Mongolian character notes

Updated Wed 22 Feb 2015 • tags mongolian, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in the Unicode Mongolian block and provides information about them. For information about Mongolian script and its features in general, see the resources listed in the Further reading. These are my draft notes. The information is not complete, and may not be correct.

To view this page as intended, you need a Mongolian font. I have been using the free Mongolian White and Mongolian Writing fonts. On Windows, there is also Mongolian Baiti. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.

Unfortunately, browser support for Mongolian is still rather fragile. Fonts typically behave differently from each other with regards to implementing the necessary OpenType rules for Mongolian contextual forms, and don't always do what you'd expect. (In particular, not all of the variant forms are produced by a given font.) Vertical text support is still occasionally problematic (Chrome is perhaps the best browser to use for this page.) Since the examples and tables in this page are not graphics, they may not always reflect what is intended, and are perhaps better treated as small tests, rather than canonical representations.

I found that some fonts didn't interact correctly with the zero width joiner on Safari and Chrome, so I had to resort to using nirugu characters instead.

If you click on any red example text, you will see a list of the characters that make up the example appear at the bottom right of the page.

I find it very useful to have both the Mongolian White and Mongolian Writing fonts on my system, since it enables me to switch the examples and tables between the printed and written versions (using the selectors at the bottom right of the page.)

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase. Alternatively, click on a character in the following table.

Variant forms. Many of the characters have variant forms. The number and standard character sequences to create these variants have not yet been completely standardised. Work is going on to resolve this. Where a character has variant forms, you will see a link to another document; that document summarises the latest information I have about intended variation sequences and their support in fonts.

Shape tables. Inside the Mongolian letter descriptions there are also syllable tables, showing what the letter looks like when combined with a vowel. Only the red text is an expected combination for Mongolian – the grey examples are there to simply show what your font does when an unexpected combination appears.

Index

Click on a character in the table to jump to its description. Only characters with a line below have descriptive notes attached (apart from any descriptions in the Unicode database).

 

Punctuation
Format controls ᠋ ᠌ ᠍ ᠎
Digits
Basic vowels
Basic consonants
Todo letters
Sibe letters
Manchu letters
Extensions for Sanskrit and Tibetan   ᢩ

Format controls

᠋

U+180B MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR ONE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• abbreviated FVS1
᠌

U+180C MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR TWO

Description in the Unicode standard:

• abbreviated FVS2
᠍

U+180D MONGOLIAN FREE VARIATION SELECTOR THREE

Description in the Unicode standard:

• abbreviated FVS3
᠎

U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR

Description in the Unicode standard:

• abbreviated MVS

Mongolian vowel separator (MVS)

Used where a final U+1820 MONGOLIAN LETTER A or U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E vowel is separated from the rest of a word. Unlike characters following U+202F NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE, the A or E following a word is not a suffix, but an integral part of the word. Whether a final A or E is joined or separated is a purely lexical decision, and not an instance of varying orthography. MVS always requires the forward tail form of the following A or E letter. The preceding letter form varies according to the letter, and in some cases whether this is traditional or modern orthography. Examples:

Without MVS: ᠬᠠᠨᠠ qana outer casing of a vein

With MVS: ᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ qana wall of a tent

Refs: Unicode

Not used for Todo, Manchu or Sibe.

Basic vowels

U+1820 MONGOLIAN LETTER A

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter a - 0430)
~ 1820 180B second form (isolate)
~ 1820 180B second form (medial)
~ 1820 180B second form (final)
~ 1820 180C third form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian masculine vowel a, cyrillic а

a

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠠᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠠᠢ ai sometimes pronounced æ or e
  • ᠊ᠠᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠠᠤ

Shapes:

Pattern 1 is used after these letters: n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w. The default joining forms are used, except that is used after MVS.

Pattern 2 is used after these letters: b, p, ts, dz, h. The medial form is a ligature, and the final form points to the left.

vc cvc cv c+mvs+v
1 ᠠᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠠᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠠ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠠ
2 ᠠᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠠᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠠ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠠ

The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E except in initial position (where this character has an additional stroke). The glyphs and are also visually identical to syllable final glyphs for U+1828 MONGOLIAN LETTER NA , and are distinguished only by context. (Of course, the actual characters used should remove any ambiguity for non-visual uses.)

For example, ᠰᠠᠮ sam sam comb and ᠰᠡᠮ səm sem quietly look the same, but if you click on the red text you will see that the characters make it clear which is which.

It is not clear to me when the following forms are used: (isolated), (medial), and (medial).

Refs: Unicode

U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter e - 044D)
~ 1821 180B second form (initial)
~ 1821 180B second form (final)

See variant forms.

Mongolian feminine vowel e, cyrillic є

ə

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠡᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠢ əi
  • ᠊ᠡᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠦ əu

Shapes:

Pattern 1 is used after these letters: n, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w. The default joining forms are used, except that is used after MVS.

Pattern 2 is used after these letters: b, p, q, g, ts, dz, h. The medial form is a ligature, and the final form points to the left. Note that q and g are in this group, since this is a feminine vowel.

vc cvc cv c+mvs+v
1 ᠡᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠡᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠡ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠡ
2 ᠡᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠡᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠡ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠡ

The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of U+1820 MONGOLIAN LETTER A except in initial position (where this character has one stroke less). The glyphs and are also visually identical to syllable final glyphs for U+1828 MONGOLIAN LETTER NA , and are distinguished only by context. (Of course, the actual characters used should remove any ambiguity for non-visual uses.)

An alternate form which is only used for foreign words is encoded as U+1827 MONGOLIAN LETTER EE .

It is not clear to me when the following form is used: (initial).

U+1822 MONGOLIAN LETTER I

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter i - 0438)
~ 1822 180B second form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian neutral vowel i yi, cyrillic и й ы ь

i

Often absorbed into the preceding syllable at the end of a word in modern Mongolian.

Following a consonant, Latin transliteration of the default medial glyph is i. Following a vowel, Latin transliteration of the alternate medial glyph may be yi, with rare exceptions like naim (eight) or Naiman.

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠠᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠠᠢ ai
  • ᠊ᠡᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠢ əi
  • ᠊ᠢᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠢᠢ ii
  • ᠊ᠣᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠢ ɔi
  • ᠊ᠤᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠤᠢ ʊi
  • ᠊ᠥᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠢ oi
  • ᠊ᠦᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠦᠢ ui
  • ᠊ᠢᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠢᠦ iu

Shapes:

Note how a trailing i in a diphthong is represented using two strokes (see above), .

Pattern 1 is used after these letters: n, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w. The default joining forms are used.

Pattern 2 is used after these letters: b, p, q, g, ts, dz, h. The medial form is a ligature. and the final form is different. Note that q and g are in this group, since this is a neutral vowel.

vc cvc cv
1 ᠢᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠢᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠢ
2 ᠢᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠢᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠢ

U+1823 MONGOLIAN LETTER O

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter o - 043E)
~ 1823 180B second form (medial)
~ 1823 180B second form (final)

See variant forms.

Mongolian masculine vowel o, cyrillic о

ɔ

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠣᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠢ ɔi sometimes pronounced œ
  • ᠊ᠣᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠤ ɔʊ

Shapes:

These letters use pattern 1: n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w. The default joining forms are used.

These letters use pattern 2: b, p, ts, dz, h. The medial and final forms are ligatures.

vc cvc cv
1 ᠣᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠣᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠣ
2 ᠣᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠣᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠣ

The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of U+1824 MONGOLIAN LETTER U . Except in initial position, they are also visually identical to glyphs for U+1825 MONGOLIAN LETTER OE , and U+1826 MONGOLIAN LETTER UE . (Of course, the actual characters used should remove any ambiguity for non-visual uses.)

It is not clear to me when the following forms are used: (medial), and (final).

U+1824 MONGOLIAN LETTER U

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter u - 0443)
~ 1824 180B second form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian masculine vowel u, cyrillic у

ʊ

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠤᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠤᠢ ʊi
  • ᠊ᠣᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠣᠤ ɔʊ
  • ᠊ᠤᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠤᠤ ʊʊ

Shapes:

These letters use pattern 1: n, q, g, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w. The default joining forms are used.

These letters use pattern 2: b, p, ts, dz, h. The medial and final forms are ligatures.

vc cvc cv
1 ᠤᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠤᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠤ
2 ᠤᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠤᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠤ

The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of U+1823 MONGOLIAN LETTER O . Except in initial position, they are also visually identical to glyphs for U+1825 MONGOLIAN LETTER OE , and U+1826 MONGOLIAN LETTER UE . (Of course, the actual characters used should remove any ambiguity for non-visual uses.)

It is not clear to me when the following form is used: (medial).

U+1825 MONGOLIAN LETTER OE

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter barred o - 04E9)
~ 1825 180B second form (medial)
~ 1825 180B second form (final)
~ 1825 180C third form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian feminine vowel ö, cyrillic ө

o

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠥᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠢ oi
  • ᠊ᠥᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠦ ou

Shapes:

These letters use pattern 1: n, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w. The default joining forms are used.

These letters use pattern 2: b, p, q, g, ts, dz, h. The medial form is a ligature. Note that q and g are in this group, since this is a feminine vowel.

vc cvc cv
1 ᠥᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠥᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠥ
2 ᠥᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠥᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠥ

The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of U+1826 MONGOLIAN LETTER UE . Except in initial position, they are also visually identical to glyphs for U+1823 MONGOLIAN LETTER O , and U+1824 MONGOLIAN LETTER U . (Of course, the actual characters used should remove any ambiguity for non-visual uses.)

It is not clear to me when the following forms are used: (medial), (medial), and (final).

U+1826 MONGOLIAN LETTER UE

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter straight u - 04AF)
~ 1826 180B second form (isolate)
~ 1826 180B second form (medial)
~ 1826 180B second form (final)
~ 1826 180C third form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian feminine vowel ü, cyrillic ү

u

This letter is used alongside other vowels in the following sequences:

  • ᠊ᠦᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠦᠢ ui
  • ᠊ᠡᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠡᠦ əu
  • ᠊ᠢᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠢᠦ iu
  • ᠊ᠥᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠥᠦ ou
  • ᠊ᠦᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠦᠦ uu

Shapes:

These letters use pattern 1: n, m, l , s, sh, t, d, ch, j, y, r, w. The default joining forms are used.

These letters use pattern 2: b, p, q, g, ts, dz, h. The medial form is a ligature. Note that q and g are in this group, since this is a feminine vowel.

vc cvc cv
1 ᠦᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠦᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠦ
2 ᠦᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠦᠪ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠦ

The glyphs for this character are visually identical to those of U+1825 MONGOLIAN LETTER OE . Except in initial position, they are also visually identical to glyphs for U+1823 MONGOLIAN LETTER O , and U+1824 MONGOLIAN LETTER U . (Of course, the actual characters used should remove any ambiguity for non-visual uses.)

It is not clear to me when the following forms are used: (isolated), (medial), (medial), and (final).

U+1827 MONGOLIAN LETTER EE

No variant forms.

Mongolian vowel e, cyrillic э

This is an alternate form of U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E which is used for foreign words.

vc cvc cv
1 ᠧᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠧᠲ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠧ

Basic consonants

U+1828 MONGOLIAN LETTER NA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter en - 043D)
~ 1828 180B second form (initial)
~ 1828 180B second form (medial)
~ 1828 180C third form (medial)
~ 1828 180D separate form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant n, cyrillic н

n

ŋ in syllable-final position.

a ᠨᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠠ ᠊ᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠨ᠊ ᠠᠨ
ə ᠨᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠡ ᠊ᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨ᠊ ᠡᠨ
i ᠨᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠢ ᠊ᠨ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠨ᠊ ᠢᠨ
ɔ ᠨᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠣ ᠊ᠨ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠨ᠊ ᠣᠨ
ʊ ᠨᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠤ ᠊ᠨ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠨ᠊ ᠤᠨ
o ᠨᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠥ ᠊ᠨ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠨ᠊ ᠥᠨ
u ᠨᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠨᠦ ᠊ᠨ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠨ᠊ ᠦᠨ

Shapes:

Visually, in syllable-final position, this letter is distinguished from from medial and final a/e only by its position in the syllable sequence.

is used in medial syllable-initial positions (medial syllable final uses the default, without the dot)

is used before U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR.

Both the above glyphs should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

The medial separate form appears to be used in Todo script, not in traditional Mongolian.

Font rendering notes: for Mongolian Baiti (MB), Mongolian White (MW), Noto Sans Mongolian (NSM). NSM uses dotted form as default and in medial syllable-final.

U+1829 MONGOLIAN LETTER ANG

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant ng, cyrillic н нг

ŋ

Only used at end of word (medial form used for composites).

Transcribes Tibetan U+0F44 TIBETAN LETTER NGA ; Sanskrit U+0919 DEVANAGARI LETTER NGA .

Shapes:

a ᠩᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠠ ᠊ᠩ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠩ᠊ ᠠᠩ
ə ᠩᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠡ ᠊ᠩ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠩ᠊ ᠡᠩ
i ᠩᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠢ ᠊ᠩ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠩ᠊ ᠢᠩ
ɔ ᠩᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠣ ᠊ᠩ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠩ᠊ ᠣᠩ
ʊ ᠩᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠤ ᠊ᠩ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠩ᠊ ᠤᠩ
o ᠩᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠥ ᠊ᠩ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠩ᠊ ᠥᠩ
u ᠩᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠩᠦ ᠊ᠩ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠩ᠊ ᠦᠩ

U+182A MONGOLIAN LETTER BA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter be - 0431)
~ 182A 180B alternative form (final)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant b, cyrillic б в

b

In classical Mongolian, v is used only for transcribing foreign words, so mostly в v in Cyrillic Mongolian corresponds to б b in Classical Mongolian.

Shapes:

a ᠪᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠠ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪ᠊ ᠠᠪ
ə ᠪᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠡ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠪ᠊ ᠡᠪ
i ᠪᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠢ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠪ᠊ ᠢᠪ
ɔ ᠪᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠣ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠪ᠊ ᠣᠪ
ʊ ᠪᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠤ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠪ᠊ ᠤᠪ
o ᠪᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠥ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠪ᠊ ᠥᠪ
u ᠪᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠪᠦ ᠊ᠪ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠪ᠊ ᠦᠪ

Forms ligatures with ɔ, ʊ, o, and u.

Not clear to me when is used for Mongolian.

U+182B MONGOLIAN LETTER PA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter pe - 043F)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant p, cyrillic п

p

One source says only used at the beginning of foreign words, but another indicates use in medial and final positions only.

Transcribes U+0F54 TIBETAN LETTER PA .

Shapes:

a ᠫᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠠ ᠊ᠫ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠫ᠊ ᠠᠫ
ə ᠫᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠡ ᠊ᠫ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠫ᠊ ᠡᠫ
i ᠫᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠢ ᠊ᠫ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠫ᠊ ᠢᠫ
ɔ ᠫᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠣ ᠊ᠫ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠫ᠊ ᠣᠫ
ʊ ᠫᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠤ ᠊ᠫ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠫ᠊ ᠤᠫ
o ᠫᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠥ ᠊ᠫ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠫ᠊ ᠥᠫ
u ᠫᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠫᠦ ᠊ᠫ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠫ᠊ ᠦᠫ

Forms ligatures with ɔ, ʊ, o, and u.

U+182C MONGOLIAN LETTER QA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ha - 0445)
~ 182C 180B second form (initial)
~ 182C 180B second form (medial)
~ 182C 180B feminine second form (isolate)
~ 182C 180C third form (medial)
~ 182C 180D fourth form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant q, cyrillic х

x, mostly used in masculine words, eg. ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ qaɣan kahn

Appears to be used only before a vowel.

Shapes:

a ᠬᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠠ ᠊ᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠬ᠊ ᠠᠬ
ə ᠬᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠡ ᠊ᠬ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠬ᠊ ᠡᠬ
i ᠬᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠢ ᠊ᠬ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠬ᠊ ᠢᠬ
ɔ ᠬᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠣ ᠊ᠬ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠬ᠊ ᠣᠬ
ʊ ᠬᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠤ ᠊ᠬ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠬ᠊ ᠤᠬ
o ᠬᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠥ ᠊ᠬ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠬ᠊ ᠥᠬ
u ᠬᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠬᠦ ᠊ᠬ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠬ᠊ ᠦᠬ

As a velar consonant, this character uses different visual shapes before masculine and feminine vowels

Before a feminine vowel it uses and is visually identical to U+182D MONGOLIAN LETTER GA . (Surprisingly, there is no fvs that produces that shape.) This shape forms ligatures with o, and u.

(The form before masculine vowels differs from U+182D MONGOLIAN LETTER GA by the absence of dots.)

The above glyph variants should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

It's not clear to me where the other non-default shapes are used, ie. , , , , and .

Font rendering notes: for Mongolian Baiti (MB), Mongolian White (MW), Noto Sans Mongolian (NSM).

NSM produces the feminine shape with fvs#1 in isolated, initial and medial forms. It produces the default medial form plus two dots with a medial fvs#2, and adds two dots to the medial form with fvs#3.

MW produces feminine forms for medial fvs#2 and fvs#3. It also produces a masculine form for isolated fvs#1, rather than a feminine form with two dots. MB produces all glyphs as expected.

U+182D MONGOLIAN LETTER GA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ghe - 0433)
~ 182D 180B second form (initial)
~ 182D 180B second form (medial)
~ 182D 180B feminine form (final)
~ 182D 180C third form (medial)
~ 182D 180D feminine form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant ɣ, cyrillic г

ɣ before masculine vowels, eg. ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ γaʤar place, ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ qaɣan kahn. However, unless reading classical literary Mongolian, when used between two vowels this sound is typically elided, leaving a long vowel. For example, ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ qaɣan kahn is pronounced as if it was written like qaan. Some exceptions exist, such as ᠼᠠᠭᠠᠨ tsaɣan white.

g before feminine vowels or non-vowels, eg. ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ eduge now , ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ʤɔrigtai to be brave, ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠭ beleg gift

k also before feminine vowels, eg. ᠭᠦᠮᠦᠨ kumun person

Shapes:

a ᠭᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠠ ᠊ᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠭ᠊ ᠠᠭ
ə ᠭᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠡ ᠊ᠭ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠭ᠊ ᠡᠭ
i ᠭᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠢ ᠊ᠭ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠭ᠊ ᠢᠭ
ɔ ᠭᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠣ ᠊ᠭ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠭ᠊ ᠣᠭ
ʊ ᠭᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠤ ᠊ᠭ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠭ᠊ ᠤᠭ
o ᠭᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠥ ᠊ᠭ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠭ᠊ ᠥᠭ
u ᠭᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠭᠦ ᠊ᠭ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠭ᠊ ᠦᠭ

As a velar consonant, this character uses different visual shapes before masculine and feminine vowels.

Before a feminine vowel it uses and is identical to U+182C MONGOLIAN LETTER QA . Before a masculine vowel it is distinguished by the two dots.

If it appears before another vowel or before no vowel, the shape should be determined by the vowel harmony category of the word. For example, it takes a default masculine form at the end of the masculine word ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠢᠭ jarlig order , but a feminine form at the end of ᠴᠢᠷᠢᠭ᠌ chirig soldier . (Hmm. to make this look right in the Mongolian White/Writing fonts I had to use FS2 – which is actually illegal in this position – whereas the font takes care of it in Mongolian Baiti and Noto Sans Mongolian.)

The medial form with two dots is used between vowels. The one with no dots is used when followed by a consonant.

The form is used before U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR.

The above glyph variants should be produced by the font, without the need for variant selectors.

As an example of a situation where a variant selector is needed, consider the word ᠭ᠋ᠠᠯ gal fire. The first variant selector is needed immediately after the first letter, g, to prevent the standard two dots appearing (ᠭᠠᠯ is incorrect).

Font rendering notes: for Mongolian Baiti (MB), Mongolian White (MW), Noto Sans Mongolian (NSM).

MW produces the rounded feminine shape in syllable-final medial positions, instead of the two line shape produced by MB and NSM. It also produces a masculine final shape in the table for ig. It also failed for the chirig example above.

NSM produces two dots for the syllable-final medial positions, unlike MB and MW. It also produces a masculine final shape in the table for ig. (It did, however, produce the right shape for the example of chirig above.)

MW produces a form without a rightwards tail for medial fvs#2, and produces the default final form plus two dots for fvs#1, rather than the feminine final form. (This is the shape it should have produced for medial fvs#2.)

NSM produces a form without dots for medial fvs#1, and a form with dots for the medial default in the forms table. It also swaps medial fvs#2 and medial fvs#3. It produces a masculine final form for fvs#1.

MB also produces a masculine final form with two dots for fvs#1.

U+182E MONGOLIAN LETTER MA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter em - 043C)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant m, cyrillic м

m

Shapes:

a ᠮᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠠ ᠊ᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮ᠊ ᠠᠮ
ə ᠮᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠡ ᠊ᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮ᠊ ᠡᠮ
i ᠮᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠢ ᠊ᠮ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠮ᠊ ᠢᠮ
ɔ ᠮᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠣ ᠊ᠮ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠮ᠊ ᠣᠮ
ʊ ᠮᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠤ ᠊ᠮ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠮ᠊ ᠤᠮ
o ᠮᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠥ ᠊ᠮ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠮ᠊ ᠥᠮ
u ᠮᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠮᠦ ᠊ᠮ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠮ᠊ ᠦᠮ

U+182F MONGOLIAN LETTER LA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter el - 043B)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant l, cyrillic л

l

Shapes:

a ᠯᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠠ ᠊ᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠯ᠊ ᠠᠯ
ə ᠯᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠡ ᠊ᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠯ᠊ ᠡᠯ
i ᠯᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠢ ᠊ᠯ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠯ᠊ ᠢᠯ
ɔ ᠯᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠣ ᠊ᠯ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠯ᠊ ᠣᠯ
ʊ ᠯᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠤ ᠊ᠯ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠯ᠊ ᠤᠯ
o ᠯᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠥ ᠊ᠯ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠯ᠊ ᠥᠯ
u ᠯᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠯᠦ ᠊ᠯ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠯ᠊ ᠦᠯ

U+1830 MONGOLIAN LETTER SA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter es - 0441)
~ 1830 180B second form (final)
~ 1830 180C third form (final)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant s, cyrillic с

s

Shapes:

a ᠰᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠠ ᠊ᠰ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠰ᠊ ᠠᠰ
ə ᠰᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠡ ᠊ᠰ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠰ᠊ ᠡᠰ
i ᠰᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠢ ᠊ᠰ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠰ᠊ ᠢᠰ
ɔ ᠰᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠣ ᠊ᠰ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠰ᠊ ᠣᠰ
ʊ ᠰᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠤ ᠊ᠰ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠰ᠊ ᠤᠰ
o ᠰᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠥ ᠊ᠰ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠰ᠊ ᠥᠰ
u ᠰᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠰᠦ ᠊ᠰ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠰ᠊ ᠦᠰ

It's not clear to me where the alternative shape is used.

The shape appears to be used in Manchu, but not traditional Mongolian.

U+1831 MONGOLIAN LETTER SHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter sha - 0448)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant š, cyrillic ш

ʃ

Shapes:

a ᠱᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠠ ᠊ᠱ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠱ᠊ ᠠᠱ
ə ᠱᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠡ ᠊ᠱ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠱ᠊ ᠡᠱ
i ᠱᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠢ ᠊ᠱ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠱ᠊ ᠢᠱ
ɔ ᠱᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠣ ᠊ᠱ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠱ᠊ ᠣᠱ
ʊ ᠱᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠤ ᠊ᠱ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠱ᠊ ᠤᠱ
o ᠱᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠥ ᠊ᠱ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠱ᠊ ᠥᠱ
u ᠱᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠱᠦ ᠊ᠱ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠱ᠊ ᠦᠱ

U+1832 MONGOLIAN LETTER TA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter te - 0442)
~ 1832 180B second form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant t, cyrillic т

t

Shapes:

a ᠲᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠠ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠲ᠊ ᠠᠲ
ə ᠲᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠡ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠲ᠊ ᠡᠲ
i ᠲᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠢ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠲ᠊ ᠢᠲ
ɔ ᠲᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠣ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠲ᠊ ᠣᠲ
ʊ ᠲᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠤ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠲ᠊ ᠤᠲ
o ᠲᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠥ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠲ᠊ ᠥᠲ
u ᠲᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠲᠦ ᠊ᠲ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠲ᠊ ᠦᠲ

This character is not used in syllable final position, but otherwise it is visually identical to U+1833 MONGOLIAN LETTER DA . Unicode, however, has separate characters for each.

It's not clear to me where the alternative shape is used.

U+1833 MONGOLIAN LETTER DA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter de - 0434)
~ 1833 180B second form (initial)
~ 1833 180B second form (medial)
~ 1833 180B second form (final)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant d, cyrillic д

d

Shapes:

a ᠳᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠠ ᠊ᠳ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠳ᠊ ᠠᠳ
ə ᠳᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠡ ᠊ᠳ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠳ᠊ ᠡᠳ
i ᠳᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠢ ᠊ᠳ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠳ᠊ ᠢᠳ
ɔ ᠳᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠣ ᠊ᠳ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠳ᠊ ᠣᠳ
ʊ ᠳᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠤ ᠊ᠳ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠳ᠊ ᠤᠳ
o ᠳᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠥ ᠊ᠳ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠳ᠊ ᠥᠳ
u ᠳᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠳᠦ ᠊ᠳ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠳ᠊ ᠦᠳ

This character is used in syllable final position, whereas U+1832 MONGOLIAN LETTER TA is not, but otherwise the two are visually identical. Unicode, however, has separate characters for each.

The medial form is used before a vowel. The default medial form is used at the end of a syllable.

It's not clear to me where the alternative shapes (initial), and (final) are used.

Font rendering notes: for Mongolian Baiti (MB), Mongolian White (MW), Noto Sans Mongolian (NSM).

NSM swaps the glyphs for the default and fvs#1 medial forms.

U+1834 MONGOLIAN LETTER CHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter che - 0447)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant č, cyrillic ч ц

ʧ

or ts, in Modern Mongolian owing to phonetic change in Khalka Mongolian.

This character is not used in syllable final position.

Shapes:

a ᠴᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠠ ᠊ᠴ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴ᠊ ᠠᠴ
ə ᠴᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠡ ᠊ᠴ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴ᠊ ᠡᠴ
i ᠴᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠢ ᠊ᠴ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠴ᠊ ᠢᠴ
ɔ ᠴᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠣ ᠊ᠴ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠴ᠊ ᠣᠴ
ʊ ᠴᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠤ ᠊ᠴ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠴ᠊ ᠤᠴ
o ᠴᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠥ ᠊ᠴ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠴ᠊ ᠥᠴ
u ᠴᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠴᠦ ᠊ᠴ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠴ᠊ ᠦᠴ

U+1835 MONGOLIAN LETTER JA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter zhe - 0436)
~ 1835 180B second form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant j, cyrillic ж з

ʤ

or dz, in modern Mongolian owing to phonetic change in Khalka Mongolian.

Not used in syllable final position.

Shapes:

a ᠵᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠠ ᠊ᠵ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠵ᠊ ᠠᠵ
ə ᠵᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠡ ᠊ᠵ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠵ᠊ ᠡᠵ
i ᠵᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠢ ᠊ᠵ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠵ᠊ ᠢᠵ
ɔ ᠵᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠣ ᠊ᠵ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠵ᠊ ᠣᠵ
ʊ ᠵᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠤ ᠊ᠵ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠵ᠊ ᠤᠵ
o ᠵᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠥ ᠊ᠵ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠵ᠊ ᠥᠵ
u ᠵᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠵᠦ ᠊ᠵ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠵ᠊ ᠦᠵ

It's not clear to me where the alternative shape is used.

Font rendering notes: for Mongolian Baiti (MB), Mongolian White (MW), Noto Sans Mongolian (NSM).

MW doesn't produce the correct medial fvs#1 form.

Refs: Bathrobe

U+1836 MONGOLIAN LETTER YA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter short i - 0439)
~ 1836 180B second form (initial)
~ 1836 180B second form (medial)
~ 1836 180C third form (medial)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant y, cyrillic -й, е*, ё*, ю*, я*

j

Not used in syllable final position, except before MVS.

Shapes:

a ᠶᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠠ ᠊ᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶ᠊ ᠠᠶ
ə ᠶᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠡ ᠊ᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠶ᠊ ᠡᠶ
i ᠶᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠢ ᠊ᠶ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠶ᠊ ᠢᠶ
ɔ ᠶᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠣ ᠊ᠶ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠶ᠊ ᠣᠶ
ʊ ᠶᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠤ ᠊ᠶ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠶ᠊ ᠤᠶ
o ᠶᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠥ ᠊ᠶ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠶ᠊ ᠥᠶ
u ᠶᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠶᠦ ᠊ᠶ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠊ ᠦᠶ

The initial form and the equivalent medial form (ie. no upturn to the left) are used by the Mongolian Baiti font (but not Mongolian White or Noto Sans Mongolian) when followed by the i vowel.

The form is used when this character is followed by U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR.

The medial fvs#1 image used in the Mongolian standardised variants charts looks identical to the default medial glyph. I suspect this is a bug. All fonts tested produce the form with no left upturn.

Font rendering notes: for Mongolian Baiti (MB), Mongolian White (MW), Noto Sans Mongolian (NSM).

See the note above about the forms followed by the vowel i. Only MB uses the straight form.

U+1837 MONGOLIAN LETTER RA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter er - 0440)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant r, cyrillic р

r, examples: ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ʤɔrigtai to be brave, ᠵᠣᠷᠲᠠᠢ ʤɔrtai lucky,ᠵᠣᠷ ʤɔr good fortune, luck

Not normally at the beginning of words. Transcribed foreign words usually get a vowel prepended. Example: Transcribing Русь (Russia) results in Oros.

Shapes:

a ᠷᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠠ ᠊ᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷ᠊ ᠠᠷ
ə ᠷᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠡ ᠊ᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷ᠊ ᠡᠷ
i ᠷᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠢ ᠊ᠷ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠷ᠊ ᠢᠷ
ɔ ᠷᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠣ ᠊ᠷ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠷ᠊ ᠣᠷ
ʊ ᠷᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠤ ᠊ᠷ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠷ᠊ ᠤᠷ
o ᠷᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠥ ᠊ᠷ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠷ᠊ ᠥᠷ
u ᠷᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠷᠦ ᠊ᠷ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠊ ᠦᠷ

U+1838 MONGOLIAN LETTER WA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ve - 0432)
~ 1838 180B second form (final)

See variant forms.

Mongolian consonant v, cyrillic в

v

Used to transcribe foreign words (Originally used to transcribe Sanskrit U+0935 DEVANAGARI LETTER VA ).

Not used in syllable final position, except before MVS.

Shapes:

a ᠸᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠠ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠸ᠊ ᠠᠸ
ə ᠸᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠡ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠸ᠊ ᠡᠸ
ə ᠸᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠧ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠧ ᠧᠸ᠊ ᠧᠸ
i ᠸᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠢ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠸ᠊ ᠢᠸ
ɔ ᠸᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠣ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠸ᠊ ᠣᠸ
ʊ ᠸᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠤ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠸ᠊ ᠤᠸ
o ᠸᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠥ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠸ᠊ ᠥᠸ
u ᠸᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠸᠦ ᠊ᠸ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠸ᠊ ᠦᠸ

The form is used before U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR.

Font rendering notes: for Mongolian Baiti (MB), Mongolian White (MW), Noto Sans Mongolian (NSM).

NSM uses the default final form rather than the alternative rounded one before MVS.

U+1839 MONGOLIAN LETTER FA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ef - 0444)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant f, cyrillic ф

f

Used to transcribe foreign words.

Not used in syllable final position.

Shapes:

a ᠹᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠠ ᠊ᠹ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠹ᠊ ᠠᠹ
ə ᠹᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠧ ᠊ᠹ᠎ᠧ ᠧᠹ᠊ ᠧᠹ
i ᠹᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠢ ᠊ᠹ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠹ᠊ ᠢᠹ
ɔ ᠹᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠣ ᠊ᠹ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠹ᠊ ᠣᠹ
ʊ ᠹᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠤ ᠊ᠹ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠹ᠊ ᠤᠹ
o ᠹᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠥ ᠊ᠹ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠹ᠊ ᠥᠹ
u ᠹᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠹᠦ ᠊ᠹ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠹ᠊ ᠦᠹ

Forms a ligature with ɔ, and u.

U+183A MONGOLIAN LETTER KA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ha - 0445)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant , cyrillic к

k

Not used in syllable final position.

Used to transcribe foreign words.

Shapes:

a ᠺᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠠ ᠊ᠺ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠺ᠊ ᠠᠺ
ə ᠺᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠧ ᠊ᠺ᠎ᠧ ᠧᠺ᠊ ᠧᠺ
i ᠺᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠢ ᠊ᠺ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠺ᠊ ᠢᠺ
ɔ ᠺᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠣ ᠊ᠺ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠺ᠊ ᠣᠺ
ʊ ᠺᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠤ ᠊ᠺ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠺ᠊ ᠤᠺ
o ᠺᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠥ ᠊ᠺ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠺ᠊ ᠥᠺ
u ᠺᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠺᠦ ᠊ᠺ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠺ᠊ ᠦᠺ

U+183B MONGOLIAN LETTER KHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ka - 043A)

No variant forms.

U+183C MONGOLIAN LETTER TSA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter tse - 0446)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant (c), cyrillic (ц)

ʦ

Used to transcribe foreign words. (Originally used to transcribe Tibetan /ts'/ ཚ; Sanskrit छ).

Not used in syllable final position.

Shapes:

a ᠼᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠠ ᠊ᠼ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠼ᠊ ᠠᠼ
ə ᠼᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠧ ᠊ᠼ᠎ᠧ ᠧᠼ᠊ ᠧᠼ
i ᠼᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠢ ᠊ᠼ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠼ᠊ ᠢᠼ
ɔ ᠼᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠣ ᠊ᠼ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠼ᠊ ᠣᠼ
ʊ ᠼᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠤ ᠊ᠼ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠼ᠊ ᠤᠼ
o ᠼᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠥ ᠊ᠼ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠼ᠊ ᠥᠼ
u ᠼᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠼᠦ ᠊ᠼ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠼ᠊ ᠦᠼ

U+183D MONGOLIAN LETTER ZA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ze - 0437)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant (z), cyrillic (з)

ʣ

Used to transcribe foreign words. (Originally used to transcribe Tibetan /dz/ ཛ; Sanskrit ज).

Not used in syllable final position.

Shapes:

a ᠽᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠠ ᠊ᠽ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠽ᠊ ᠠᠽ
ə ᠽᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠧ ᠊ᠽ᠎ᠧ ᠧᠽ᠊ ᠧᠽ
i ᠽᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠢ ᠊ᠽ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠽ᠊ ᠢᠽ
ɔ ᠽᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠣ ᠊ᠽ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠽ᠊ ᠣᠽ
ʊ ᠽᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠤ ᠊ᠽ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠽ᠊ ᠤᠽ
o ᠽᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠥ ᠊ᠽ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠽ᠊ ᠥᠽ
u ᠽᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠽᠦ ᠊ᠽ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠽ᠊ ᠦᠽ

U+183E MONGOLIAN LETTER HAA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter ha - 0445)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant (h), cyrillic (г, х)

x

Used to transcribe foreign words. (Originally used to transcribe Tibetan /h/ ཧ, ྷ; Sanskrit ह).

Not used in syllable final position.

Shapes:

a ᠾᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠠ ᠊ᠾ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠾ᠊ ᠠᠾ
ə ᠾᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠧ ᠊ᠾ᠎ᠧ ᠧᠾ᠊ ᠧᠾ
i ᠾᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠢ ᠊ᠾ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠾ᠊ ᠢᠾ
ɔ ᠾᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠣ ᠊ᠾ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠾ᠊ ᠣᠾ
ʊ ᠾᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠤ ᠊ᠾ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠾ᠊ ᠤᠾ
o ᠾᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠥ ᠊ᠾ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠾ᠊ ᠥᠾ
u ᠾᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠾᠦ ᠊ᠾ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠾ᠊ ᠦᠾ

U+183F MONGOLIAN LETTER ZRA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (cyrillic small letter zhe - 0436)

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant (ř), cyrillic (- -)

Transcribes Chinese ri - used in Inner Mongolia.

Shapes:

a ᠿᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠠ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠠ ᠊ᠿ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠿ᠊ ᠠᠿ
ə ᠿᠧ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠡ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠡ ᠊ᠿ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠿ᠊ ᠡᠿ
i ᠿᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠢ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠢ ᠊ᠿ᠎ᠢ ᠢᠿ᠊ ᠢᠿ
ɔ ᠿᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠣ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠣ ᠊ᠿ᠎ᠣ ᠣᠿ᠊ ᠣᠿ
ʊ ᠿᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠤ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠤ ᠊ᠿ᠎ᠤ ᠤᠿ᠊ ᠤᠿ
o ᠿᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠥ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠥ ᠊ᠿ᠎ᠥ ᠥᠿ᠊ ᠥᠿ
u ᠿᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠦ᠊ ᠊ᠿᠦ ᠊ᠿ᠎ᠦ ᠦᠿ᠊ ᠦᠿ

U+1840 MONGOLIAN LETTER LHA

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant

lx

Shapes:

a ᡀᠠ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠠ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠠ ᠊ᡀ᠎ᠠ ᠠᡀ᠊ ᠠᡀ
ə ᡀᠡ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠡ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠡ ᠊ᡀ᠎ᠡ ᠡᡀ᠊ ᠡᡀ
i ᡀᠢ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠢ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠢ ᠊ᡀ᠎ᠢ ᠢᡀ᠊ ᠢᡀ
ɔ ᡀᠣ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠣ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠣ ᠊ᡀ᠎ᠣ ᠣᡀ᠊ ᠣᡀ
ʊ ᡀᠤ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠤ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠤ ᠊ᡀ᠎ᠤ ᠤᡀ᠊ ᠤᡀ
o ᡀᠥ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠥ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠥ ᠊ᡀ᠎ᠥ ᠥᡀ᠊ ᠥᡀ
u ᡀᠦ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠦ᠊ ᠊ᡀᠦ ᠊ᡀ᠎ᠦ ᠦᡀ᠊ ᠦᡀ

U+1841 MONGOLIAN LETTER ZHI

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant (zh), cyrillic (- -)

Transcribes Chinese zhi - used in Inner Mongolia.

Shapes:

a ᡁᠠ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠠ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠠ ᠊ᡁ᠎ᠠ ᠠᡁ᠊ ᠠᡁ
ə ᡁᠧ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠡ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠡ ᠊ᡁ᠎ᠡ ᠡᡁ᠊ ᠡᡁ
i ᡁᠢ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠢ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠢ ᠊ᡁ᠎ᠢ ᠢᡁ᠊ ᠢᡁ
ɔ ᡁᠣ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠣ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠣ ᠊ᡁ᠎ᠣ ᠣᡁ᠊ ᠣᡁ
ʊ ᡁᠤ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠤ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠤ ᠊ᡁ᠎ᠤ ᠤᡁ᠊ ᠤᡁ
o ᡁᠥ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠥ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠥ ᠊ᡁ᠎ᠥ ᠥᡁ᠊ ᠥᡁ
u ᡁᠦ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠦ᠊ ᠊ᡁᠦ ᠊ᡁ᠎ᠦ ᠦᡁ᠊ ᠦᡁ

U+1842 MONGOLIAN LETTER CHI

No variant forms.

Mongolian consonant (chi), cyrillic (- -)

Transcribes Chinese chi - used in Inner Mongolia.

Shapes:

a ᡂᠠ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠠ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠠ ᠊ᡂ᠎ᠠ ᠠᡂ᠊ ᠠᡂ
ə ᡂᠧ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠡ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠡ ᠊ᡂ᠎ᠡ ᠡᡂ᠊ ᠡᡂ
i ᡂᠢ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠢ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠢ ᠊ᡂ᠎ᠢ ᠢᡂ᠊ ᠢᡂ
ɔ ᡂᠣ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠣ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠣ ᠊ᡂ᠎ᠣ ᠣᡂ᠊ ᠣᡂ
ʊ ᡂᠤ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠤ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠤ ᠊ᡂ᠎ᠤ ᠤᡂ᠊ ᠤᡂ
o ᡂᠥ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠥ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠥ ᠊ᡂ᠎ᠥ ᠥᡂ᠊ ᠥᡂ
u ᡂᠦ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠦ᠊ ᠊ᡂᠦ ᠊ᡂ᠎ᠦ ᠦᡂ᠊ ᠦᡂ

Todo letters

U+1843 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO LONG VOWEL SIGN

U+1844 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO E

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1844 180B second form (medial)

U+1845 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO I

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1845 180B second form (medial)

U+1846 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO O

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1846 180B second form (medial)

U+1847 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO U

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1847 180B second form (isolate)
~ 1847 180B second form (medial)
~ 1847 180B second form (final)
~ 1847 180C third form (medial)

U+1848 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO OE

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1848 180B second form (medial)

U+1849 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO UE

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1849 180B second form (isolate)
~ 1849 180B second form (medial)

U+184A MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO ANG

U+184B MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO BA

U+184C MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO PA

U+184D MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO QA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 184D 180B feminine form (initial)
~ 184D 180B feminine form (medial)

U+184E MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO GA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 184E 180B second form (medial)

U+184F MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO MA

U+1850 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO TA

U+1851 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO DA

U+1852 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO CHA

U+1853 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO JA

U+1854 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO TSA

U+1855 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO YA

U+1856 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO WA

U+1857 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO KA

U+1858 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO GAA

U+1859 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO HAA

U+185A MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO JIA

U+185B MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO NIA

U+185C MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO DZA

Sibe letters

U+185D MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE E

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 185D 180B second form (medial)
~ 185D 180B second form (final)

U+185E MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE I

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 185E 180B second form (medial)
~ 185E 180B second form (final)
~ 185E 180C third form (medial)
~ 185E 180C third form (final)

U+185F MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE IY

U+1860 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE UE

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1860 180B second form (medial)
~ 1860 180B second form (final)

U+1861 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE U

U+1862 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE ANG

U+1863 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE KA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1863 180B second form (medial)

U+1864 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE GA

U+1865 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE HA

U+1866 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE PA

U+1867 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE SHA

U+1868 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE TA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1868 180B second form (initial)
~ 1868 180B second form (medial)
~ 1868 180C third form (medial)

U+1869 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE DA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1869 180B second form (initial)
~ 1869 180B second form (medial)

U+186A MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE JA

U+186B MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE FA

U+186C MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE GAA

U+186D MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE HAA

U+186E MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE TSA

U+186F MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE ZA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 186F 180B second form (initial)
~ 186F 180B second form (medial)

U+1870 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE RAA

U+1871 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE CHA

U+1872 MONGOLIAN LETTER SIBE ZHA

Manchu letters

U+1873 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU I

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1873 180B second form (medial)
~ 1873 180B second form (final)
~ 1873 180C third form (medial)
~ 1873 180C third form (final)
~ 1873 180D fourth form (medial)

U+1874 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU KA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1874 180B second form (medial)
~ 1874 180B feminine first final form (final)
~ 1874 180C feminine first medial form (medial)
~ 1874 180C feminine second final form (final)
~ 1874 180D feminine second medial form (medial)

U+1875 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU RA

U+1876 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU FA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1876 180B second form (initial)
~ 1876 180B second form (medial)

U+1877 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ZHA

Extensions for Sanskrit and Tibetan

U+1880 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI ANUSVARA ONE

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (tibetan sign sna ldan - 0F83)
~ 1880 180B second form

U+1881 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI VISARGA ONE

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (tibetan sign rnam bcad - 0F7F)
~ 1881 180B second form

U+1882 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DAMARU

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (tibetan sign lce tsa can - 0F88)

U+1883 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI UBADAMA

U+1884 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI INVERTED UBADAMA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (tibetan sign mchu can - 0F89)

U+1885 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI BALUDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (tibetan mark paluta - 0F85)

U+1886 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI THREE BALUDA

U+1887 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI A

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1887 180B second form (isolate)
~ 1887 180B second form (final)
~ 1887 180C third form (final)
~ 1887 180D fourth form (final)

U+1888 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI I

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 1888 180B second form (final)

U+1889 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI KA

U+188A MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI NGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

~ 188A 180B second form (initial)
~ 188A 180B second form (medial)

U+188B MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI CA

U+188C MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI TTA

U+188D MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI TTHA

U+188E MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DDA

U+188F MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI NNA

U+1890 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI TA

U+1891 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DA

U+1892 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI PA

U+1893 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI PHA

U+1894 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI SSA

U+1895 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI ZHA

U+1896 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI ZA

U+1897 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI AH

U+1898 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO ALI GALI TA

U+1899 MONGOLIAN LETTER TODO ALI GALI ZHA

U+189A MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI GHA

U+189B MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI NGA

U+189C MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI CA

U+189D MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI JHA

U+189E MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI TTA

U+189F MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI DDHA

U+18A0 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI TA

U+18A1 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI DHA

U+18A2 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI SSA

U+18A3 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI CYA

U+18A4 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI ZHA

U+18A5 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI ZA

U+18A6 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI HALF U

U+18A7 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI HALF YA

U+18A8 MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI BHA

U+18A9 MONGOLIAN LETTER ALI GALI DAGALGA

U+18AA MONGOLIAN LETTER MANCHU ALI GALI LHA

Punctuation

U+1800 MONGOLIAN BIRGA

Description in the Unicode standard:

→ (tibetan mark initial yig mgo mdun ma - 0F04)

Mongolian punctuation, birga

Marks the start of a passage or the recto side of a folio. It appears in several glyph variants. Refs: Unicode

U+1801 MONGOLIAN ELLIPSIS

U+1802 MONGOLIAN COMMA

Mongolian punctuation, comma

U+1803 MONGOLIAN FULL STOP

Mongolian punctuation, full stop

U+1804 MONGOLIAN COLON

U+1805 MONGOLIAN FOUR DOTS

Description in the Unicode standard:

• marks the end of a chapter

Mongolian punctuation, four dots

Marks the end of a passage or chapter.

U+1806 MONGOLIAN TODO SOFT HYPHEN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• not a format control character, but simply a hyphen for Todo
→ (soft hyphen - 00AD)

Todo soft hyphen

Functions like U+2010 HYPHEN for words broken at the end of a line, except that it appears at the beginning of the second line, not at the end of the first. Refs: Unicode

U+1807 MONGOLIAN SIBE SYLLABLE BOUNDARY MARKER

U+1808 MONGOLIAN MANCHU COMMA

U+1809 MONGOLIAN MANCHU FULL STOP

U+180A MONGOLIAN NIRUGU

Mongolian nirugu, stem extender, hyphen

Used in traditional typography to physically extend the stem of joining letters to increase the separation between all letters of the word. Ideally, this stretching would be carried out by the font, rather than by inserting this character.

May also separate two parts of a compound word, like U+2010 HYPHEN except that it is non-breaking, eg. altan-agula The Golden Mountains.

Refs: Unicode

Digits

U+1810 MONGOLIAN DIGIT ZERO

U+1811 MONGOLIAN DIGIT ONE

U+1812 MONGOLIAN DIGIT TWO

U+1813 MONGOLIAN DIGIT THREE

U+1814 MONGOLIAN DIGIT FOUR

U+1815 MONGOLIAN DIGIT FIVE

U+1816 MONGOLIAN DIGIT SIX

U+1817 MONGOLIAN DIGIT SEVEN

U+1818 MONGOLIAN DIGIT EIGHT

U+1819 MONGOLIAN DIGIT NINE

Further reading

  1. [Bathrobe] Bathrobe's East Asian Writing Systems, Making Sense of the Traditional Mongolian Script
  2. [Unicode] The Unicode Standard v6.3, Mongolian.
  3. [Wikipedia] Wikipedia, Traditional Mongolian alphabet.
  4. [Mesher] Gene Mesher, Burmese for Beginners , ISBN 1-887521-51-8
First published 21 Sep 2014. This version 2016-03-12 6:19 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.