Shan

Updated 4 November, 2021

This page brings together basic information about the Myanmar script and its use for the Shan language. It doesn't address use of the orthography for writing Pali. It aims to provide a brief, descriptive summary of the modern, printed orthography and typographic features, and to advise how to write Shan using Unicode.

Phonetic transcriptions on this page should be treated as an approximate guide, only. Many are more phonemic than phonetic, and there may be variations depending on the source of the transcription. There are several dialects of Shan, with varying pronunciations. For more details see Wikipedia.

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Sample (Shan)

Select part of this sample text to show a list of characters, with links to more details.
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ၵူၼ်းၵူႊၵေႃႉၼႆႉ ပဵၼ်ဢၼ်ၵိူတ်ႇမႃးလူၺ်ႈၵုင်ႇမုၼ်ဢၼ်လွတ်ႈလႅဝ်းၽဵင်ႇပဵင်းၵၼ် လႄႈ သုၼ်ႇလႆႈဢၼ် လွတ်ႈလႅဝ်းၽဵင်ႇ ပဵင်းၵၼ်။ ၶဝ်ၼႆႉ မီးၺၢၼ်ႇဢၼ်မေႃထတ်းသၢင် လႄႈ ၸႂ်ဢၼ်ႁူႉၸၵ်းၾိင်ႈတိုဝ်းၵမ် ၼၼ်ႉလႄႈ ထုၵ်ႇဝႆႉၸႂ်ပီႈဢွၵ်ႇ ၼွင်ႉၶႆႇၵၼ်သေ တိတ်းတေႃႇၵၼ်။

ၵူၼ်းၵူႊၵေႃႉၼႆႉ မီးသုၼ်ႇလႆႈတႃႇၶုၺ်ႉႁၼ်ပိူင်ႇငမ်းသုၼ်ႇလႆႈလႄႈ လွင်ႈလွတ်ႈလႅဝ်းတင်းသဵင်ႈ ဢၼ်ပိုတ်ႇၼေဝႆႉ ၼႂ်း လိၵ်ႈပိုၼ်ၽၢဝ်ႇၼႆႉသေ တေဢမ်ႇလႆႈမီးလွင်ႈၸႅၵ်ႇၼႄလူၺ်ႈ ၸၢဝ်းၶိူဝ်း၊ သီၽိဝ်၊ ၶိူင်ႈၽွၵ်ႇ၊ ၵႂၢမ်းလၢတ်ႈ၊ ၸၢဝ်းၵိူဝ်း ယမ်၊ ပၢႆးႁပ်ႉႁၼ်ၵၢၼ်မိူင်း ဢိၵ်ႇတၢင်ႇလွင်ႈ၊ ငဝ်ႈႁၢၵ်ႈ ဢၼ်ၵဵဝ်ႇလူၺ်ႈ ၸိုင်ႈမိူင်း ႁိုဝ် ၸၼ်ႉထၢၼ်ႈၵၼ်ႊၵူၼ်း၊ လွင်ႈ မၢၵ်ႈမီးလီပဵၼ်၊ လွင်ႈၶိူဝ်းႁိူၼ်း လႄႈ ၸၼ်ႉထၢၼ်ႈတၢင်ႇၸိူဝ်ႉတၢင်ႇပိူင် ၸိူဝ်းၼႆႉ။

Usage & history

Shan is the native language of the Shan people and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma, but also in pockets of the Burmese Kachin State, and in Northern Thailand. Due to the civil war in Burma, few Shan today can read or write in Shan script.wsl,#Dialects

ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး kwáːm.táj Shan language

Shan is written in the Myanmar script, a descendant of the Brahmi script, via Pallava and Old Mon, which dates back to around the 10th century. Two older orthographies were also used, and are still used to some extent.

The Shan script prior to the 1960s was difficult to read because it didn't clearly distinguish between sounds and tones. The reforms transformed the orthography to make it very readable.

Source Wikipedia.

Basic features

The Shan orthography is an abugida. Consonants carry an inherent vowel which can be modified by appending vowel-signs to the consonant. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for the modern orthography.

Shan text runs left to right in horizontal lines.

Spaces separate phrases, rather than words.

The script is syllable based. Syllables are regular in construction, and easy to parse.

The 18 consonant letters used for pure Shan words are supplemented by 5 more which are used for non-native sounds.

It is not clear that Shan stacks consonants or uses other conjunct features.

Syllable-initial clusters use 3 dedicated combining marks for the medials r, j, and w.

The 6 syllable-final consonant sounds use ordinary characters with a visible mark called asat to indicate that the inherent vowel is killed.

The Shan orthography has an inherent vowel, and uses vowel-signs. Vowels use 15 combining marks (including 2 pre-base glyphs), and 3 consonants letters. Unlike Thai and Lao, all pre-base vowel-signs are combining marks, and are stored after the base character.

There are no independent vowels, and standalone vowel sounds are written using vowel-signs applied to [U+1022 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN A].

This section lists 18 composite vowels. Composite vowels can involve up to 4 glyphs, which can surround the base consonant(s) on up to 3 sides. There are no circumgraphs.

Shan is tonal, but indication of tones in the orthography is very simple, unlike Thai. Explicit tone marks occur after each syllable, except when the first tone is applied.

Shan has native digits, but may also uses Myanmar or ASCII digits.

Character index

Letters

Show

Basic consonants

ပ␣ၽ␣တ␣ထ␣ၵ␣ၶ␣ၸ␣ၾ␣သ␣ႁ␣မ␣ၼ␣ၺ␣င␣ဝ␣ရ␣လ␣ယ

Extended consonants

ၿ␣ၻ␣ၷ␣ႀ␣ၹ

Vowel

Other

Combining marks

Show

Vowel-signs

ိ␣ီ␣ု␣ူ␣ေ␣ဵ␣ႄ␣ႅ␣ႃ␣ၢ␣ႆ␣ွ

Tones

ႇ␣ႈ␣း␣ႉ␣ႊ

Medials

ျ␣ြ␣ႂ

Pure killer

Numbers

Show
႐␣႑␣႒␣႓␣႔␣႕␣႖␣႗␣႘␣႙
၀␣၁␣၂␣၃␣၄␣၅␣၆␣၇␣၈␣၉

Punctuation

Show
၊␣။

ASCII

?␣(␣)

Other

Show
Character lists show:

Phonology

These are sounds for the Shan language.

Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned.

Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. Source Wikipedia.

Vowel sounds

Plain vowels

i iː ɨ ɨ ɯ ɯ u uː e o ɤ ɤ ɛ ɔ a ɑː ɑː

Diphthongs

iu ɨj ɨi uj ew oj ɤj ɤj ɛw ɔj aj aɯ au ɑːj ɑːw ɑːj ɑːw

All but 1 of the diphthongs in Shan end in j or u/w.

Consonant sounds

labial dental alveolar post-
alveolar
palatal velar glottal
stop p b
t d
      k ɡ
ʔ
affricate       t͡ɕ      
fricative f θ s z       h
nasal m   n   ɲ ŋ
approximant w   l   j  
trill/flap     r  

f is only found initially in eastern dialects, and is pronounced elsewhere.wsl,#Consonants

ʔ appears before standalone vowels, and after open syllables.wsl,#Consonants

r is very rare and mainly used in Pali and some English loan words, sometimes as a glide in initial consonant clusters. Many Shan speakers pronounce it as l.wsl,#Consonants

Shan doesn't natively have voiced stops or fricatives, however the following sounds may appear in loan or foreign words, and have dedicated consonant letters: b d g f θ z.

See also the dialectal differences described in Wikipedia.

Syllable-final

labial dental alveolar post-
alveolar
palatal velar glottal
stop p t       k ʔ
affricate              
fricative              
nasal m   n     ŋ
approximant w       j  
trill/flap        

Structure

Typical Shan words are monosyllabic. Multisyllabic words are mostly Pali loanwords, or Burmese words with the initial weak syllable /ə/.wsl,#Syllable_structure

The basic syllable structure is:wsl,#Syllable_structure

C(m)v(C)

The initial consonant may be followed by one of -w-, -y- and -r-, for which special characters are available.wsl,#Syllable_structure

In closed syllables (ie. those ending with a consonant) the vowel is a monophthong. In open syllables, it can be either a monophthong or a diphthong.wsl,#Syllable_structure

Syllable-final consonants are p̚ t̚ k̚ m n ŋ.wsl,#Syllable_structure

Vowels

Click on the characters in the lists for detailed information. For a mapping of sounds to graphemes see vowel_mappings.

Dashes are used to indicate whether the character represents a vowel sound in a closed or an open syllable.

Inherent vowel

a following a consonant is not written, but is seen as an inherent part of the consonant letter, so ka is written by simply using the consonant letter [U+1075 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN KA].

Vowel-signs

Non-inherent vowel sounds that follow a consonant can be represented using vowel-signs, eg. ki is written ၵိ [U+1075 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN KA + U+102D MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN I].

An orthography that uses vowel-signs is different from one that uses simple diacritics or letters for vowels in that the vowel-signs are generally attached to the syllable, rather than just applied to the letter of the immediately preceding consonant. This means that pre-base vowel-signs appear before a whole consonant cluster in syllable-initial position (see prescript_vowels). Vowel-signs may be used on their own, or in combination with others (see composite_vowels).

Shan vowel-signs are all combining characters. All vowel-signs are stored after the base consonant, and the glyph rendering system takes care of the positioning at display time. Some input systems may allow the user to type the pre-base vowel before the base consonant, but it is still stored after.

Four vowel-signs are spacing marks, meaning that they consume horizontal space when added to a base consonant.

Combining marks used for vowels

Shan uses the following dedicated combining marks for vowels.

ီ␣ိ␣ူ␣ု␣ေ␣ဵ␣ႄ␣ႅ␣ွ␣ႃ␣ၢ␣␣ႆ

Unlike Burmese, the pronunciation of the vowel-sign doesn't depend on whether it appears in an open or closed syllable.

On the other hand, Shan generally uses different symbols for vowels in open and closed syllables. In some cases, the closed syllable vowel is a smaller version of the glyph used for open syllables, positioned over the consonant, eg. compare မႄႈ မႅင်ႇ

Observation: The length of the open vowels appears to be variable.

Consonants & other symbols used for vowels

The following characters are also used to create vowel sounds, either alone or as part of a composite vowel.

်␣ဝ␣ၺ␣ႂ␣ဢ

[U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] indicates that one of the above consonants is syllable-final.

ဝ် [U+101D MYANMAR LETTER WA + U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] is generally used to indicate a final -w sound in a diphthong. However, in a couple of instances, it is integral to the vowel sound.

ၺ် [U+107A MYANMAR LETTER SHAN NYA + U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] is likewise used to produce diphthongs ending with -j, although several use [U+1086 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN SHAN FINAL Y] instead.

[U+103D MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL WA] alone in closed syllables represents the sound -ɔ-.

[U+1082 MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN SHAN MEDIAL WA] is used in the combination ႂ် w̆ˣ -aɰ in open syllables.

[U+1022 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN A] on its own represents the standalone version of the inherent vowel, ʔa.   It is used as a base for other standalone vowels.

Pre-base vowel-signs

ေ␣ႄ

Two vowel-signs appear before the base consonant letter or cluster, eg. မေး

These are combining marks that are always stored after the base consonant. The font places the glyph before the base consonant.

A consonant cluster is treated as a unit when it comes to vowel-signs, for example in the following word the pre-base vowel-sign is displayed to the left of the kj cluster, although it appears after the cluster in memory ၵျေႃင်း

Some input methods may allow the user to type this vowel before the consonant, whereas others will expect it to be typed after, per the stored order.

Composite vowels

Vowels represented by combinations of the above characters. There are no circumgraphs in the Shan orthography, but several composite vowels surround the base on more than one side.

ို␣ိုဝ်␣ူဝ်␣ိူ␣ိူဝ်␣ေႃ␣ ␣ိဝ်␣ိုၺ်␣ုၺ်␣ဵဝ်␣ူၺ်␣ိူၺ်␣ႅဝ်␣ွႆ␣ၢႆ␣ၢဝ်␣ႂ်␣ဝ်
Show which combinations contain a given character:
ို␣ိုဝ်␣ိူ␣ိူဝ်␣ ␣ိုၺ်␣ိူၺ်␣ ␣ိဝ်
ို␣ိုဝ်␣ ␣ိုၺ်␣ုၺ်
ူဝ်␣ိူ␣ ␣ူၺ်␣ိူၺ်
ေႃ
ဵဝ်
ႅဝ်
ေႃ
ၢႆ␣ ␣ၢဝ်
ွႆ␣ၢႆ
ိုဝ်␣ူဝ်␣ ␣ိုၺ်␣ုၺ်␣ူၺ်␣ိူၺ်␣ ␣ိဝ်␣ဵဝ်␣ႅဝ်␣ဝ်␣ၢဝ်␣ ␣ႂ်
ိုဝ်␣ူဝ်␣ ␣ိဝ်␣ဵဝ်␣ႅဝ်␣ဝ်␣ၢဝ်
ႂ်
ွႆ
ိုၺ်␣ုၺ်␣ူၺ်␣ိူၺ်

Characters that don't appear in the combinations:

ီ␣ႄ

Standalone vowels

The Shan orthography uses no independent vowel letters. Instead, standalone vowel sounds are written by attaching vowel-signs to the letter [U+1022 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN A], eg. ဢၢၼ်ႇ ဢေႇဢေႇ

On it's own, that character represents the standalone version of the inherent vowel, a, eg. ဢပုမ်ႇ

ဢၢၼ်ႇ
Shan adds vowel-signs to the glottal stop consonant to indicate standalone vowels.
This is ဢၢၼ်ႇ.

Consonants with no following vowel

Shan uses   [U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] to kill the inherent vowel after a final consonant, eg. ၵ် [U+1075 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN KA + U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] explicitly represents just the sound k. It is always visible, and it never causes stacking.

Most closed syllables end with this character, eg. ႁိၼ်

Tones

Tones in Shan are much easier to manage than those in Thai or Burmese. Each syllable is followed by a tone marker, apart from syllables with the first tone.

Tones 2-6 are marked using the following combining marks.

ႇ␣ႈ␣း␣ႉ␣ႊ

Unchecked syllables can have 5 or 6 tones. The sixth tone, [U+108A MYANMAR SIGN SHAN TONE-6], is treated as a standard tone in the north; elsewhere it is only used for emphasis.wsl,#Tones The following examples illustrate usage.

Checked syllables can have one of the following four tones.

Vowel sounds mapped to characters

This section maps Shan vowel sounds to common graphemes, grouped by open ( o ), or closed ( c ) syllables. Tonal variations are not taken into account. Click on the character names to see examples.

Plain vowels

 o

[U+102E MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN II], eg. သီႇ .

i
c

[U+102D MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN I], eg. ၵိၼ် .

ɯ
 c

ို [U+102D MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN I + U+102F MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN U], eg. ၼိုင်ႈ

o

[U+1030 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN UU], eg. ငူး .

u
 c

[U+102F MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN U], eg. သုၵ်ႈ .

e
o

[U+1031 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN E], eg. မေး .

 
c

[U+1035 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN E ABOVE], eg. ယဵပ်ႉ .

 
c

[U+1030 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN UU], eg. ၵူၼ်း .

ɛ
 o

[U+1084 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN SHAN E], eg. မႄႈ

 
 c

[U+1085 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN SHAN E ABOVE], eg. ဢႅဝ် .

ɔ
 o
 
 c

[U+103D MYANMAR CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL WA], eg. တွင် .

a
 c

Inherent vowel

[U+1022 MYANMAR LETTER SHAN A] as standalone vowel 

ɑː
o

[U+1083 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN SHAN AA]. eg. ၼႃႈ .

 
c

[U+1062 MYANMAR VOWEL SIGN SGAW KAREN EU], eg. တၢင်း .

Diphthongs and other combinations

Consonants

Click on the characters in the lists for detailed information. For a mapping of sounds to graphemes see consonant_mappings.

Basic consonants

Stops

ပ␣ၽ␣တ␣ထ␣ၵ␣ၶ

Affricate

Fricatives

ၾ␣သ␣ႁ

Nasals

မ␣ၼ␣ၺ␣င

Other sonorants

ဝ␣ရ␣လ␣ယ

Foreign sounds

The following letters are rare and used for non-native sounds.

ၿ␣ၻ␣ၷ␣ႀ␣ၹ

Consonant clusters

Consonant clusters in modern Shan are not stacked, as they would be in Burmese. Closed syllables in a multi-syllable word are typically followed by the asat and (apart from the first tone) a tone mark, eg. ၽၵ်းၵၢတ်ႇမွၵ်ႇ

Syllable-onset clusters

Unicode has the following, dedicated combining characters for the second letter in a syllable-onset cluster. The virama should not be used with ordinary letters to produce these. Both of the first two letters appear to be used mostly for loan words.

ျ␣ြ␣ႂ

Syllable-final consonants

Syllable-final consonant sounds are indicated by ordinary consonant characters with a visible [U+103A MYANMAR SIGN ASAT] character, eg. တွင်

Syllable-final consonant sounds are p̚ t̚ k̚ m n ŋ.wsl,#Syllable_structure

Consonant sounds mapped to characters

This section maps Shan consonant sounds to common graphemes. Click on the character names to see examples.

Numbers

Digits

Shan has native digits.

႑␣႒␣႓␣႔␣႕␣႖␣႗␣႘␣႙␣႐

Sometimes Myanmar digits are used, instead.

၁␣၂␣၃␣၄␣၅␣၆␣၇␣၈␣၉␣၀

Wikipedia uses ASCII digits.

ႁူမ်တင်းႁႆႇၵွင်မွင်း ၼူၵ်ႉတူဝ်းသေ မႃးၶဝ်ႈႁူမ်ႈႁပ်ႉတွၼ်ႈၵိုၼ်းၶွၼ်ႈ ဢမ်ႇယွမ်းမွၵ်ႈ 400-500

Example of a date range. (source)

The CLDR standard-decimal pattern is #,##,##0.###. The standard-percent pattern is #,##,##0%.

Dates

မိူဝ်ႈ ပ.ၶ 1894 ၼၼ်ႉ

ဝၼ်းထီႈ 21/09/2014 မီးၵၢၼ်ၸတ်းပၢင်ႁပ်ႉတွၼ်ႈ

Examples of dates in Wikipedia. (source)

Text direction

Shan text is written horizontally, left to right.

Show default bidi_class properties for characters in the Shan orthography described here.

Glyph shaping & positioning

This section brings together information about the following topics: writing styles; cursive text; context-based shaping; context-based positioning; baselines, line height, etc.; font styles; case & other character transforms.

You can experiment with examples using the Shan character app.

The orthography has no case distinction, and no special transforms are needed to convert between characters.

Font styles

tbd

Punctuation & inline features

Grapheme boundaries

tbd

Word boundaries

Words are not separated by spaces, nontheless double-clicking or other selection methods are expected to identify word boundaries. There are 2 alternative approaches for managing this.

  1. An application uses a dictionary or smart algorithm to parse the text and determine word boundaries.
  2. The author uses U+200B ZERO WIDTH SPACE between words when creating the content.

Phrase & section boundaries

၊␣။␣?
phrase

U+0020 SPACE

[U+104A MYANMAR SIGN LITTLE SECTION]

sentence

[U+104B MYANMAR SIGN SECTION]

? [U+003F QUESTION MARK]

 

Observation: The question mark can be seen in Wikipedia, eg. ၵူႈၵေႃႉ ၶဝ်ႈႁဵတ်းသၢင်ႈၼႂ်း wiki ႁင်းၶေႃ ၸွင်ႇလႆႈ?

Observation: Wikipedia also very rarely uses a comma in Shan text (maybe only once on a page). A comma was also seen in the middle of embedded Latin text. It's not clear whether this is typical usage.

Parentheses & brackets

(␣)
  start end
standard

( [U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS]

) [U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS]

Quotations

tbd

Emphasis

tbd

Abbreviation, ellipsis & repetition

tbd

Observation: [U+A9E6 MYANMAR MODIFIER LETTER SHAN REDUPLICATION] appears to produce repetitive sounds. Here are some examples of usage.

ၵႃႈၵွၼ်ႇတွၼ်းဢွၼ် တႃႇတေပဵၼ်မႃး ပပ်ႉသႅၼ်သမ်ႇ ဢၼ်ဝႃႈၼၼ်ႉ ၽူႈလူင်ႉလႅၼ်ႇၶဝ်၊ ၸဝ်ႈၶူးမေႃၶဝ် လႆႈပၼ် ၶၢဝ်းယၢမ်းတင်းၼမ် တႅမ်ႈမၢႆသေ ႁဵတ်းပဵၼ်ပပ်ႉယဝ်ႉ။ ၵႃႈၶၼ်ပပ်ႉသႅၼ်သမ်ႇ ၼိုင်ႈထဝ်ႇၼၼ်ႉၵေႃႈ တေႃႈဢမ်ႇငၢႆႈ

Inline notes & annotations

tbd

Other inline ranges

tbd

Other punctuation

tbd

Line & paragraph layout

Line breaking & hyphenation

tbd

Show (default) line-breaking properties for characters in the Shan orthography.

Text alignment & justification

tbd

Letter spacing

tbd

Counters, lists, etc.

You can experiment with counter styles using the Counter styles converter. Patterns for using these styles in CSS can be found in Ready-made Counter Styles, and we use the names of those patterns here to refer to the various styles.

The Shan orthography uses numeric styles.

Numeric

The shan numeric style is decimal-based and uses these digits.rmcs

႐␣႑␣႒␣႓␣႔␣႕␣႖␣႗␣႘␣႙

Examples:

႑␣႒␣႓␣႔␣႑႑␣႒႒␣႓႓␣႔႔␣႑႑႑␣႒႒႒␣႓႓႓␣႔႔႔

Prefixes and suffixes

The most common approach to writing lists in Shan puts the counters in parentheses.

Examples:

(႑) (႒) (႓) (႔) (႕)
Separator for Shan list counters.

Page & book layout

This section is for any features that are specific to thisScript and that relate to the following topics: general page layout & progression; grids & tables; notes, footnotes, etc; forms & user interaction; page numbering, running headers, etc.

Languages using the Myanmar script

According to ScriptSource, the Myanmar script is used for the following languages:

Online resources

  1. Shan Wikipedia

References