 EXTENDED ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT NINE

Urdu digit, nau nəʊ.

Shape۹

Acknowledgements

The following people have provided helpful advice.

References

First published 3 February, 2014. This version 2017-04-11 17:19 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.