Lao character notes

Updated Wed 15 Oct 2014 • tags lao, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the following Unicode block and provides information about them. It is not authoritative, peer-reviewed information – these are just notes I have gathered or copied from various places.

For information about the Lao script and its features in general, see the companion document Lao Script Notes.

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Consonants

U+0E81 LAO LETTER KO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ko kay

Lao class 1 consonant, kɔː kaj

k

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p29

U+0E82 LAO LETTER KHO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= kho khay

Lao class 2 consonant, kʰɔ̌ː

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p100

U+0E84 LAO LETTER KHO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= kho khuay

Lao class 3 consonant, kʰɔ́ː kʰwaːj

initially; k finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0E87 LAO LETTER NGO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ngo ngu, ngo ngua

Lao class 3 consonant, ŋɔ́ː ŋúa

ŋ

A preceding silent h ຫງ changes the default tone to high.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0E88 LAO LETTER CO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= co cok, co cua

Lao class 1 consonant, cɔ̀ː cɔ̀ːk

c initially; t finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p29

U+0E8A LAO LETTER SO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= so sang

Lao class 3 consonant, sɔ́ː sâːŋ

s initially; t finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0E8D LAO LETTER NYO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nyo nyung

Lao class 3 consonant & vowel component, ɲɔ́ː ɲúŋ

ɲ initially; j finally.

A preceding silent h ຫຍ changes the default tone to high.

Used as a component in the following vowels:

ia ເ-ັຍະ and ເ-ັຍ

iːa ເ-ຍ and ເ-ັຍ

Used at the end of the following vowel sounds ending with j:

aːj -າຍ

əːj ເ-ີຍ

oːj ໂ-ຍ

ɔːj -ອຍ

uj -ຸຍ

uaj -ວຍ

ɯaj ເ-ືອຍ

Refs: [1] The World's Writing Systems Daniels p461 [2] Lao for Beginners Simmala p123

U+0E94 LAO LETTER DO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= do dek

Lao class 1 consonant, dɔ̀ː dek

d initially; t finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p29

U+0E95 LAO LETTER TO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= to ta

Lao class 1 consonant, tɔ̀ː taː

t

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p29

U+0E96 LAO LETTER THO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tho thong

Lao class 2 consonant, tʰɔ̌ː tʰǒŋ

initially; t finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p100

U+0E97 LAO LETTER THO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= tho thung

Lao class 3 consonant, tʰɔ́ː tʰúŋ

initially; t finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0E99 LAO LETTER NO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= no nok

Lao class 3 consonant, nɔ́ː nok

n

A preceding silent h ຫນ changes the default tone to high.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0E9A LAO LETTER BO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= bo be, bo bet

Lao class 1 consonant, bɔ̀ː bɛ̂ː

b initially; p finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p29

U+0E9B LAO LETTER PO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= po pa

Lao class 1 consonant, pɔ̀ː pàː

p

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p29

U+0E9C LAO LETTER PHO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pho pheng

Lao class 2 consonant, pʰɔ̌ː pʰəŋ

initially; p finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p100

U+0E9D LAO LETTER FO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER FO FON
= fo fa
• name is a mistake for fo sung

Lao class 2 consonant, fɔ̌ː fǒn

f initially; p finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p100

U+0E9E LAO LETTER PHO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= pho phu

Lao class 3 consonant, pʰɔ́ː pʰúː

initially; p finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0E9F LAO LETTER FO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER FO FAY
• name is a mistake for fo tam

Lao class 3 consonant, fɔ́ː fáj

f initially; p finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0EA1 LAO LETTER MO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mo mew, mo ma

Lao class 3 consonant, mɔ́ː mɛ́ːw

m

A preceding silent h ຫມ changes the default tone to high.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0EA2 LAO LETTER YO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= yo ya

Lao class 1 consonant, jɔ̀ː jàː

j

A conjunct form related etymologically to the Thai อย.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462 [2] [Simmala] p29, 176

U+0EA3 LAO LETTER LO LING

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER RO
= ro rot
• name is a mistake, lo ling is the mnemonic for 0EA5

Lao class 3 consonant, ɔ́ː

l

Officially removed from the alphabet by the Ministry of Education, it is still used occasionally to transliterate Indic or other foreign words into Lao, eg. ຝຣັ່ງ [flaŋ] foreigner. It is generally used to represent a the letter 'r': the sound [r] no longer exists in Lao.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461-2 [2] [Simmala] p248

U+0EA5 LAO LETTER LO LOOT

Description in the Unicode standard:

% LAO LETTER LO
= lo ling
• name is a mistake, lo loot is the mnemonic for 0EA3

Lao class 3 consonant, lɔ́ː líŋ

l initially; n finally.

A preceding silent h ຫລ changes the default tone to high.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0EA7 LAO LETTER WO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= wo wi

Lao class 3 consonant, wɔ́ː wíː

w

A preceding silent h ຫວ changes the default tone to high.

Used as a component in the following vowels:

ua -ົວະ or -ົວ

ua -ັວ- or -ວ-

uaj -ວຍ

Used at the end of the following vowel sounds ending with w:

aːw -າວ

eːw ເ-ວ

ɛːw ແ-ວ

iw -ິວ

iaw -ຽວ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0EAA LAO LETTER SO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= so sya

Lao class 2 consonant, sɔ̌ː sɯ̌a

s initially; t finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p100

U+0EAB LAO LETTER HO SUNG

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ho hay, ho han

Lao class 2 consonant, hɔ̌ː haːn

h

This is used (silently) before the following initial consonants to change their default tone value: ລມນງຍວ.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p100

U+0EAD LAO LETTER O

Description in the Unicode standard:

= o o

Lao class 3 consonant, ɔ̀ː òː

ʔ

Used to support vowels when there is no syllable initial consonant.

Also used as part of the following vowels:

oːj -ັອ-

ɔː -ອ

ɔːj -ອຍ

ɯa ເ-ຶອ

ɯaj ເ-ືອຍ

ɯːa ເ-ືອ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461-2 [2] [Simmala] p29

U+0EAE LAO LETTER HO TAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ho hya, ho hyan

Lao class 3 consonant, hɔ́ː hɯ́an

h initially; n finally.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

Consonants for Khmu

U+0EDE LAO LETTER KHMU GO

U+0EDF LAO LETTER KHMU NYO

Vowels

U+0EB0 LAO VOWEL SIGN A

Lao short vowel, ǎ

a

Also used as an indication of shortness in the following syllable-final short vowels:

e ເ-ະ

ɛ ແ-ະ

ia ເ-ັຍະ

o ໂ-ະ

ɔ ເ-າະ

ua -ົວະ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p461 [2] [Simmala] p123

U+0EB1 LAO VOWEL SIGN MAI KAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• vowel shortener

Lao short vowel, mâi-kan

a, used when the syllable has a final consonant.

Also used to produce the following vowels:

e ເ-ັ- (short)

ɛ ແ-ັ- (short)

ia ເ-ັຍ (short)

ia ເ-ັຍະ (short)

ia -ັຽ-

ɔ -ັອ-

ua -ັວ-

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p195

U+0EB2 LAO VOWEL SIGN AA

Lao long vowel, àː

Also used in the following vowels:

aw ເ-ົາ

aːj -າຍ

aːw ເ-ົາ or -າວ

ɔ ເ-າະ (short)

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB3 LAO VOWEL SIGN AM

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 0ECD 0EB2

Lao long vowel, am

am

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p73

U+0EB4 LAO VOWEL SIGN I

Lao short vowel, ǐ

i

Also used in the following vowels:

iw -ິວ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52, 74

U+0EB5 LAO VOWEL SIGN II

Lao long vowel, ìː

Also used in the following vowels:

əː ເ-ີ (long)

əːj ເ-ີຍ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB6 LAO VOWEL SIGN Y

Lao short vowel, ɯ̌

ɯ

Also used in the following vowels:

ə ເ-ຶ (short)

ɯa ເ-ຶອ (short)

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB7 LAO VOWEL SIGN YY

Lao long vowel, ɯ̀ː

ɯː

Also used in the following vowels:

ɯːa ເ-ືອ (short)

ɯaj ເ-ືອຍ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB8 LAO VOWEL SIGN U

Lao short vowel, ǔ

u

Also used in the following vowel:

ui -ຸຍ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EB9 LAO VOWEL SIGN UU

Lao long vowel, ùː

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52

U+0EBB LAO VOWEL SIGN MAI KON

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai kong

Lao short vowel, mâi-koŋ

o, used when the syllable has a final consonant.

Also used to produce the following vowels:

aw ເ-ົາ

aːw ເ-ົາ

ua -ົວະ (short)

ua -ົວ (long)

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p195

U+0EC0 LAO VOWEL SIGN E

Lao long vowel, èː

Also used in the following vowels:

aw ເ-ົາ

aːw ເ-ົາ

e ເ-ະ or ເ-ັ- (short)

eːw ເ-ວ

ə ເ-ຶ (short)

əː ເ-ີ (long)

əːj ເ-ີຍ

ia ເ-ັຍ or ເ-ັຍະ (short)

iːa ເ-ຍ or ເ-ັຍ or ເ-ຽ (long)

ɔ ເ-າະ (short)

ɯa ເ-ຶອ (short)

ɯa ເ-ືອຍ (short)

ɯːa ເ-ືອ (long)

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52, 73-74

U+0EC1 LAO VOWEL SIGN EI

Lao long vowel, ɛ̀ː

ɛː

Also used in the following vowels:

ɛːw ແ-ວ eg. ແລ້ວ lɛ̀ːw (to finish).

ɛw ແ-ວ eg. ແຂ້ວ kʰɛ̀w (tooth).

ɛ ແ-ະ or ແ-ັ- (short)

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52

U+0EC2 LAO VOWEL SIGN O

Lao long vowel, òː

Also used in the following vowels:

oːj ໂ-ຍ

o ໂ-ະ (short)

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52

U+0EC3 LAO VOWEL SIGN AY

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai muan

Lao long vowel, máj-múan

aj

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p73

U+0EC4 LAO VOWEL SIGN AI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai may

Lao long vowel, máj-má-lai

aj

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p73

Various signs

U+0EAF LAO ELLIPSIS

Lao symbol

Used to indicate ellipsis or abbreviation.

U+0EBC LAO SEMIVOWEL SIGN LO

Lao class 2 consonant

l

Represents the consonant lɔ́ː líŋ when following a silent h (ie. ຫຼ). This sequence changes the consonant class of lɔ́ː líŋ to 2.

The sequence can also be written ຫລ.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462 [2] [Simmala] p176

U+0EBD LAO SEMIVOWEL SIGN NYO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nyo fyang

Lao vowel

Originally an alternate form of non-initial ɲɔ́ː ɲúŋ , this character is now used for diphthongs.

It appears in the following vowels:

ia -ັຽ-

ia ເ-ຽ

ia -ຽ-

iaw -ຽວ

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462 [2] [Simmala] p73-74

U+0ECC LAO CANCELLATION MARK

U+0ECD LAO NIGGAHITA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• final nasal or long o vowel

Lao long vowel, ɔ̀ː

ɔː

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462-464 [2] [Simmala] p52

Repetition mark

U+0EC6 LAO KO LA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• repetition

Lao symbol, kʰɯaŋ-mǎːj-sâm ເຄ່ຶອງໝາຍຊ້ຳ

Indicates repetition of preceding sound.

Also used in ໆລໆ kʰɯaŋ-mǎːj-lɛ-ɯːn-ɯːn (ເຄຶ່ອງໝາຍ ແລະອຶ່ນໆ), with a meaning similar to etc.

Tone marks

U+0EC8 LAO TONE MAI EK

Lao tone mark, mai eːk ໄນ້ເອກ

Used with any consonant class. Produces a mid tone.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p464-465 [2] [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

U+0EC9 LAO TONE MAI THO

Lao tone mark, mai toː ໄນ້ໂທ

Used with any consonant class. Produces a high falling tone with class 1 and 3 consonants, but low falling with class 2.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p464-465 [2] [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

U+0ECA LAO TONE MAI TI

Lao tone mark, mai tiː ໄນ້ຕີ

Used with any class 1 consonants. Produces a high falling tone.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p464-465 [2] [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

U+0ECB LAO TONE MAI CATAWA

Lao tone mark, mai cat-ta-waː ໄນ້ຈັດຕະວາ

Used with any class 1 consonants. Produces a low rising tone.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p464-465 [2] [Simmala] p13,28, 35, 36, 121, 161

Digraphs

U+0EDC LAO HO NO

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 0EAB 0E99

Lao class 2 consonant

n

A ligature representing a silent h followed by the consonant nɔ́ː nok. This sequence changes the consonant class of nɔ́ː nok to 2.

The sequence can also be written ຫນ.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462 [2] [Simmala] p176

U+0EDD LAO HO MO

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 0EAB 0EA1

Lao class 2 consonant

m

A ligature representing a silent h followed by the consonant mɔ́ː mɛ́ːw. This sequence changes the consonant class of mɔ́ː mɛ́ːw to 2.

The sequence can also be written ຫມ.

Refs: [1] [Daniels] p462 [2] [Simmala] p176

Digits

U+0ED0 LAO DIGIT ZERO

Lao digit, sǔːn ສູນ

U+0ED1 LAO DIGIT ONE

Lao digit, nɯŋ ໜ່ຶງ

U+0ED2 LAO DIGIT TWO

Lao digit, sɔ̌ːŋ ສອງ

U+0ED3 LAO DIGIT THREE

Lao digit, sǎːm ລາມ

U+0ED4 LAO DIGIT FOUR

Lao digit, siː ລ່ີ

U+0ED5 LAO DIGIT FIVE

Lao digit, hàː ຫ້າ

U+0ED6 LAO DIGIT SIX

Lao digit, hǒk ຫົກ

U+0ED7 LAO DIGIT SEVEN

Lao digit, cět ເຈັດ

U+0ED8 LAO DIGIT EIGHT

Lao digit, pɛ̀ːt ແປດ

U+0ED9 LAO DIGIT NINE

Lao digit, kâw ເກ້ົາ

Expanded references

  1. [Daniels] Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0
  2. [Simmala] Buasawan Simmala, Benjawan Poomsan Becker, Lao for Beginners, Paiboon Publishing, ISBN 1-887521-28-34
First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2017-07-20 8:15 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.