Odia

Updated 30 November, 2021

This page brings together basic information about the Odia (Oriya) script and its use for the Odia language. It aims to provide a brief, descriptive summary of the modern, printed orthography and typographic features, and to advise how to write Odia using Unicode.

Phonetic transcriptions on this page should be treated as an approximate guide, only. Many are more phonemic than phonetic, and there may be variations depending on the source of the transcription.

More about using this page
Related pages.
Other script summaries.

Sample (Odia)

Select part of this sample text to show a list of characters, with links to more details.
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ଭାରତୀୟ ମହାକାଶ ଗବେଷଣା ସଂସ୍ଥା ବା ଇସ୍ରୋ ହେଉଛି ଭାରତ ସରକାରଙ୍କ ପ୍ରମୁଖ ମହାକାଶ ପ୍ରାଧିକରଣ । ଏହା ପୃଥିବୀର ଛଅଟି ବଡ ସରକାରୀ ମହାକାଶ ପ୍ରାଧିକରଣ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ଅନ୍ୟତମ ଯଥା ।

Usage & history

The Oriya script is the official orthography used to write the Odia language of the Odisha (Orissa) state in India, as well as minority languages such as Khondi and Santali, and a number of Dravidian and Munda minority languages spoken in that region.u,487 It is also used in Orissa for transcribing Sanskrit texts.

ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଅକ୍ଷର ọɖˑiạ̄ ɔ̣k͓ṣr oɽia ɔkʰjɔrɔ Odia script

The Oriya script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, via Siddham. Earliest recorded instances of the script go back to the 11thC. The language was initially written in the Kalinga script, from which the Oriya script developed.

The rounded shapes of the letters, especially the top bar, are ascribed to the practise of writing on palm leaves, where rounded lines are less likely to split the leaf than straight ones.

A cursive version of the script, called Karani (କରଣୀ ଅକ୍ଷର), was used by scribes in the royal courts.

The language and script were previously referrred to in English as Oriya, but in 2011 India changed the spelling to Odia in the constitution.sl11

Sources Scriptsource and Wikipedia.

Basic features

The Odia script is an abugida. Consonants carry an inherent vowel which can be modified by appending vowel-signs to the consonant. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the modern Odia orthography.

Odia runs left to right in horizontal lines.

Words are separated by spaces.

The 36 consonant letters used for Odia include repertoire extensions for 2 sounds by applying the nukta diacritic to characters. There are 2 additional, newer characters used for w and v.

Consonant clusters are most commonly rendered using subjoined forms , usually for the second character, but sometimes for the initial. Certain clusters use fused forms, and a couple are conjoined. A visible virama is used for borrowed words. Initial RA is rendered as a reph over the top right of the following consonant.

Syllable-final consonant sounds may be represented by 2 dedicated combining marks ( anusvara & visarga ). Velar consonant cluster initials may be written either using a regular character or using anusvara.

The inherent vowel is ɔ . There are 9 vowel-signs, and 10 independent vowels. All vowel-signs are combining characters and are stored after the base character, including 1 pre-base form, and 3 circumgraphs . There are no composite vowels, in principle, however the 2 circumgraphs are decomposed into 2 parts each.

There is a set of 4 vocalics , each with vowel-sign and independent forms, but only one vocalic is used in modern Odia.

Vowels may be nasalised, using the candrabindu diacritic.

Odia has native digit shapes, but may also use ASCII digits.

Danda (from the Devanagari block) is used at the end of a sentence, and usually preceded by a space. Otherwise, most of the punctuation is ASCII.

Character index

Letters

Show

Basic consonants

ପ␣ବ␣ଫ␣ଭ␣ତ␣ଦ␣ଥ␣ଧ␣ଟ␣ଡ␣ଠ␣ଢ␣କ␣ଗ␣ଖ␣ଘ␣ଚ␣ଜ␣ଛ␣ଝ␣ଯ␣ସ␣ଷ␣ଶ␣ହ␣ମ␣ନ␣ଞ␣ଣ␣ଙ␣ର␣ଲ␣ଳ␣ୟ␣ୱ␣ଵ

Extended consonants

ଡ଼␣ଢ଼␣କ୍ଷ
ଡ଼␣ଢ଼

Vowels

ଇ␣ଈ␣ଉ␣ଊ␣ଏ␣ଓ␣ଅ␣ଆ␣ଐ␣ଔ

Vocalics

ଋ␣ୠ␣ଌ␣ୡ

Avagraha

Combining marks

Show

Vowels

ି␣ୀ␣ୁ␣ୂ␣େ␣ୋ␣ା␣ୈ␣ୌ
ୖ␣ୗ

Vocalics

ୄ␣ୢ␣ୣ

Bindu

ଂ␣ଁ

Nukta

Visarga

Virama

Numbers

Show
୦␣୧␣୨␣୩␣୪␣୫␣୬␣୭␣୮␣୯
୲␣୳␣୴␣୵␣୶␣୷

Punctuation

Show
।␣॥␣…␣‘␣’␣“␣”

ASCII

,␣;␣:␣.␣?␣!␣(␣)

CLDR additions

‐␣‑␣–␣—␣†␣‡␣′␣″

Symbols

Show
ଓଁ

Other

Show
‌␣‍
Character lists show:

Phonology

The following represents the repertoire of the Odia language.

Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned.

Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. Source Wikipedia.

Vowel sounds

Plain vowels

i u e o ɔ a

Diphthongs

ɔi ɔu

Consonant sounds

labial dental alveolar post-
alveolar
retroflex palatal velar glottal
stop p b
t d
    ʈ ɖ
ʈʰ ɖʰ
  k ɡ
ɡʰ
 
affricate       t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒʰ
       
fricative v   s         ɦ
nasal m   n   ɳ ɲ ŋ
approximant w   l   ɭ j  
trill/flap     ɾ   ɽ ɽʰ

Alphabet

Click on the characters to find where they are mentioned in this page.

Descriptions of the Oriya alphabet vary. CLDR§ lists the following 'index' characters. Note the composite letter at the end of the list.

ଅ␣ଆ␣ଇ␣ଈ␣ଉ␣ଊ␣ଋ␣ଏ␣ଐ␣ଓ␣ଔ␣ ␣କ␣ଖ␣ଗ␣ଘ␣ଙ␣ଚ␣ଛ␣ଜ␣ଝ␣ଞ␣ଟ␣ଠ␣ଡ␣ଢ␣ଣ␣ତ␣ଥ␣ଦ␣ଧ␣ନ␣ପ␣ଫ␣ବ␣ଭ␣ମ␣ଯ␣ର␣ଲ␣ଳ␣ଶ␣ଷ␣ସ␣ହ␣କ୍ଷ

Vowels

Odia consonants have an inherent vowel sound. Other, non-inherent vowel sounds following a consonant are written using vowel-signs and other symbols.

Vowels have short lengths only, although there are vestigial orthographic letters for long sounds that now represent alternatives for the short sounds.

Standalone vowels are written using independent vowel letters. Additional symbols are used to express length and nasalisation.

Click on the characters in the lists for detailed information. For a mapping of sounds to graphemes see vowel_mappings.

Inherent vowel

ɔ following a consonant is not written, but is seen as an inherent part of the consonant letter, so is written by simply using the consonant letter [U+0B15 ORIYA LETTER KA]. This vowel sound is transcribed as a.d

Vowel-signs

Non-inherent vowel sounds that follow a consonant are mostly represented using vowel-signs, eg. ki is written କି [U+0B15 ORIYA LETTER KA + U+0B3F ORIYA VOWEL SIGN I].

An orthography that uses vowel-signs is different from one that uses simple diacritics or letters for vowels in that the vowel-signs are generally attached to the syllable, rather than just applied to the letter of the immediately preceding consonant. This means that pre-base vowel-signs and the left glyph of circumgraphs appear before a whole consonant cluster if the cluster is rendered as a conjunct (see prescript_vowels).

Odia vowel-signs are all combining characters. All vowel-signs are stored after the base consonant, and the font puts them in the correct place for display. This also applies for the pre-base vowel-sign, and the 3 circumgraphs (where a single code point produces glyphs on more than one side of the consonant base). In principle, Odia has no composite vowels (where multiple items combine to express a vowel), but the circumgraphs do decompose.

Six vowel-signs are spacing marks, meaning that they consume horizontal space when added to a base consonant.

See also vocalics.

Combining marks used for vowels

Odia uses the following dedicated combining marks for vowels.

ି␣ୀ␣ୁ␣ୂ␣େ␣ୋ␣ା␣ ␣ୈ␣ୌ

The 'primary' vowels have 'short' and 'long' written forms that hark back to the earlier Indic script origins, but modern Odia phonetics don't distinguish between long and short vowel sounds.

Pre-base vowel-sign

The sound e is written using [U+0B47 ORIYA VOWEL SIGN E], which appears to the left of the base consonant letter or cluster.

This is a combining mark that is always stored after the base consonant. The font places the glyph before the base consonant.

The combination କେ [U+0B15 ORIYA LETTER KA + U+0B47 ORIYA VOWEL SIGN E] produces a pre-base positioned glyph.

When an orthographic syllable begins with a consonant cluster that is rendered as a conjunct, the vowel-sign is rendered before the start of the syllable, eg. here are 3 sets of consonant clusters, each followed by e when spoken, but the vowel-sign appears to the left of each cluster.ଜ୍ଞେ ଛ୍ଯେ ଜ୍ଲେ

Circumgraphs

ୋ␣ ␣ୈ␣ୌ

Three vowels are produced by a single combining character with visually separate parts, that appear on different sides of the consonant onset eg. କୋ ko

All 3 of these circumgraphs can be written as a single character, or as two. See vowel_encoding.

Other symbols used for vowels

The following 'lengthening marks' may be used to create vowel sounds as part of a decomposed circumgraph, although the Unicode Standard recommends the use of the precomposed forms.

ୖ␣ୗ

See vowel_encoding for more details.

In Sanskrit, [U+0B3D ORIYA SIGN AVAGRAHA] can be used to show vowel elongation,ws

Composite vowels

The only composite vowels occur when the circumgraphs are encoded as pairs of characters (see vowel_encoding).

Standalone vowels

Odia represents standalone vowels using a set of independent vowel letters. The set includes a character to represent the inherent vowel sound, ɔ.

ଇ␣ଈ␣ଉ␣ଊ␣ଏ␣ଓ␣ଅ␣ଆ␣ ␣ଐ␣ଔ

Nasalisation

Vowels may be nasalised using [U+0B01 ORIYA SIGN CANDRABINDU].

ମୁଁହ
[U+0B01 ORIYA SIGN CANDRABINDU] used to nasalise the u sound in the word ମୁଁହ.

Where 2 vowels appear together, the nasalisation sign is rendered above the second, eg. ଜ୍ୱାଇଁ

Consonants with no following vowel

Odia uses   [U+0B4D ORIYA SIGN VIRAMA], called halant, (the Odia equivalent of the Sanskrit virama) to indicate that the inherent vowel is not pronounced after a consonant, eg. the following explicitly represents just the sound k.କ୍

Word-final consonants without a following inherent vowel use the halant, If there is no halant, the vowel is pronounced, eg. compare ଫୁଲ ଇ-ମେଲ୍

Consonant clusters also use this character, but if the cluster forms a conjunct then the virama is not rendered visibly (see clusters).

Vowel sounds mapped to characters

The following tables show how the above vowel sounds commonly map to characters or sequences of characters in the Odia language. Sounds are grouped according to whether they appear in a vowel-sign (vs) , or as a standalone vowel (s).

Plain vowels

ɔ
 vs

Inherent vowel

 
 s

Diphthongs and other combinations

Vocalics

Only one vocalic is regularly used, in vowel-sign form, in modern Odia, eg. କୃମି

Other vocalics exist in the script, in independent and vowel-sign forms, but are used for Sanskrit transcriptions.

ଋ␣ୠ␣ୄ␣ଌ␣ୢ␣ୡ␣ୣ

Consonants

Click on the characters in the lists for detailed information. For a mapping of sounds to graphemes see consonant_mappings.

Basic consonants

Stops

ପ␣ବ␣ଫ␣ଭ␣ତ␣ଦ␣ଥ␣ଧ␣ଟ␣ଡ␣ଠ␣ଢ␣କ␣ଗ␣ଖ␣ଘ

Affricates

ଚ␣ଛ␣ଜ␣ଝ␣ଯ

Fricatives

ଵ␣ସ␣ଷ␣ଶ␣ହ

Nasals

ମ␣ନ␣ଞ␣ଣ␣ଙ

Other

ୱ␣ର␣ଲ␣ଳ␣ୟ

The velar and palatal nasals only occur in homorganic clusters.d,406

କ୍ଷ [U+0B15 ORIYA LETTER KA + U+0B4D ORIYA SIGN VIRAMA + U+0B37 ORIYA LETTER SSA] is regarded as a letter of the alphabet.

wa and va

The letters [U+0B71 ORIYA LETTER WA] and [U+0B35 ORIYA LETTER VA] were added to Unicode version 4.

The subjoined forms of [U+0B71 ORIYA LETTER WA] and [U+0B2C ORIYA LETTER BA] may look the same. For a discussion of the possible historical relationship between these characters see Everson/Stonee02.

Observation: The Library of Congress transcription page says that when [U+0B2C ORIYA LETTER BA] occurs as the second consonant of a consonant cluster (except when geminated), it is transliterated vloc. It appears, however, that it also keeps the b sound after the letters m and r.

[U+0B35 ORIYA LETTER VA] is described by Wiktionary as "used sporadically for the phonetic Va/Wa as an alternative for the officially recognised letter ୱ, but has not gained widespread acceptance".

Repertoire extension using nukta

The sounds ɽ and ɽʰ are written by combining [U+0B3C ORIYA SIGN NUKTA] with an existing consonant.

ଡ଼␣ଢ଼

The nukta should always be typed and stored immediately after the consonant it modifies, and before any combining vowels or diacritics.

Unicode also has precomposed forms of these letters, but they decompose under Unicode Normalisation Form C (NFC). Therefore, the Unicode Standard recommends the use of the decomposed sequence.

ଡ଼␣ଢ଼

The nukta may also be used to produce other non-native sounds. Wiktionary describes the following:

Syllable-final consonants

ଂ␣ଃ

A syllable-final nasal sound can be written using [U+0B02 ORIYA SIGN ANUSVARA], eg. ଜଂତୁ ଜଂଗଲ ଏବଂ

It is optional whether the nasal sound is written using anusvara or by using a conjunct. fig_anusvara shows two ways of writing ଅଂକ.u,488

ଅଙ୍କ	ଅଂକ
The sound ɔŋkɔ written using a conjunct (top) and using anusvara followed by KA (bottom).

A word-final h consonant can also be written using [U+0B03 ORIYA SIGN VISARGA].n,54 (In the middle of a word, it creates a geminated consonant.)

Observation: According to Wikipedia, that sound is a h, but according to Nakanishi it is a glottal stop.

Gemination

Geminated consonants in the middle of a word can be written using [U+0B03 ORIYA SIGN VISARGA],n,54 eg. ଦୁଃଖ

Consonant clusters

The absence of a vowel sound between two or more consonants is visually indicated in one of the following ways.

  1. Create a conjunct. There are a number of possibilities here:
    1. Stacking : Reduce a non-initial consonant in size and shape and position it below the first.
    2. Conjoining : The two consonants sit side by side, but the second consonant has a special shape.
    3. Ligation : Create a fusion of the letter shapes, where it may be difficult to identify one or more of the components.
    4. The letter RA has its own idiosyncratic way of combining with other consonants, whether it precedes or follows them.
  2. Show a visible virama below the non-final consonants in the cluster.
  3. Use the anusvara.

See also finals and gemination.

Conjunct formation

See a table of 2-consonant clusters.
The table allows you to test results for various fonts.

In Unicode, conjunct formation is achieved by adding   [U+0B4D ORIYA SIGN VIRAMA] between the consonants. The font hides the virama glyph automatically when a conjunct is formed.

Stacking

The overwhelming majority of conjuncts in Odia are achieved by subjoining a reduced form of the non-initial consonant below the initial.

ହନ→ହ୍ନ
ɦnɔ
ଳପ→ଳ୍ପ
ɭpɔ
କକ→କ୍କ
kkɔ
Examples of stacked conjuncts.

In most cases the non-initial consonant is just reduced in size, but in some cases the shape is changed, either by removing the circular top line, or in a more fundamental way.

କତ→କ୍ତ
ktɔ
କଢ→କ୍ଢ
kɖɔ
Stacked conjuncts where the subjoined shape is significantly different from the normal shape.

However, when TA is the initial consonant, it is sometimes the initial that is reduced and subjoined. In other combinations, however, it retains its full form.

ତନ→ତ୍ନ
tkɔ
ତନ→ତ୍ନ
tnɔ
Stacked conjuncts with an initial TA. The TA may be subjoined in some combinations.

RA in clusters

A trailing RA has a fairly regular appearance as a subjoined glyph below the preceding consonant, although that line may join with the preceding letter shape, and therefore cause a slight change to it.

କର→କ୍ର
krɔ
A trailing RA in a cluster is rendered as a subjoined glyph.

However, like many other Indian scripts, [U+0B30 ORIYA LETTER RA] at the beginning of a cluster is represented idiosyncratically, and appears as a small, superscript glyph over the top right of the following consonant.

ରକ→ର୍କ
rkɔ
An initial RA in a cluster is rendered as a superscript over the following consonant.

Observation: Unlike Devanagari, it appears that the RA doesn't move over a following vowel-sign, such as [U+0B3E ORIYA VOWEL SIGN AA].

Ligated forms

Certain combinations of consonants form conjuncts by producing a merged glyph one or both of the original letters may be unrecognisable.

ଜଞ→ଜ୍ଞ
d͡ʒɲɔ
ତତ→ତ୍ତ
ttɔ
କଷ→କ୍ଷ
kʰjɔ
Clusters that fuse into forms different from their original component shapes.

The following is a list of combinations that produce such an effect. Click on the items to see the component letters.

କ୍ଷ␣ତ୍ତ␣ଦ୍ଧ␣ଦ୍ଭ␣ଙ୍କ␣ଙ୍ଖ␣ଙ୍ଗ␣ଙ୍ଘ␣ଜ୍ଞ␣ଟ୍ଟ␣ତ୍ତ␣ଦ୍ଭ␣ଦ୍ଦ␣ଦ୍ଧ␣ଧ୍ଯ␣ଧ୍ୟ␣ନ୍ଧ␣ନ୍ଦ␣ବ୍ଦ␣ବ୍ବ␣ମ୍ପ␣ମ୍ଫ␣ମ୍ଭ

Conjoined consonants or a visible halanta

Three letters in particular tend not to stack, but sit alongside the initial consonant in the cluster.

ତଯ→ତ୍ଯ
td͡ʒɔ
ତୟ→ତ୍ୟ
tjɔ
Conjoined letters for the clusters , and tj, respectively (top to bottom).

As can be seen above, the conjoined forms for ʤ and j are identical.

The letter NYA also sits alongside the cluster initial, but the halanta may be shown below the initial letter.

ତଞ→ତ୍ଞ
tɲɔ
A consonant cluster that shows a visible virama, rather than creating a conjunct.

Observation: Noto, Nirmala, and Kangila fonts all show the halanta below the initial consonant in the first example at fig_conjoined, but Oriya MN and Oriya Sangam MN fonts don't show it.

The halanta is also left showing for borrowed words.d,404 The halanta can be made visible by following it with ZWNJ [U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER].

Triple-consonant clusters

Oriya has a number of clusters involving 3 consonants. For example, the following words contain triple-consonant clusters. As always, click on the example to see the composition. ପୂର୍ଣ୍ଣ ତୀକ୍ଷ୍ଣ ଚନ୍ଦ୍ର

Consonant to script mapping

The following tables show how Odia consonant sounds commonly map to characters or sequences of characters.

t͡ʃ
 

[U+0B1A ORIYA LETTER CA]

d͡ʒ
 

[U+0B1C ORIYA LETTER JA]

t͡ʃʰ
 

[U+0B1B ORIYA LETTER CHA]

r
 

[U+0B30 ORIYA LETTER RA]

[U+0B0B ORIYA LETTER VOCALIC R] as part of the vocalic ru (standalone)

[U+0B43 ORIYA VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R] as part of the vocalic ru (vowel-sign)

Symbols

Deceased honorific. [U+0B70 ORIYA ISSHAR] is used before the name of a deceased person.

Om.The symbol for the word Om is produced using ଓଁ [U+0B13 ORIYA LETTER O + U+0B01 ORIYA SIGN CANDRABINDU]. It also occurs as a ligated form. If the font doesn't produce the ligated form automatically, the font may produce it if ZWJ [U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER] is inserted between the two characters.

ଓଁ	ଓ‍ଁ
A non-ligated combination of O+CANDRABINDU (left) and a ligated form using ZERO WIDTH JOINER (right)..

Encoding choices

Visually, several of the standalone vowels and some vowel-signs look as if they could be composed of smaller parts. This section compares approaches and considers the relevance of Unicode Normalisation Form D (NFD) and Unicode Normalisation Form C (NFC) to give guidance on which approach is best.

Vowel-signs

The three circumgraphs can be written as a single character, or as two characters. In 2 of those cases, the second character is a lengthening mark.

Precomposed Decomposed
[U+0B4B ORIYA VOWEL SIGN O] ୋ [U+0B47 ORIYA VOWEL SIGN E + U+0B3E ORIYA VOWEL SIGN AA]
[U+0B48 ORIYA VOWEL SIGN AI] ୈ [U+0B47 ORIYA VOWEL SIGN E + U+0B56 ORIYA AI LENGTH MARK]
[U+0B4C ORIYA VOWEL SIGN AU] ୌ [U+0B47 ORIYA VOWEL SIGN E + U+0B57 ORIYA AU LENGTH MARK]

The single code point per vowel-sign is preferred, however the parts are separated in Unicode Normalisation Form D (NFD), and recomposed in Unicode Normalisation Form C (NFC), so both approaches are canonically equivalent.

Whichever approach is used, the vowel-signs must be typed and stored after the consonant characters they surround, and in left to right order.

Independent vowels

The approach listed in the table below is not equivalent when the text is normalised, and therefore only the precomposed approach in the left column should be used.u,487

Use Do not use
[U+0B06 ORIYA LETTER AA] ଅା [U+0B05 ORIYA LETTER A + U+0B3E ORIYA VOWEL SIGN AA]
[U+0B10 ORIYA LETTER AI] ଏୗ [U+0B0F ORIYA LETTER E + U+0B57 ORIYA AU LENGTH MARK] 
[U+0B14 ORIYA LETTER AU] ଓୗ [U+0B13 ORIYA LETTER O + U+0B57 ORIYA AU LENGTH MARK] 

In addition to the problem previously mentioned, combinations on rows 2 and 3 don't have the joining bar and so won't display correctly.

Numbers

Digits

Odia has its own set of native digits.

୧␣୨␣୩␣୪␣୫␣୬␣୭␣୮␣୯␣୦

The CLDR standard-decimal pattern is #,##,##0.###. The standard-percent pattern is #,##,##0%.c

ASCII digits may also be used.msg

Fractions

Odia also has a number of pre-decimal characters representing fractions.

୲␣୳␣୴␣୵␣୶␣୷

These are used additively, with larger values appearing before smaller, eg. ୳୵ [U+0B73 ORIYA FRACTION ONE HALF + U+0B75 ORIYA FRACTION ONE SIXTEENTH] represents the value 5/16.u,490

Text direction

Odia text runs left to right in horizontal lines.

Show default bidi_class properties for characters in the Odia orthography described here.

Glyph shaping & positioning

This section brings together information about the following topics: writing styles; cursive text; context-based shaping; context-based positioning; baselines, line height, etc.; font styles; case & other character transforms.

You can experiment with examples using the Odia character app.

Odia text is not cursive (ie. joined up like Arabic).

The orthography has no case distinction, and no special transforms are needed to convert between characters.

Context-based shaping & positioning

Odia text relies on OpenType rules to correctly position glyphs and shape them according to the surrounding text.

One major area where this applies is in the use of conjunct forms for consonant clusters.

ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ
The 3 glyphs highlighted on the right are conjunct forms in the word ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ.
Click on the figure to see the composition.

See a table of 2-consonant clusters for Oriya.

The following is a selection of other examples of contextual shaping and positioning.

Positioning u in clusters. When a below-base vowel-sign occurs with a cluster with a conjoined form it is attached to the larger glyph, rather than to the consonant it actually follows in memory and speech, eg.

ମୃତ୍ୟୁ
The arrow points from where the sound u is pronounced to the position the vowel-sign is displayed in the word ମୃତ୍ୟୁ .
Click on the figure to see the composition.

Position & shape of i. After a certain consonant glyphs, in some fonts, the vowel-sign for i appears in a different position and with a different shape. The first example in the table below shows the typical shape.

  Composition Example
ସି + ି [U+0B38 ORIYA LETTER SA + U+0B3F ORIYA VOWEL SIGN I] ପ୍ରସିଦ୍ଧି
ସ୍ଥି + + + ି [U+0B38 ORIYA LETTER SA + U+0B4D ORIYA SIGN VIRAMA + U+0B25 ORIYA LETTER THA + U+0B3F ORIYA VOWEL SIGN I] ଅସ୍ଥି
ଥି + ି [U+0B25 ORIYA LETTER THA + U+0B3F ORIYA VOWEL SIGN I] ପୃଥିବୀ

Other glyph variants. Nakanishi lists a number of alternative shapes for glyphs.

Description of glyph variants from Nakanishi, p54.

Explicit shaping controls

ZWNJ [U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER] (ZWNJ) can be used to force the production of a visible virama, rather than a conjunct form.

ZWJ [U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINER] (ZWJ) is used to produce a ligated version of OM (see symbols).

Font styles

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Punctuation & inline features

Grapheme boundaries

Usually a typographic character unit correlates with the Unicode concept of grapheme clusters, but not in the case of conjuncts (in common with several other Indic scripts).

Conjuncts

Conjuncts and any dependent combining characters should never be split.

This creates a problem when dealing with Unicode grapheme clusters, because they stop after reaching a virama. So conjuncts usually contain multiple grapheme clusters. This produces incorrect segmentation as seen on the right in fig_grapheme_conjunct. Applications need to tailor the grapheme cluster rules to avoid splitting conjuncts.

ସାଙ୍ଗେ   ସାଙ୍‌ଗେ
Segmentation of the word ସାଙ୍ଗେ as it should be (left), and how it would be if grapheme clusters are used as the maximal unit (right).

Unfortunately, this is harder than it seems, because whether a conjunct is formed or not usually depends on the capabilities of the font – it cannot be determined solely by looking at the code points in memory. If a font doesn't contain the glyphs to create a conjunct it will render the consonant cluster with a visible virama. In that case, the grapheme cluster approach is appropriate.

Word boundaries

Words are separated by spaces.

Hyphens may be used to separate parts of a compound word,msg,40 eg. ଡ୍ରପ୍-ଡାଉନ୍

Phrase & section boundaries

,␣;␣:␣.␣?␣!␣।␣॥
phrase

, [U+002C COMMA]

; [U+003B SEMICOLON]

: [U+003A COLON]

sentence

. [U+002E FULL STOP]

? [U+003F QUESTION MARK]

! [U+0021 EXCLAMATION MARK]

[U+0964 DEVANAGARI DANDA]
section [U+0965 DEVANAGARI DOUBLE DANDA]

[U+0964 DEVANAGARI DANDA] and [U+0965 DEVANAGARI DOUBLE DANDA] are from the Unicode Devanagari block. Odia uses a space before these punctuation marks, which avoids confusion with [U+0B3E ORIYA VOWEL SIGN AA], eg. … ଲୋପ ପାଇଗଲା ।

Parentheses & brackets

(␣)
  start end
standard

( [U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS]

) [U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS]

( [U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS] and ) [U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS] are used for parentheses.msg

Quotations

“␣”␣‘␣’
  start end
initial

[U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK]
nested

[U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

[U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK]

Single quotation marks are used for quotations within quotations.

Emphasis

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Abbreviation, ellipsis & repetition

Abbreviations

Odia abbreviations use a period after the first syllable, but sometimes include more than one syllable,msg,45 eg. ବଶେଷ୍ୟ → ବ. ଉଦାହରଣ → ଉ.ଦା.

Ellipsis

Odia uses [U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS] for ellipsis,msg,40 eg. ଆଇକନ୍ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ କରନ୍ତୁ…

In Sanskrit, [U+0B3D ORIYA SIGN AVAGRAHA] is used to indicate elision,ws eg. ଦ୍ୱିତୀୟୋଽଧ୍ୟାୟଃ

Inline notes & annotations

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Other inline ranges

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Other punctuation

CLDR lists the following non-ASCII punctuation marks for Odia.

‐␣‑␣–␣—␣†␣‡␣′␣″

Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

Lines are mostly broken at inter-word spaces.

Like most writing systems, certain characters are expected not to start or end a line. For example, periods and commas shouldn't start a line, and opening parentheses shouldn't end a line.

Show (default) line-breaking properties for characters in the modern Odia orthography.

Text alignment & justification

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Letter spacing

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Counters, lists, etc.

You can experiment with counter styles using the Counter styles converter. Patterns for using these styles in CSS can be found in Ready-made Counter Styles, and we use the names of those patterns here to refer to the various styles.

The oriya numeric style is decimal-based and uses these digits.rmcs

୦␣୧␣୨␣୩␣୪␣୫␣୬␣୭␣୮␣୯

Examples:

୧␣୨␣୩␣୪␣୧୧␣୨୨␣୩୩␣୪୪␣୧୧୧␣୨୨୨␣୩୩୩␣୪୪୪

Styling initials

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Page & book layout

This section is for any features that are specific to Odia and that relate to the following topics: general page layout & progression; grids & tables; notes, footnotes, etc; forms & user interaction; page numbering, running headers, etc.

Languages using the Odia script

According to ScriptSource, the Odia script is used for the following languages:

References