Thai character notes

Updated Sun 21 Dec 2014 • tags thai, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in Unicode's Thai block and provides information about them. For information about Thai script and its features in general, see the companion document Thai Script Notes.

To view this page as intended, you need a Thai font. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

If you click on any red example text, you will see a list of the characters that make up the example appear at the bottom right of the page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase.

Index

Click on a character in the table to jump to its description. Only characters with a line below have descriptive notes attached (apart from any descriptions in the Unicode database).

 

Consonants
Vowels   ั   ำ   ิ   ี   ึ   ื   ุ   ู   ฺ   ็
Signs   ์   ํ   ๎
Vowel length sign
Repetition mark
Tone marks   ่   ้   ๊   ๋
Currency symbol ฿
Digits

Consonants

U+0E01 THAI CHARACTER KO KAI

k in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

k, eg. ไก่ kàj chicken, หก hòk six.

U+0E02 THAI CHARACTER KHO KHAI

k̄h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

as initial, eg. ขวด kʰùːat bottle.

k when syllable final, eg. บรมสุข bɔra-másùk great happiness.

U+0E03 THAI CHARACTER KHO KHUAT

ḳ̄h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

, eg. ฃวด kʰùːat bottle.

Obsolete, now replaced by U+0E02 THAI CHARACTER KHO KHAI , eg. ขวด kʰùːat bottle.

U+0E04 THAI CHARACTER KHO KHWAI

kh in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

as initial, eg. ควาย kʰuaːj buffalo.

k when syllable final, eg. พรรค pʰak group

U+0E05 THAI CHARACTER KHO KHON

k̛h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, k when syllable final, eg. ฅน kʰon person.

Obsolete, now replaced with U+0E04 THAI CHARACTER KHO KHWAI , eg. คน kʰon person.

U+0E06 THAI CHARACTER KHO RAKHANG

ḳh in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, eg. ระฆัง rá-kʰaŋ temple bell.

k when syllable final, eg. เมฆ mêːk cloud.

Occurs mainly in old words.

U+0E07 THAI CHARACTER NGO NGU

ng in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

ŋ, eg. งู ŋuː snake, ลิง liŋ monkey.

U+0E08 THAI CHARACTER CHO CHAN

c in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

ʨ, eg. จาน tɕaːn plate.

t when syllable final, eg. ดุจ dùt like.

U+0E09 THAI CHARACTER CHO CHING

c̄h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

ʨʰ, eg. ฉิ่ง tɕʰìŋ small cymbal. Never occurs in final position.

U+0E0A THAI CHARACTER CHO CHANG

ch in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

ʨʰ, eg. ช้าง tɕʰáːŋ elephant.

t when syllable final, eg. ประโยชน์ prà-jòːt to be useful.

U+0E0B THAI CHARACTER SO SO

s in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

s, eg. โซ่ sôː chain for animals. Never occurs in syllable final position.

U+0E0C THAI CHARACTER CHO CHOE

c̣h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

ʨʰ, eg. เฌอ tɕʰɤː small bush. Only occurs in a few words.

t when syllable final.

U+0E0D THAI CHARACTER YO YING

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

j, eg. หญิง jǐŋ woman.

n when syllable final, eg. บังเอิญ baŋ-ɤːn accidentally. Rarely occurs in final position.

U+0E0E THAI CHARACTER DO CHADA

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

d, eg. ชฎา tɕʰádaː classical dance hat.

t when syllable final, eg. กฎ kòt rule. Nearly obsolete in final position.

U+0E0F THAI CHARACTER TO PATAK

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

t, eg. ประฏัก pràtàk harpoon, ปรากฏ praːkòt to seem, appear. Rare in initial position.

U+0E10 THAI CHARACTER THO THAN

ṭ̄h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

, eg. ฐาน tʰǎːn base. Rare in initial position.

t when syllable final, eg. ประเสริฐ pràsɤ̀ːt precious, esteemed.

U+0E11 THAI CHARACTER THO NANGMONTHO

ṯh in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, eg. มณโฑ mon-tʰoː Montho the Queen. Mainly syllable final.

t when syllable final, eg. ครุฑ kʰrút garuda, mythical bird.

U+0E12 THAI CHARACTER THO PHUTHAO

t̛h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, eg. ผู้เฒ่า pʰûː-tʰâw old man.

t when syllable final.

Nearly obsolete.

U+0E13 THAI CHARACTER NO NEN

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

n eg. เณร neːn young monk, คุณ kʰun title before given name. Mainly syllable final.

U+0E14 THAI CHARACTER DO DEK

d in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

, eg. เด็ก dèk child.

t when syllable final, eg. ตลาด tà-làːt marketplace.

U+0E15 THAI CHARACTER TO TAO

t in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

t eg. เต่า tàw turtle, ชีวิต tɕʰiː-wít life, age.

U+0E16 THAI CHARACTER THO THUNG

t̄h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

, eg. ถุง tʰǔŋ bag.

t when syllable final, eg. รถ rót vehicle.

U+0E17 THAI CHARACTER THO THAHAN

th in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, eg. ทหาร tʰá-hǎːn soldier.

t when syllable final, eg. บาท bàːt baht.

U+0E18 THAI CHARACTER THO THONG

ṭh in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, eg. ธง tʰoŋ flag.

t when syllable final, eg. โกรธ kròːt to be angry.

U+0E19 THAI CHARACTER NO NU

n in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

n eg. หนู nǔː mouse, อ้วน ûːan to be fat. Rare as initial.

U+0E1A THAI CHARACTER BO BAIMAI

b in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

b, eg. ใบไม้ bajmáj leaf.

p when syllable final, eg. ดิบ dìp raw, unripe.

U+0E1B THAI CHARACTER PO PLA

p in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

p eg. ปลา plaː fish, ทวีป tʰá-wîːp continent.

U+0E1C THAI CHARACTER PHO PHUNG

p̄h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

eg. ผึ้ง pʰɯ̂ŋ bee. Never occurs in final position.

U+0E1D THAI CHARACTER FO FA

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

f eg. ฝา fǎː lid. Never occurs in final position.

U+0E1E THAI CHARACTER PHO PHAN

ph in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, eg. พาน pʰaːn tray.

p when syllable final, eg. กรุงเทพฯ kruŋ-tʰêːp Bangkok.

U+0E1F THAI CHARACTER FO FAN

f in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

f, eg. ฟัน fan tooth.

p when syllable final. Occurs in final position only in a few loanwords borrowed from English, eg. ออฟฟิต òp-fít office.

U+0E20 THAI CHARACTER PHO SAMPHAO

p̣h in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

, eg. สำเภา sǎmpʰaw chinese junk.

p when syllable final, eg. ลาภ lâːp fortune.

U+0E21 THAI CHARACTER MO MA

m in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - ? class

m eg. ม้า máː horse, ยิ้ม jím smile.

U+0E22 THAI CHARACTER YO YAK

y in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant/vowel - low class

j eg. ยักษ์ ják giant.

When non-initial, treated as part of one of the following vowels:

aj –ัย (rare), eg. ภัย pʰaj danger, ไ–ย

aːj –าย, eg. ขาย kʰǎːj to sell.

ɤːj เ–ย, eg. เลย lɤːj further

ia เ–ียะ

iːa เ–ีย, eg. เมีย miːa wife.

iaw เ–ียว, eg. เขียว kʰǐaw green.

ɔːj –อย, eg. ลอย lɔːj to float.

oːj โ–ย (rare), eg. โบย boːj to whip.

ɯaj เ–ือย, eg. เรื่อย rɯ̂aj continuously (only found in about 20 common words)

uj –ุย, eg. คุย kʰuj to chat.

uːj –ูย

uaj –วย, eg. สวย sǔaj pretty girl.

uaːj –วาย, eg. ควาย kʰuaːj buffalo.

U+0E23 THAI CHARACTER RO RUA

r in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant/vowel - low class

r eg. เรือ rɯːa boat.

n when it appears immediately after the initial consonant with no intervening vowel sign, eg. นคร nákʰᴐːn city.

In a few words, when it comes directly after the syllable initial, it is silent, eg. ทราบ sâːp to know, เศร้า sâw to be sad or จริง ʨiŋ truth. Note that in these cases the vowel sign or tone mark falls over the ร.

a when doubled medially, eg. ธรรม tʰam justice.

an when doubled at the end of a syllable, eg. กรรไกร kankraj scissors. Note, however, that this may also constitute the end and beginning of two syllables, eg. ภรรยา pʰanrájaː wife.

U+0E24 THAI CHARACTER RU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• independent vowel letter used to write Sanskrit

v in ISO 11940-1

Thai vocalic r - ? class

ri, rɯ, rɤː, pronunciation varies according to the word in which it is used. Not often used in Thai. Eg. อังกฤษ aŋkrìt English, ฤตู rɯ́tuː season, ฤกษ์ rɤ̂ːk auspicious time.

rɯː when lengthened with U+0E45 THAI CHARACTER LAKKHANGYAO , eg. ฤๅษี rɯː-siː hermit. This combination is very rare.

Originates from Sanskrit.

U+0E25 THAI CHARACTER LO LING

l in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

l, eg. ลิง liŋ monkey.

n when syllable final, eg. ตำบล tambon district.

U+0E26 THAI CHARACTER LU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• independent vowel letter used to write Sanskrit

ł in ISO 11940-1

Thai vocalic l - ? class

Practically obsolete in Thai. Independent vowel letter used to write Sanskrit vocalic la (ฦๅ indicates lengthening).

U+0E27 THAI CHARACTER WO WAEN

w in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant/vowel - low class

w eg. แหวน wɛ̌ːn ring.

When non-initial, treated as part of one of the following vowels:

aːw –าว (Note that aw เ–า doesn't use this character.)

ew เ–็ว

eːw เ–ว

ɛːw แ–ว

iw –ิว, eg. คอมพิวเตอร์ kʰompʰiwtɤː computer

iaw เ–ียว

ua –ัวะ

uːa –ว–, –ัว, eg. จั่วโมง tɕuːa-moːŋ hour. When followed by a consonant the vowel –ัว drops the diacritic character, eg. ตัว tuːa but สวน sǔːan.

uaj –วย

uaːj –วาย, eg. ควาย kʰuaːj buffalo.

(Do these exist? –วา uaː)

U+0E28 THAI CHARACTER SO SALA

ṣ̄ in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

s, eg. ศาลา sǎːlaː pavilion.

t when syllable final, eg. อากาศ aːkàːt air.

There are 3 high class s characters. This is the most commonly used for Thai words – U+0E29 THAI CHARACTER SO RUSI and U+0E2A THAI CHARACTER SO SUA are more common in words of foreign origin.

U+0E29 THAI CHARACTER SO RUSI

s̛̄ in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

s, eg. ฤษี rɯ́sǐː hermit. Only occurs as initial in a few words.

t when syllable final, eg. พิษ pʰít poison.

There are 3 high class s characters. U+0E28 THAI CHARACTER SO SALA is the most commonly used for Thai words – this character and U+0E2A THAI CHARACTER SO SUA are more common in words of foreign origin.

U+0E2A THAI CHARACTER SO SUA

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

s, eg. เสือ sɯ̌ːa tiger. Only occurs as initial in a few words.

t when syllable final, eg. โอกาส oːkàːt opportunity.

There are 3 high class s characters. U+0E28 THAI CHARACTER SO SALA is the most commonly used for Thai words – this character and U+0E29 THAI CHARACTER SO RUSI are more common in words of foreign origin.

U+0E2B THAI CHARACTER HO HIP

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - high class

h, eg. หีบ hìːp trunk, box. Never appears in final position.

Also used as a tone modifier, called ห นำ hɔ̌ nam. Before the following 8 consonants at the start of a syllable it is silent, but forces the following consonant to behave as if it were high class: หง, หญ, หน, หม, หย, หร, หล, หว. Examples: หยุด jùt to stop, หมา mǎː dog, หนี้ nîː debt.

(An important exeption is ไหม máj which in normal speech is pronounced with a high tone rather than the rising tone the text would indicate.)

U+0E2C THAI CHARACTER LO CHULA

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

l, eg. จุฬา tɕùlaː a kind of kite.

n when syllable final, eg. ลคุฬ lákʰun walking stick.

Now almost obsolete in Thai.

U+0E2D THAI CHARACTER O ANG

x in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - mid class

Silent support for vowels at the beginning of a syllable, eg. อ่าง àːŋ bucket.

When non-initial, treated as part of one of the following vowels:

ɔː –อ

ɔːj –อย, eg. ลอย lɔːj to float.

ɯː –ือ, eg. คือ kɯː (used because U+0E37 THAI CHARACTER SARA UEE cannot stand alone at the end of a syllable).

ɤ เ–อะ (rare), เกอะ kɤ́ awkward.

ɤː เ–อ (rare), eg. เฌอ tɕʰɤː small bush.

ɯa เ–ือะ

ɯːa เ–ือ, eg. เรือ rɯːa boat.

ɯaj เ–ือย, eg. เรื่อย rɯ̂aj continually

(What about –อ– ɔ and –็อ– ɔ ?)

Before 4 words it is used in syllable initial position as a modifier (not pronounced) to change the tone of U+0E22 THAI CHARACTER YO YAK to low. The words are: อยู่ jùː to live, be, อย่า jàː do not, อย่าง jàːŋ kind, อยาก yàːk to want.

U+0E2E THAI CHARACTER HO NOKHUK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= ho nok huk

in ISO 11940-1

Thai consonant - low class

h, eg. นกฮูก nókhûːk owl. Never appears in final position. Only occurs in a few words in initial position.

Vowels

U+0E30 THAI CHARACTER SARA A

a in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

a –ะ, eg. จะ tɕà will

ɤ เ–อะ (rare), eg. เถอะ tʰɤ̀ mild imperative, เกอะ kɤ́ awkward.

ɔ เ–าะ (rare), eg. เพราะ pʰrɔ́ because, เกาะ kɔ̀ island

e เ–ะ, eg. เตะ te to kick, เกะกะ kèkà disorderly

o โ–ะ (rare), eg. โต๊ะ table

ɛ แ–ะ, eg. แยกแยะ jɛ̂ːkjɛ́ to elucidate

ia เ–ียะ

ua –ัวะ

ɯa เ–ือะ

For most vowels, this symbol acts as a shortener.

In writing Sanskrit, this is the visarga.

U+0E31 THAI CHARACTER MAI HAN-AKAT

in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

a –ั–, eg. ฟัน fan tooth.

ua –ัวะ

uːa –ัว, eg. จั่วโมง tɕùːamoːŋ hour. (When followed by a consonant the vowel –ัว drops this character, eg. ตัว tuːa but สวน sǔːan.)

aj –ัย (rare), eg. ภัย pʰaj danger.

aw เ–ัว

U+0E32 THAI CHARACTER SARA AA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (thai character lakkhangyao - 0E45)

ā in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

–า, eg. บาท bàːt baht.

aw เ–า, eg. เต่า tàw turtle.

aːw –าว, eg. ยาว jaːw long.

aːj –าย, eg. ขาย kʰǎːj to sell.

uaːj –วาย, eg. ควาย kʰuaːj buffalo.

ɔ เ–าะ (rare), eg. เกาะ kɔ̀ island

U+0E33 THAI CHARACTER SARA AM

Description in the Unicode standard:

≈ 0E4D 0E32

å in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

am, considered to be a simple vowel, eg. ตำบล tambon district.

This character interacts typographically with the preceding consonant, but is not classed as a combining character. The character must be kerned so that the small circle appears over the top right shoulder of the preceding consonant, and although the order should be consonant+tonemark+am, the tone mark should still appear above the circle, eg.น้ำส้มคั้น námsômkʰán.

U+0E34 THAI CHARACTER SARA I

i in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

i –ิ, eg. ลิง liŋ monkey.

ɤː เ–ิ– (rare), eg. บังเอิญ baŋɤːn accidentally.

iw –ิว, eg. คอมพิวเตอร์ kʰompʰiwtɤː computer.

U+0E35 THAI CHARACTER SARA II

ī in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

iː –ี, eg. หีบ hiːp trunk, box.

ia เ–ียะ

iːa เ–ีย, eg. เมีย miːa wife.

iaw เ–ียว, eg. เขียว kʰǐaw green.

U+0E36 THAI CHARACTER SARA UE

in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

ɯ, eg. ผึ้ง pʰɯ̂ŋ bee.

U+0E37 THAI CHARACTER SARA UEE

Description in the Unicode standard:

= sara uue

ụ̄ in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

ɯː –ื–, eg. คืน kɯːn

ɯː –ือ, eg. คือ kɯː.

ɯa เ–ือะ

ɯːa เ–ือ, eg. เสือ sɯ̌ːa tiger, เรือ rɯːa boat.

ɯaj เ–ือย, eg. เรื่อย rɯ̂aj continually ( only found in about 20 common words).

U+0E38 THAI CHARACTER SARA U

u in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

u –ุ, eg. ถุง tʰǔŋ bag.

uj –ุย (rare), eg. คุย kʰuj to chat.

U+0E39 THAI CHARACTER SARA UU

ū in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

–ู, eg. งู ŋuː snake.

uːj –ูย (rare)

U+0E3A THAI CHARACTER PHINTHU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• Pali virama

Pali or Sanskrit virama. Used to indicate that the inherent vowel is suppressed.

Not used in Thai.

U+0E40 THAI CHARACTER SARA E

e in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

e เ–ะ, เ–็–, eg. เกะกะ kèkà disorderly, เด็ก dek child.

เ–, eg. เมฆ mêːk cloud.

ew เ–็ว, eg. เร็ว rew fast.

eːw เ–ว, eg. เลว leːw worthless.

ɤ เ–อะ (rare), เกอะ kɤ́ awkward.

ɤː เ–อ, เ–ิ– (rare), eg. เฌอ tɕʰɤː small bush.

ɤːj เ–ย, eg. เลย lɤːj further.

aw เ–า, eg. เต่า taw turtle.

ia เ–ียะ

iːa เ–ีย, eg. เมีย miːa wife.

iaw เ–ียว, eg. เขียว kʰǐaw green.

ɔ เ–าะ (rare), eg. เกาะ kɔ̀ island

ɯa เ–ือะ

ɯːa เ–ือ, eg. เรือ rɯːa boat.

ɯaj เ–ือย, eg. เรื่อย rɯ̂aj continually (only found in about 20 common words in Thai)

U+0E41 THAI CHARACTER SARA AE

æ in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

ɛ แ–ะ, แ–็– (not very common), eg. แยกแยะ jɛ̂ːkjɛ́ to elucidate.

ɛː แ–, eg. แยกแยะ jɛ̂ːkjɛ́ to elucidate.

ɛːw แ–ว, eg. แมว mɛːw cat.

U+0E42 THAI CHARACTER SARA O

o in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

o โ–ะ, eg. โต๊ะ table

โ–, eg. โซ่ soː chain for animals.

oːj โ–ย, eg. โบย boːj to whip.

Found only in 20 words and their compounds.

U+0E43 THAI CHARACTER SARA AI MAIMUAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

= sara ai mai muan

ı in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

aj ใ–, eg. ใบ baj leaf.

Found only in 20 words and their compounds.

U+0E44 THAI CHARACTER SARA AI MAIMALAI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= sara ai mai malai

in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign

Used for the following vowels:

aj ไ–, ไ–ย, eg. ไก่ kaj chicken

U+0E47 THAI CHARACTER MAITAIKHU

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai taikhu

–̆ in ISO 11940-1

Thai vowel sign shortener

Converts vowels produced by the following three vowel signs to short vowels when they occur in medial position:

ɔ –็อ– (ɔː > ɔ)

e เ–็– ( > e), eg. เด็ก dèk child.

oːj แ–็– æː > æ (not very common)

Also used for:

ew เ–็ว (eːw > ew), eg. เร็ว rew fast.

Also one word consists of consonant + short symbol: ก็ .

Signs

U+0E2F THAI CHARACTER PAIYANNOI

Description in the Unicode standard:

= paiyan noi
• ellipsis, abbreviation

ǀ or ǂ in ISO 11940-1

Thai abbreviation symbol or phrase terminator, พยาลน้อย pʰájaːnnɔ́ːj or ไปยาลเล็ก pajjaːnlék

Abbreviation symbol, used to indicate elision or abbreviation of letters from long words or phrases.

This is very frequently used and is viewed as a letter. Examples, กรุงเทพฯ kruŋtʰeːp Bankgkok, which is short for กรุงเทพมหานคร kruŋtʰêːpmáhǎːnákʰᴐːn; พณฯ ท่าน pʰon tʰâːn Your Excellency, which is short for พณหัวเจ้าท่าน pʰonhuːatɕawtʰaːn.

The sequence ฯลฯ (ไปยาลใหญ่ pajjaːnjài) means 'etc.' and is used at the end of a list to indicate that it is not all-inclusive.

Leave a space after this character.

U+0E4C THAI CHARACTER THANTHAKHAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• cancellation mark

–̒ in ISO 11940-1

Thai cancellation mark, การันต์ kaːran or ไม้ทัณฑฆาต májtʰantʰákʰâːt

Used above a syllable when it is not pronounced (usually at the end of a syllable), eg. รถเมล์ rotmeː bus, ศักดิ์สิทธิ์ saksitʰ to be sacred.

It is often used for foreign loan words, eg. คอมพิวเตอร์ kʰompʰiwtɤː computer, โปสการ์ด poːskaːt postcard, สแตมป์ satɛːm stamp, แฮมเบอร์เกอร์ hɛːmbɤːkɤː hamburger.

Since the sign can silence a whole syllable, sometimes other characters immediately preceding the one with the sign are not pronounced either, eg. ศาสตร์ saːt field of knowledge, กษัตริย์ kàsàt king, วันจันทร์ wantɕan Monday.

Note that there are several other instances where consonants and/or vowels are not pronounced, but where this symbol is not used.

U+0E4D THAI CHARACTER NIKHAHIT

Description in the Unicode standard:

= nikkhahit
• final nasal

–̊ in ISO 11940-1

Final nasal. Used in Pali or Sanskrit as nigghahita or anusvara, respectively.

Not commonly used in Thai, except that when letter spacing Thai text it is necessary to add the space between the circle and the remainder of U+0E33 THAI CHARACTER SARA AM  ำ. To do this, the application may split U+0E33 into this character and U+0E32 THAI CHARACTER SARA AA  า.

U+0E4E THAI CHARACTER YAMAKKAN

~ in ISO 11940-1

According to 4, Yamakkan is an ancient punctuation mark used to mark clusters, such as in พ๎ราห๎มณ pʰraːmǒn. One of the functions of U+0E3A THAI CHARACTER PHINTHU is the same.

U+0E4F THAI CHARACTER FONGMAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used as a bullet
→ (khmer sign phnaek muan - 17D9)

§ in ISO 11940-1

Thai

Used as a bullet to introduce a list item, or to mark the beginnings of verses or paragraphs.

U+0E5A THAI CHARACTER ANGKHANKHU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used to mark end of long sections
• used in combination with 0E30 to mark end of a verse

ǁ in ISO 11940-1

Thai

Used to mark the end of long sections, or with U+0E30 THAI CHARACTER SARA A  ะ, ie. ๚ะ, to mark the end of a verse.

U+0E5B THAI CHARACTER KHOMUT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used to mark end of chapter or document
→ (khmer sign koomuut - 17DA)

» in ISO 11940-1

Thai

Used to mark end of a chapter or document. It is always used following U+0E5A THAI CHARACTER ANGKHANKHU  ๚ and U+0E30 THAI CHARACTER SARA A  ะ, ie. ๚ะ๛.

Vowel length sign

U+0E45 THAI CHARACTER LAKKHANGYAO

Description in the Unicode standard:

= lakkhang yao
• special vowel length indication used with 0E24 or 0E26
→ (thai character sara aa - 0E32)

ɨ in ISO 11940-1

Thai

Used in Sanskrit with U+0E24 THAI CHARACTER RU  ฤ and U+0E26 THAI CHARACTER LU  ฦ when writing vocalic ra and vocalic la to indicate their lengthening.

Repetition mark

U+0E46 THAI CHARACTER MAIYAMOK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= mai yamok
• repetition

« in ISO 11940-1, ไม้ยมก májjàmòk

Thai repetition symbol

Shows that the previous word or group of words was repeated, eg. จริงๆ tɕiŋ-tɕiŋ really, ทุกวันๆ tʰùkwan-tʰùkwan everyday.

Leave a space before and after.

Tone marks

U+0E48 THAI CHARACTER MAI EK

–̀ in ISO 11940-1

Thai tone mark, ไม้เอก májèːk

Used to change the usual tone of a syllable. Due to historic linguistic changes this mark represents two tones.

Where a syllable's tone would normally be set by a low class initial consonant (ค ฅ ฆ ง ช ซ ฌ ญ ฑ ฒ ณ ท ธ น ฝ พ ภ ม ย ร ล ว ฬ ฮ) to mid or high, the mark changes the tone to falling, eg. ง่าย ŋâːj easy. It is never used on syllables with a long vowel ending in -k, -p or -t, since the tone is already falling.

Where a syllable's tone would normally be set by a mid (ก จ ฎ ฏ ด ต บ ป อ) class consonant to a mid tone, or a high (ข ฃ ฉ ฐ ถ ผ ฝ ศ ษ ส ห) class consonant to a rising tone, this mark changes the the tone to low, eg. ไก่ kàj chicken, ไข่ kʰàj egg. It is never used with dead syllables (ie. syllables ending in a short vowel or with -p, -t, or -k) for these consonants, since the tone is already falling.

Tone marks are positioned above the right side of the initial consonant of the syllable they mark, however when a syllable initial consists of two consonants the tone mark is placed over the second, even though the resulting tone is governed by the first. Tone marks are placed above all other marks.

The following example shows a combination of tone changes, first to high using , then to low using the tone mark, หนึ่ง nɯ̀ŋ.

U+0E49 THAI CHARACTER MAI THO

–̂ in ISO 11940-1, ไม้โท májtʰoː

Thai tone mark

Used to change the usual tone of a syllable. Due to historic linguistic changes this mark represents two tones.

Where a syllable's tone would normally be set by a low class initial consonant (ค ฅ ฆ ง ช ซ ฌ ญ ฑ ฒ ณ ท ธ น ฝ พ ภ ม ย ร ล ว ฬ ฮ) to mid or falling, this mark changes the tone to high, eg. จ้าง tɕáːŋ elephant. It is never used on syllables ending with a short vowel, or ending with -k, -t or -p after a short vowel, since the tone is already high.

Where a syllable's tone would normally be set by a mid (ก จ ฎ ฏ ด ต บ ป อ) class consonant (to a mid or low tone), or a high (ข ฃ ฉ ฐ ถ ผ ฝ ศ ษ ส ห) class consonant (to a rising or low tone), this mark changes the the tone to falling, eg. เต้น têːn to dance, ผึ้ง pʰɯ̂ŋ bee.

Tone marks are positioned above the right side of the initial consonant of the syllable they mark, however when a syllable initial consists of two consonants the tone mark is placed over the second, even though the resulting tone is governed by the first. Tone marks are placed above all other marks.

U+0E4A THAI CHARACTER MAI TRI

–̂ in ISO 11940-1, ไม้ตรี májtriː

Thai tone mark

Where a syllable's tone would normally be set by a mid (ก จ ฎ ฏ ด ต บ ป อ) class consonant (to a mid or low tone), this mark changes the the tone to high, eg. ตุ๊กๆ túktúk tricycle taxi. This mark is only used to modify mid class consonants.

Used much less frequently than U+0E48 THAI CHARACTER MAI EK  ่ and U+0E49 THAI CHARACTER MAI THO  ้, and typically found in onomatopoeia, particles and recent loan words.

Tone marks are positioned above the right side of the initial consonant of the syllable they mark, however when a syllable initial consists of two consonants the tone mark is placed over the second, even though the resulting tone is governed by the first. Tone marks are placed above all other marks.

Resembles U+0E57 THAI DIGIT SEVEN  ๗.

U+0E4B THAI CHARACTER MAI CHATTAWA

–̌ in ISO 11940-1

Thai tone mark, ไม้จัตวา májtɕàttàwaː

Where a syllable's tone would normally be set by a mid (ก จ ฎ ฏ ด ต บ ป อ) class consonant (to a mid or low tone), this mark changes the the tone to rising, eg. ก๊วยเตี๋ยว kuájtiǎw noodles.This mark is only used to modify mid class consonants.

Used much less frequently than U+0E48 THAI CHARACTER MAI EK  ่ and U+0E49 THAI CHARACTER MAI THO  ้, and typically found in onomatopoeia, particles and recent loan words.

Tone marks are positioned above the right side of the initial consonant of the syllable they mark, however when a syllable initial consists of two consonants the tone mark is placed over the second, even though the resulting tone is governed by the first. Tone marks are placed above all other marks.

Currency symbol

฿

U+0E3F THAI CURRENCY SYMBOL BAHT

Digits

U+0E50 THAI DIGIT ZERO

U+0E51 THAI DIGIT ONE

U+0E52 THAI DIGIT TWO

U+0E53 THAI DIGIT THREE

U+0E54 THAI DIGIT FOUR

U+0E55 THAI DIGIT FIVE

U+0E56 THAI DIGIT SIX

U+0E57 THAI DIGIT SEVEN

U+0E58 THAI DIGIT EIGHT

U+0E59 THAI DIGIT NINE

First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2016-03-11 10:35 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.