Lao character notes

Updated Wed 15 Oct 2014 • tags lao, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in Unicode's Lao block and provides information about them. For information about Lao script and its features in general, see the companion document Lao Script Notes.

To view this page as intended, you need a Lao font. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

If you click on any red example text, you will see a list of the characters that make up the example appear at the bottom right of the page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase.

Index

Click on a character in the table to jump to its description. Only characters with a line below have descriptive notes attached (apart from any descriptions in the Unicode database).

 

Consonants
Consonants for Khmu
Vowels   ັ   ຳ   ິ   ີ   ຶ   ື   ຸ   ູ   ົ
Various signs   ຼ   ໌   ໍ
Repetition mark
Tone marks   ່   ້   ໊   ໋
Digraphs
Digits

Consonants

U+0E81 LAO LETTER KO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ko kay

Lao class 1 consonant, kɔː kaj

k

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29

U+0E82 LAO LETTER KHO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= kho khay

Lao class 2 consonant, kʰɔ̌ː

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p100

U+0E84 LAO LETTER KHO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= kho khuay

Lao class 3 consonant, kʰɔ́ː kʰwaːj

initially; k finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0E87 LAO LETTER NGO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ngo ngu, ngo ngua

Lao class 3 consonant, ŋɔ́ː ŋúa

ŋ

A preceding silent h ຫງ changes the default tone to high.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0E88 LAO LETTER CO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= co cok, co cua

Lao class 1 consonant, cɔ̀ː cɔ̀ːk

c initially; t finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29

U+0E8A LAO LETTER SO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= so sang

Lao class 3 consonant, sɔ́ː sâːŋ

s initially; t finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0E8D LAO LETTER NYO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nyo nyung

Lao class 3 consonant & vowel component, ɲɔ́ː ɲúŋ

ɲ initially; j finally.

A preceding silent h ຫຍ changes the default tone to high.

Used as a component in the following vowels:

ia ເ-ັຍະ and ເ-ັຍ

iːa ເ-ຍ and ເ-ັຍ

Used at the end of the following vowel sounds ending with j:

aːj -າຍ

əːj ເ-ີຍ

oːj ໂ-ຍ

ɔːj -ອຍ

uj -ຸຍ

uaj -ວຍ

ɯaj ເ-ືອຍ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems Daniels p461; [2] Lao for Beginners Simmala p123

U+0E94 LAO LETTER DO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= do dek

Lao class 1 consonant, dɔ̀ː dek

d initially; t finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29

U+0E95 LAO LETTER TO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= to ta

Lao class 1 consonant, tɔ̀ː taː

t

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29

U+0E96 LAO LETTER THO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tho thong

Lao class 2 consonant, tʰɔ̌ː tʰǒŋ

initially; t finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p100

U+0E97 LAO LETTER THO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tho thung

Lao class 3 consonant, tʰɔ́ː tʰúŋ

initially; t finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0E99 LAO LETTER NO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= no nok

Lao class 3 consonant, nɔ́ː nok

n

A preceding silent h ຫນ changes the default tone to high.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0E9A LAO LETTER BO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= bo be, bo bet

Lao class 1 consonant, bɔ̀ː bɛ̂ː

b initially; p finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29

U+0E9B LAO LETTER PO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= po pa

Lao class 1 consonant, pɔ̀ː pàː

p

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29

U+0E9C LAO LETTER PHO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pho pheng

Lao class 2 consonant, pʰɔ̌ː pʰəŋ

initially; p finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p100

U+0E9D LAO LETTER FO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER FO FON
= fo fa
• name is a mistake for fo sung

Lao class 2 consonant, fɔ̌ː fǒn

f initially; p finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p100

U+0E9E LAO LETTER PHO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pho phu

Lao class 3 consonant, pʰɔ́ː pʰúː

initially; p finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0E9F LAO LETTER FO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER FO FAY
• name is a mistake for fo tam

Lao class 3 consonant, fɔ́ː fáj

f initially; p finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0EA1 LAO LETTER MO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mo mew, mo ma

Lao class 3 consonant, mɔ́ː mɛ́ːw

m

A preceding silent h ຫມ changes the default tone to high.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0EA2 LAO LETTER YO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= yo ya

Lao class 1 consonant, jɔ̀ː jàː

j

A conjunct form related etymologically to the Thai อย.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29, 176

U+0EA3 LAO LETTER LO LING

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER RO
= ro rot
• name is a mistake, lo ling is the mnemonic for 0EA5

Lao class 3 consonant, ɔ́ː

l

Officially removed from the alphabet by the Ministry of Education, it is still used occasionally to transliterate Indic or other foreign words into Lao, eg. ຝຣ່ັງ [flaŋ] foreigner. It is generally used to represent a the letter 'r': the sound [r] no longer exists in Lao.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461-2; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p248

U+0EA5 LAO LETTER LO LOOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER LO
= lo ling
• name is a mistake, lo loot is the mnemonic for 0EA3

Lao class 3 consonant, lɔ́ː líŋ

l initially; n finally.

A preceding silent h ຫລ changes the default tone to high.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0EA7 LAO LETTER WO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= wo wi

Lao class 3 consonant, wɔ́ː wíː

w

A preceding silent h ຫວ changes the default tone to high.

Used as a component in the following vowels:

ua -ົວະ or -ົວ

ua -ັວ- or -ວ-

uaj -ວຍ

Used at the end of the following vowel sounds ending with w:

aːw -າວ

eːw ເ-ວ

ɛːw ແ-ວ

iw -ິວ

iaw -ຽວ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0EAA LAO LETTER SO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= so sya

Lao class 2 consonant, sɔ̌ː sɯ̌a

s initially; t finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p100

U+0EAB LAO LETTER HO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ho hay, ho han

Lao class 2 consonant, hɔ̌ː haːn

h

This is used (silently) before the following initial consonants to change their default tone value: ລມນງຍວ.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p100

U+0EAD LAO LETTER O

Description in the Unicode standard:

= o o

Lao class 3 consonant, ɔ̀ː òː

ʔ

Used to support vowels when there is no syllable initial consonant.

Also used as part of the following vowels:

oːj -ັອ-

ɔː -ອ

ɔːj -ອຍ

ɯa ເ-ຶອ

ɯaj ເ-ືອຍ

ɯːa ເ-ືອ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461-2; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p29

U+0EAE LAO LETTER HO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ho hya, ho hyan

Lao class 3 consonant, hɔ́ː hɯ́an

h initially; n finally.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

Consonants for Khmu

U+0EDE LAO LETTER KHMU GO

U+0EDF LAO LETTER KHMU NYO

Vowels

U+0EB0 LAO VOWEL SIGN A

Lao short vowel, ǎ

a

Also used as an indication of shortness in the following syllable-final short vowels:

e ເ-ະ

ɛ ແ-ະ

ia ເ-ັຍະ

o ໂ-ະ

ɔ ເ-າະ

ua -ົວະ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p461; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p123

U+0EB1 LAO VOWEL SIGN MAI KAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• vowel shortener

Lao short vowel, mâi-kan

a, used when the syllable has a final consonant.

Also used to produce the following vowels:

e ເ-ັ- (short)

ɛ ແ-ັ- (short)

ia ເ-ັຍ (short)

ia ເ-ັຍະ (short)

ia -ັຽ-

ɔ -ັອ-

ua -ັວ-

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p195

U+0EB2 LAO VOWEL SIGN AA

Lao long vowel, àː

Also used in the following vowels:

aw ເ-ົາ

aːj -າຍ

aːw ເ-ົາ or -າວ

ɔ ເ-າະ (short)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB3 LAO VOWEL SIGN AM

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 0ECD 0EB2

Lao long vowel, am

am

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p73

U+0EB4 LAO VOWEL SIGN I

Lao short vowel, ǐ

i

Also used in the following vowels:

iw -ິວ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52, 74

U+0EB5 LAO VOWEL SIGN II

Lao long vowel, ìː

Also used in the following vowels:

əː ເ-ີ (long)

əːj ເ-ີຍ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB6 LAO VOWEL SIGN Y

Lao short vowel, ɯ̌

ɯ

Also used in the following vowels:

ə ເ-ຶ (short)

ɯa ເ-ຶອ (short)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB7 LAO VOWEL SIGN YY

Lao long vowel, ɯ̀ː

ɯː

Also used in the following vowels:

ɯːa ເ-ືອ (short)

ɯaj ເ-ືອຍ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB8 LAO VOWEL SIGN U

Lao short vowel, ǔ

u

Also used in the following vowel:

ui -ຸຍ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB9 LAO VOWEL SIGN UU

Lao long vowel, ùː

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52

U+0EBB LAO VOWEL SIGN MAI KON

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai kong

Lao short vowel, mâi-koŋ

o, used when the syllable has a final consonant.

Also used to produce the following vowels:

aw ເ-ົາ

aːw ເ-ົາ

ua -ົວະ (short)

ua -ົວ (long)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p195

U+0EC0 LAO VOWEL SIGN E

Lao long vowel, èː

Also used in the following vowels:

aw ເ-ົາ

aːw ເ-ົາ

e ເ-ະ or ເ-ັ- (short)

eːw ເ-ວ

ə ເ-ຶ (short)

əː ເ-ີ (long)

əːj ເ-ີຍ

ia ເ-ັຍ or ເ-ັຍະ (short)

iːa ເ-ຍ or ເ-ັຍ or ເ-ຽ (long)

ɔ ເ-າະ (short)

ɯa ເ-ຶອ (short)

ɯa ເ-ືອຍ (short)

ɯːa ເ-ືອ (long)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EC1 LAO VOWEL SIGN EI

Lao long vowel, ɛ̀ː

ɛː

Also used in the following vowels:

ɛːw ແ-ວ eg. ແລ້ວ lɛ̀ːw (to finish).

ɛw ແ-ວ eg. ແຂ້ວ kʰɛ̀w (tooth).

ɛ ແ-ະ or ແ-ັ- (short)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52

U+0EC2 LAO VOWEL SIGN O

Lao long vowel, òː

Also used in the following vowels:

oːj ໂ-ຍ

o ໂ-ະ (short)

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52

U+0EC3 LAO VOWEL SIGN AY

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai muan

Lao long vowel, máj-múan

aj

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p73

U+0EC4 LAO VOWEL SIGN AI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai may

Lao long vowel, máj-má-lai

aj

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p73

Various signs

U+0EAF LAO ELLIPSIS

Lao symbol

Used to indicate ellipsis or abbreviation.

U+0EBC LAO SEMIVOWEL SIGN LO

Lao class 2 consonant

l

Represents the consonant lɔ́ː líŋ when following a silent h (ie. ຫຼ). This sequence changes the consonant class of lɔ́ː líŋ to 2.

The sequence can also be written ຫລ.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p176

U+0EBD LAO SEMIVOWEL SIGN NYO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nyo fyang

Lao vowel

Originally an alternate form of non-initial ɲɔ́ː ɲúŋ , this character is now used for diphthongs.

It appears in the following vowels:

ia -ັຽ-

ia ເ-ຽ

ia -ຽ-

iaw -ຽວ

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p73-74

U+0ECC LAO CANCELLATION MARK

U+0ECD LAO NIGGAHITA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• final nasal or long o vowel

Lao long vowel, ɔ̀ː

ɔː

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462-464; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p52

Repetition mark

U+0EC6 LAO KO LA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• repetition

Lao symbol, kʰɯaŋ-mǎːj-sâm ເຄ່ຶອງໝາຍຊ້ຳ

Indicates repetition of preceding sound.

Also used in ໆລໆ kʰɯaŋ-mǎːj-lɛ-ɯːn-ɯːn (ເຄ່ຶອງໝາຍ ແລະອ່ຶນໆ), with a meaning similar to etc.

Tone marks

U+0EC8 LAO TONE MAI EK

Lao tone mark, mai eːk ໄນ້ເອກ

Used with any consonant class. Produces a mid tone.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p464-465; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

U+0EC9 LAO TONE MAI THO

Lao tone mark, mai toː ໄນ້ໂທ

Used with any consonant class. Produces a high falling tone with class 1 and 3 consonants, but low falling with class 2.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p464-465; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

U+0ECA LAO TONE MAI TI

Lao tone mark, mai tiː ໄນ້ຕີ

Used with any class 1 consonants. Produces a high falling tone.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p464-465; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

U+0ECB LAO TONE MAI CATAWA

Lao tone mark, mai cat-ta-waː ໄນ້ຈັດຕະວາ

Used with any class 1 consonants. Produces a low rising tone.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p464-465; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

Digraphs

U+0EDC LAO HO NO

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 0EAB 0E99

Lao class 2 consonant

n

A ligature representing a silent h followed by the consonant nɔ́ː nok. This sequence changes the consonant class of nɔ́ː nok to 2.

The sequence can also be written ຫນ.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p176

U+0EDD LAO HO MO

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 0EAB 0EA1

Lao class 2 consonant

m

A ligature representing a silent h followed by the consonant mɔ́ː mɛ́ːw. This sequence changes the consonant class of mɔ́ː mɛ́ːw to 2.

The sequence can also be written ຫມ.

Notes. Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems [Daniels] p462; [2] Lao for Beginners [Simmala] p176

Digits

U+0ED0 LAO DIGIT ZERO

Lao digit, sǔːn ສູນ

U+0ED1 LAO DIGIT ONE

Lao digit, nɯŋ ໜ່ຶງ

U+0ED2 LAO DIGIT TWO

Lao digit, sɔ̌ːŋ ສອງ

U+0ED3 LAO DIGIT THREE

Lao digit, sǎːm ລາມ

U+0ED4 LAO DIGIT FOUR

Lao digit, siː ລ່ີ

U+0ED5 LAO DIGIT FIVE

Lao digit, hàː ຫ້າ

U+0ED6 LAO DIGIT SIX

Lao digit, hǒk ຫົກ

U+0ED7 LAO DIGIT SEVEN

Lao digit, cět ເຈັດ

U+0ED8 LAO DIGIT EIGHT

Lao digit, pɛ̀ːt ແປດ

U+0ED9 LAO DIGIT NINE

Lao digit, kâw ເກ້ົາ

First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2016-03-11 10:11 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.