Khmer character notes

Updated Wed 15 Oct 2014 • tags tamil, scriptnotes

This page lists characters in Unicode's Khmer block and provides information about them. For information about Khmer script and its features in general, see the companion document Khmer Script Notes.

To view this page as intended, you need a Khmer font. Click the blue vertical bar at the bottom right of the page to apply other fonts, if you have them on your system. For transcriptions I recommend the excellent and free Doulos SIL font.. For occasional examples I also used Khmer Mool.

If you click on any red example text, you will see a list of the characters that make up the example appear at the bottom right of the page.

To find a character by codepoint, type #char0000 at the end of the URL in the address bar, where 0000 is a four-figure, hex codepoint number, all in uppercase.

Index

Click on a character in the table to jump to its description. Only characters with a line below have descriptive notes attached (apart from any descriptions in the Unicode database).

 

Consonants
Deprecated independent vowels for transliteration
Independent vowels
Inherent vowels ឴ ឵
Dependent vowel signs   ា   ិ   ី   ឹ   ឺ   ុ   ូ   ួ   េ   ែ   ៃ
Two-part dependent vowel signs   ើ   ឿ   ៀ   ោ   ៅ
Various signs   ំ   ះ   ៈ   ់   ៌   ៍   ៎   ៏   ័   ៑ ្   ៝
Consonant shifters   ៉   ៊
Lunar date sign   ៓
Currency symbol
Digits
Numeric symbols for divination lore

Consonants

U+1780 KHMER LETTER KA

Khmer consonant, kɑː

k with inherent vowel ɑː or followed by a vowel, eg. ក៏ kɑː also.

k before a subscript consonant.

when followed by a subscript or , eg. ក្មូយ kʰmuəj.

k in final position, eg. លើក ləːk to lift.

្ក as a subscript consonant.

U+1781 KHMER LETTER KHA

Khmer consonant, kʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ខាង direction kʰaːŋ.

k before a subscript consonant.

k in final position.

្ខ as a subscript consonant.

U+1782 KHMER LETTER KO

Khmer consonant, kɔː

k with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. គេ kei they.

k before a subscript consonant.

k in final position.

when followed by a subscript or , eg. គ្នា kʰniə.

្គ as a subscript consonant.

U+1783 KHMER LETTER KHO

Khmer consonant, kʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel.

k before a subscript consonant, eg. ឃ្លាន kliən hungry.

k in final position. Not common.

្ឃ as a subscript consonant. Seldom used.

U+1784 KHMER LETTER NGO

Khmer consonant, ŋɔː

ŋ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ងងឹត ŋoŋət dark. (Note that this sound appears in syllable initial position in Khmer.)

Not used before a subscript consonant.

ŋ in final position.

្ង as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

U+1785 KHMER LETTER CA

Khmer consonant, cɑː

c with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ចង់ cɑŋ to want.

c before a subscript consonant.

ik in final position. [c] according to Huffman.

្ច as a subscript consonant.

U+1786 KHMER LETTER CHA

Khmer consonant, cʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ឆា cʰaː stir fry.

c before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

្ឆ as a subscript consonant. Seldom used.

U+1787 KHMER LETTER CO

Khmer consonant, cɔː

c with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ជា ciə is.

c before a subscript consonant.

ik in final position. [c] according to Huffman.

្ជ as a subscript consonant.

U+1788 KHMER LETTER CHO

Khmer consonant, cʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ឈឺ cʰɨː sick.

c before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

្ឈ as a subscript consonant. Seldom used.

U+1789 KHMER LETTER NYO

Khmer consonant, ɲɔː

ɲ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ញី ɲiː female.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

ɲ in final position.

្ញ as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

The bottom of this character is dropped when followed by a subscript consonant, eg. បញ្ឆោត ɓɑɲcʰaot to trick.

There are two shapes used for the subscript. When this character appears twice in a cluster, the full form is used. Elsewhere a reduce form is used. For example, compare កញ្ញា្ញ kɑɲɲaa young lady and ប្រាជ្ញា praːcɲaa intelligence.

U+178A KHMER LETTER DA

Khmer consonant, ɗɑː

ɗ with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ដុល្លារ ɗɑllaː dollar.

ɗ before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

្ដ as a subscript consonant. This is the same shape as the subscript of tɑː .

U+178B KHMER LETTER TTHA

Khmer consonant, tʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

This consonant is only used in a few words of Pali or Sanskrit origin.

្ឋ as a subscript consonant. Seldom used: often a silent final subscript.

U+178C KHMER LETTER DO

Khmer consonant, ɗɔː

ɗ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

This consonant is rare and is only used in a few words of Pali or Sanskrit origin.

្ឌ as a subscript consonant. Seldom used.

U+178D KHMER LETTER TTHO

Khmer consonant, tʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

This consonant is only used in a few words of Pali or Sanskrit origin.

្ឍ as a subscript consonant. Obsolete, or rarely, if ever, used.

U+178E KHMER LETTER NNO

Description in the Unicode standard:

• as this character belongs to the first register, its correct transliteration is nna, not nno

Khmer consonant, nɑː

n with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ណាស់ nah very.

n before a subscript consonant.

n in final position.

្ណ as a subscript consonant. Seldom used: often a silent final subscript.

U+178F KHMER LETTER TA

Khmer consonant, tɑː

t with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ត្រី trəj fish.

ɗ at the beginning of two syllable words where the first syllable ends with final nasal, eg. តង្វាយ ɗɔŋʋaaj gift.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

្ត as a subscript consonant. This is the same shape as the subscript of ɗɑː .

The pronunciation when a subscript in medial position is unpredictable, sometimes t and sometimes ɗ. As a general rule, but not always, it is pronounced t when a subscript to nɔː , and ɗ when a subscript to nɑː , eg. បន្តុះ ɓɑntoh to criticise, and បណ្តុះ ɓɑnɗoh to grow.

U+1790 KHMER LETTER THA

Khmer consonant, tʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. ថា tʰaː that.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

្ថ as a subscript consonant.

U+1791 KHMER LETTER TO

Khmer consonant, tɔː

t with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ទម្ងន់ tɔmŋɔn weight.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

្ទ as a subscript consonant.

U+1792 KHMER LETTER THO

Khmer consonant, tʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ភំ tʰom big.

t before a subscript consonant.

t in final position.

្ធ as a subscript consonant. Seldom used: often a silent final subscript.

U+1793 KHMER LETTER NO

Khmer consonant, nɔː

n with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. នឹង nəŋ future tense marker.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

n in final position.

្ន as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

In some words it follows a silent to make the following vowel behave as if it was an ɑː class consonant, eg. ហ្ន is nɑː.

U+1794 KHMER LETTER BA

Khmer consonant, ɓɑː

ɓ with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel, eg. បន្ទប់ ɓɑntuɓ room.

p when followed by a subscript consonant, eg. ម្រាំ pram.

p in final position, eg. ឈប់ cʰup to stop.

p when below a museʔkətoə̯n, eg. ប៉ា paː father.

p in some words just by convention, eg. បច្ច័យ paccaj money.

្ប as a subscript consonant.

A ligature បា is used when this character is followed by sra-aː, to avoid similarity with hɑː , eg. បាយ ɓaaj cooked rice. The same applies when followed by sra-ao បោ and sra-aw បៅ .

U+1795 KHMER LETTER PHA

Khmer consonant, pʰɑː

with inherent vowel ɑː, eg. ផ្សារ psaː market.

p before a subscript consonant.

p in final position. Not common.

្ផ as a subscript consonant. Obsolete, or rarely, if ever, used.

U+1796 KHMER LETTER PO

Khmer consonant, pɔː

p with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ពី piː from.

p before a subscript consonant.

p in final position.

្ព as a subscript consonant.

U+1797 KHMER LETTER PHO

Khmer consonant, pʰɔː

with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. ភាសា pʰiəsaː language.

p before a subscript consonant.

p in final position.

្ភ as a subscript consonant.

U+1798 KHMER LETTER MO

Khmer consonant, mɔː

m with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. មុខ muk ahead, front.

m before a subscript consonant.

m in final position.

្ម as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

In some words it follows a silent to make the following vowel behave as if it was an ɑː class consonant, eg. ហ្ម is mɑː.

U+1799 KHMER LETTER YO

Khmer consonant, jɔː

j with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. យល់់ jul to understand.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

in final position. Huffman says [j]

្យ as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

U+179A KHMER LETTER RO

Khmer consonant, rɔː

r with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. រូប ruːɓ picture.

Not found before a subscript consonant, eg. ការ kaa work; ខ្មែរ kmae Cambodian.

Silent in final position. There is no final r sound in Cambodian, but the r symbol can sometimes disambiguate homonyms, eg. កា kaa to address (a letter) and ការ kaa to work; ពី piː from and ពីរ piː two.

្រ as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

U+179B KHMER LETTER LO

Khmer consonant, lɔː

l with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel, eg. លុយ luj money.

l before a subscript consonant.

l in final position.

្ល as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

In some words it follows a silent to make the following vowel behave as if it was an ɑː class consonant, eg. ហ្ល is lɑː.

U+179C KHMER LETTER VO

Khmer consonant, ʋɔː

ʋ with inherent vowel ɔː or before a vowel.

Not found before a subscript consonant.

w in final position.

្វ as a subscript consonant. As a subscript this consonant doesn't determine the pronunciation of the vowel sound, it is determined by the class of the non-subscript consonant.

In some words it follows a silent to make the following vowel behave as if it was an ɑː class consonant, eg. ហ្វូង ʋouŋ crowd.

In combination with preceding it also gives f, eg. ហ្វឹក fek train; កាហ្វេ kaafei coffee.

U+179D KHMER LETTER SHA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration

Used only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration.

U+179E KHMER LETTER SSO

Description in the Unicode standard:

• used only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration
• as this character belongs to the first register, its correct transliteration is ssa, not sso

Used only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration.

U+179F KHMER LETTER SA

Khmer consonant, sɑː

s with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel.

s before a subscript consonant.

h in final position.

្ស as a subscript consonant.

U+17A0 KHMER LETTER HA

Khmer consonant, hɑː

h with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel.

Silent before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

្ហ as a subscript consonant.

In combination with subscript gives f, eg. ហ្វឹក fek train; កាហ្វេ kaafei coffee.

In some words it combines with one of the following ɔː class subscripts, វមនល, to make the following vowel behave as if they were ɑː class consonants, eg. ហ្វូង ʋouŋ, ហ្ម mɑː, ហ្ន nɑː, ហ្ល lɑː.

U+17A1 KHMER LETTER LA

Khmer consonant, lɑː

l with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel.

Not found before a subscript consonant or in final position.

Subscript consonant not used in Cambodia (only in Khmer spoken in Thailand).

U+17A2 KHMER LETTER QA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• glottal stop

Khmer consonant, ʔɑː

ʔ with inherent vowel ɑː or before a vowel.

ʔ before a subscript consonant.

Not found in final position.

្អ as a subscript consonant.

When used as a subscript at the beginning of a word this adds an extra syllable after the initial consonant, eg. ផ្អែម pʰaʔaem; ស្អាត saʔaːtʰ.

Deprecated independent vowels for transliteration

U+17A3 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAQ

Description in the Unicode standard:

• use of this character is strongly discouraged; 17A2 should be used instead

Khmer deprecated independent vowel

This should be considered an error in the encoding. Use of this character is strongly discouraged; 17A2: KHMER LETTER QA should be used instead.

Originally intended only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration, but not actually a separate character in Khmer.

U+17A4 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• use of this character is strongly discouraged; the sequence 17A2 17B6 should be used instead

Khmer deprecated independent vowel

This should be considered an error in the encoding. Use of this character is discouraged; the sequence 17A2: KHMER LETTER QA + 17B6: KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA should be used instead.

Originally intended only for Pali/Sanskrit transliteration, but not actually a separate character in Khmer.

Independent vowels

U+17A5 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QI

Khmer Independent vowel sra-ʔəʔ ស្រៈឥ

ʔə, eg. ឥត ʔət not

ʔɨ, eg. ឥត ʔət not

U+17A6 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QII

Khmer Independent vowel sra-ei ស្រៈឦ

ei

U+17A7 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QU

Khmer Independent vowel sra-ou ស្រៈឧ

ou

U+17A8 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QUK

Description in the Unicode standard:

• obsolete ligature for the sequence 17A7 1780
• use of the sequence is now preferred

Obsolete ligature. Use of the sequence 17A7: KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QU + 1780: KHMER LETTER KA is now preferred.

Is 1780 right? Not 17CA?

U+17A9 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QUU

U+17AA KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QUUV

Khmer Independent vowel sra-ou ស្រៈឪ

ou

U+17AB KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL RY

Khmer Independent vowel sra-r̥ ស្រៈឫ

U+17AC KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL RYY

Khmer Independent vowel sra-r̥̄ ស្រៈឬ

r̥̄

U+17AD KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL LY

Khmer Independent vowel sra-l̥ ស្រៈឭ

U+17AE KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL LYY

Khmer Independent vowel sra-l̥̄ ស្រៈឮ

l̥̄

U+17AF KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QE

Khmer Independent vowel sra-ae ស្រៈឯ

ae

U+17B0 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAI

Khmer Independent vowel sra-aiy ស្រៈឰ

aiy

U+17B1 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QOO TYPE ONE

Khmer Independent vowel sra-ao ស្រៈឱ

ao

U+17B2 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QOO TYPE TWO

Description in the Unicode standard:

• this is a variant for 17B1, used in only two words
• 17B1 is the normal variant of this vowel

Khmer independent vowel, sra-ao ស្រៈឱ

ao

This is a variant of KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QOO TYPE ONE that is only used, according to Unicode, in two words, one of which, ឲ្យ ʔaoj to give, is very common however.

U+17B3 KHMER INDEPENDENT VOWEL QAU

Inherent vowels

឴

U+17B4 KHMER VOWEL INHERENT AQ

឵

U+17B5 KHMER VOWEL INHERENT AA

Dependent vowel signs

U+17B6 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AA

Khmer vowel, sra-aː ស្រៈអា

after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ណា naː which, where

after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ជា ciə to be

In combination with a following nikahit អាំ this is regarded as a letter of the Khmer alphabet. Sounds are:

am after an ɑː class consonant.

oə̯m after an ɔː class consonant.

In combination with a following nikahit and ŋɔː អាំង:

after an ɑː class consonant.

ɛaŋ after an ɔː class consonant.

U+17B7 KHMER VOWEL SIGN I

Khmer vowel, sra-e ស្រៈអិ

e after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ចិត្ដ cet heart

i after an ɔː class consonant, eg. វិញ ʋiɲ instead, again

In combination with a following reahmuk អិះ this is regarded as a letter of the Khmer alphabet. (It has the same sound, followed by h), eg. ជិះ cih to ride. This combination has the same sound as អេះ, but this is much less common.

U+17B8 KHMER VOWEL SIGN II

Khmer sra-əj ស្រៈអី

əj after an ɑː class consonant.

after an ɔː class consonant.

U+17B9 KHMER VOWEL SIGN Y

Khmer sra-ə ស្រៈអឹ

ə after an ɑː class consonant.

ɨ after an ɔː class consonant.

U+17BA KHMER VOWEL SIGN YY

Khmer sra-əɨ ស្រៈអឺ

əɨ after an ɑː class consonant.

ɨː after an ɔː class consonant.

U+17BB KHMER VOWEL SIGN U

Khmer vowel, sra-o ស្រៈអុ

o after an ɑː class consonant.

u after an ɔː class consonant.

In combination with a following reə̯hmuk អុះ this is regarded as a letter of the Khmer alphabet. (It has the same sound, followed by h), eg. ចុះ coh so?.

U+17BC KHMER VOWEL SIGN UU

Khmer sra-ou ស្រៈអូ

ou after an ɑː class consonant.

after an ɔː class consonant.

U+17BD KHMER VOWEL SIGN UA

Khmer sra-uə ស្រៈអួ

after any class of consonant.

U+17C1 KHMER VOWEL SIGN E

Khmer vowel, sra-ei ស្រៈអេ

ei after an ɑː class consonant.

after an ɔː class consonant.

Combined with reə̯hmuk អេះ:

  • eh after an ɑː class consonant, eg. សេះ seh horse
  • ih after an ɔː class consonant, eg. នេះ nih this
  • This combination has the same sound as អិះ, but this is much more common.

U+17C2 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AE

Khmer sra-ae ស្រៈអែ

ae after an ɑː class consonant.

ɛː after an ɔː class consonant.

U+17C3 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AI

Khmer sra-aj ស្រៈអៃ

aj after an ɑː class consonant.

ɨj after an ɔː class consonant.

Two-part dependent vowel signs

U+17BE KHMER VOWEL SIGN OE

Khmer sra-aə ស្រៈអើ

after an ɑː class consonant.

əː after an ɔː class consonant.

U+17BF KHMER VOWEL SIGN YA

Khmer sra-ɨə ស្រៈអឿ

ɨə after any class of consonant.

U+17C0 KHMER VOWEL SIGN IE

Khmer sra-iə ស្រៈអៀ

after any class of consonant.

U+17C4 KHMER VOWEL SIGN OO

Khmer vowel, sra-ao ស្រៈអោ

ao after an ɑː class consonant.

after an ɔː class consonant.

Combined with reə̯hmuk អោះ:

  • ɑh after an ɑː class consonant, eg. នៅណោះ nəɨnɔh over there
  • uəh or uh after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ឈ្មោះ cʰmuə name, នោះ nuh that

U+17C5 KHMER VOWEL SIGN AU

Khmer sra-aw ស្រៈអៅ

aw after an ɑː class consonant.

ɨw after an ɔː class consonant.

Various signs

U+17C6 KHMER SIGN NIKAHIT

Description in the Unicode standard:

= srak am
= anusvara
• final nasalization
• this character is usually regarded as a vowel sign am, along with om and aam
→ (thai character nikhahit - 0E4D)
→ (myanmar sign anusvara - 1036)

Khmer Vowel niʔkəhət និគ្គហិត

Although it can be equated with the anusvara in Sanskrit, this is usually regarded as a vowel sign or a part of a vowel sign in Khmer.

ɑm after an ɑː class consonant, eg. កំពុង kɑmpuŋ present tense marker.

um after an ɔː class consonant, eg. រំភើប rumɓəːpʰ excited

Combined with sra-o អុ:

  • om after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ធំ tʰɑm big
  • um after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ខ្លាឃ្មុំ kʰlaːkʰmum bear

Combined with sra-aː អា:

  • am after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ដាំ ɗam to plant
  • oə̯m after an ɔː class consonant, eg. នាំ noə̯m to lead

Combined with sra-aː and ŋɔː អាង:

  • after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ម្ហូបបារាំង mhouɓɓaːraŋ French food
  • eə̯ŋ after an ɔː class consonant, eg. ទាំង teə̯ŋ including, both

In some words of Sanskrit origin, the niʔkəhət represents or an, eg. សំស្ក្រិត sɑŋskret Sanskrit and សំយោគសញ្ញា sɑnjoːksaɲɲaː name of a diacritic.

U+17C7 KHMER SIGN REAHMUK

Description in the Unicode standard:

= srak ah
= visarga
→ (myanmar sign visarga - 1038)

Khmer vowel, reə̆hmuk រះមុខ

Although it can be equated with the visarga in Sanskrit, this is regarded as a vowel sign or part of a vowel sign in Khmer.

ah with an ɑː class inherent vowel, eg. ខ្លះ klɑh some.

eə̆h with an ɔː class inherent vowel or an ɔː class sra-aː អា, eg. ផ្ទះ pteə̆h house, home.

h after the normal sounds of short vowels sra-e អិ, sra-ə អឹ, and sra-o អុ, eg. ជិះ cih to ride, កឹះ kəh to scratch,ពុះ puh to boil.

ih with sra-ei អេ as an ɔː class vowel, eg. នេះ nih this.

eh with sra-ei អេ or sra-aj អៃ as an ɑː class vowel, eg. សេះ seh horse, កែះ keh wild goat .

əh with sra-aə អើ as an ɑː class vowel, eg. ចង្កើះ cɑŋkəh chopsticks.

ɑh with sra-ao អោ as an ɑː class vowel, eg. កោះ kɑh island.

uə̆h with sra-ao អោ as an ɔː class vowel, eg. គោះ kuə̆h strike.

U+17C8 KHMER SIGN YUUKALEAPINTU

Description in the Unicode standard:

• inserts a short inherent vowel with abrupt glottal stop
• the preferred transliteration is yukaleakpintu

Khmer mark, juʔkɔluə̆ʔpintuʔ យុគលពិន្ទុ

Used as a vowel after consonants that are to be used as stressed syllables at the end of a word, or preceding an internal juncture in compounds.

as an ɑː class vowel, eg. ស្រៈ sraʔ vowel

eə̆ʔ as an ɔː class vowel, eg. ធុរៈ tʰureə̆ʔ preoccupation

This character is a modern innovation. It is also used in the official Cambodian Dictionary to mark any consonant symbol which is pronounced independently.

U+17CB KHMER SIGN BANTOC

Description in the Unicode standard:

• shortens the vowel sound in the previous orthographic syllable
• the preferred transliteration is bantak

Khmer Mark, ɓɑntɑk បន្តក់

Always placed above the final consonant. Basically shortens the preceding vowel. Affects the preceding vowel sound in one of the following ways:

  • After an inherent vowel
    • ɑ after an ɑː class consonant, eg. ចប់ cɑp to finish (cf. ចប cɑːp hoe)
    • u after an class consonant and before a labial consonant, eg. លប់ lup bird trap (cf. លប lɔːp fish trap)
    • uə̯ otherwise after an ɔː class consonant, eg. លក់ luə̯k to sell (cf. លក lɔːk to channel)
  • After following an ɔː class consonant
    • eə̯ before a velar consonant, eg. ពាក់ peə̯k to wear (cf. ពាក្យ piək word)
    • oə̯ elsewhere, eg. មាន់ moə̯n to wear (cf. មាន miən word)
  • Otherwise, shortens a long vowel, eg. ចាប់ cap to catch (cf. ចាប caːp sparrow).

U+17CC KHMER SIGN ROBAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• a diacritic historically corresponding to the repha form of ra in Devanagari

Khmer mark, rɔɓaːt របាទ

Not a very common mark. It silences final consonants, eg. បរិបូណ៌ ɓɑriɓou abundant.

Over a word-medial syllable-initial consonant it introduces the sound before the syllable, eg. ទុគ៌ត tuːrəkuə̆t destitute.

It can also convert the vowel sound of the previous consonant from ɔː to ɔə as well as silencing the consonant it appears over, eg. ពណ៌ pɔə colour.

U+17CD KHMER SIGN TOANDAKHIAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates that the base character is not pronounced

Khmer mark, tɔnɗɔkʰiət ទណ្ឌឃាត

Used over a consonant, particularly in loan words, to silence it and any attached vowels or subscripts, eg. សាសន៍ saːh race, ethnicity, and សប្ដាហ៍ sɑpɗaː week; រេហ៍ពល rɔpuə̆l army.

U+17CE KHMER SIGN KAKABAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• sign used with some exclamations

Khmer kaːkɑɓaːt កាកបាទ

Very rare, but used over the final consonant of a word like an exclamation mark, to convey excited emphasis, eg. ណែ៎ nɛː Hey !; នុ៎ះន៎ nuhnɔː Over there !

U+17CF KHMER SIGN AHSDA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• denotes stressed intonation in some single-consonant words

Khmer mark, leːk ʔahsɗaː លេខអស្ដា

Used over two consonants to indicate that they represent two specific words:

  • ក៏ kɑː meaning auxiliary: also, then, therefore
  • ដ៏ ɗɑː means pronoun which; very

U+17D0 KHMER SIGN SAMYOK SANNYA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• denotes deviation from the general rules of pronunciation, mostly used in loan words from Pali/Sanskrit, French, and so on

Khmer mark, sanjoːksaɲɲaː សំយោគសញ្ញា

a over an ɑː class consonant, eg. ស័កិ្ត sak rank; ស័កិ្ត sak rank.

oə̯ over an ɔː class consonant, in general, eg. ទ័ព toə̯p army.

eə̯ over an ɔː class consonant followed by ŋɔː , eg. វ័ង ʋeə̯ŋ palace.

(Note that all of the above are the same as if a sra-aː plus niʔkəhət had been used.)

ɔə over a consonant followed by rɔː (these are always ɔː class consonants), eg. ជ័រ cɔə resin.

ɨ over an ɔː class consonant followed by jɔː , eg. ជ័យ cɨj victory.

Gilbert & Hang say that the sound is e usually, when over ʋɔː or nɔː .

.

U+17D1 KHMER SIGN VIRIAM

Description in the Unicode standard:

• mostly obsolete, a 'killer'
• indicates that the base character is the final consonant of a word without its inherent vowel sound

Khmer mark, ʋiriəm វិរាម

The sanskrit virama, sometimes used in Sanskrit words to indicate that a final consonant has no vowel sound, eg. អាត្មន៑ ʔaːtman soul.

Sometimes this appears as a bar over the consonant, sometimes as a wide, inverted v-shape under the consonant.

The Cambodian way of spelling such words uses the sanjoːksaɲɲaː អ័.

U+17D2 KHMER SIGN COENG

Description in the Unicode standard:

• functions to indicate that the following Khmer letter is to be rendered subscripted
• shape shown is arbitrary and is not visibly rendered

Khmer virama, cəːŋ sign ជើង

Serves to indicate in Unicode text that the following consonant should be rendered as a subscript. The shape is arbitrary, since it is never visible in Khmer (unlike Devanagari etc.).

cəːŋ (transcribed in Unicode as COENG) is actually the name given to the subscripted consonants themselves, and this should more accurately be called a cəːŋ generator.

This virama-based model used by Unicode is consistent with the approach to other Indic scripts, however Cambodian people regard the subscripted consonants as different entities to the normal consonant characters, and need to be taught to use a cəːŋ sign to type in Unicode.

U+17D4 KHMER SIGN KHAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• functions as a full stop, period
→ (thai character paiyannoi - 0E2F)
→ (myanmar sign little section - 104A)

Khmer punctuation, kʰan ខ័ណ្ឌ

Equivalent of a period, placed at the end of a sentence.

Also used in the combination ។ល។ lanəŋla to mean etcetera.

U+17D5 KHMER SIGN BARIYOOSAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates the end of a section or a text
→ (thai character angkhankhu - 0E5A)
→ (myanmar sign section - 104B)

Khmer punctuation, ɓɑːrijaosaːn បរិយោសាន

Used at the end of a chapter or an entire text.

U+17D6 KHMER SIGN CAMNUC PII KUUH

Description in the Unicode standard:

• functions as colon
• the preferred transliteration is camnoc pii kuuh
→ (division sign - 00F7)
→ (tibetan mark gter tsheg - 0F14)

Khmer punctuation, cɑmnoc piː kuːh ចំណុចពីរគូស

Used much like a colon in English.

It is typically used after the quotative particle ថា៖ tʰaː saying, as follows and the copulative kɨː that is.

U+17D7 KHMER SIGN LEK TOO

Description in the Unicode standard:

• repetition sign
→ (thai character maiyamok - 0E46)

Khmer symbol, stuən ស្ទួន

Repetition sign. Repeats the word directly before. A common way of providing emphasis, eg. ខ្លាំង ៗ klaŋklaŋ very strong; គាត់មានផ្ទះថ្មី ៗ kaːtʰ miən pʰteə̯h tʰməitʰməi he has a brand new house.

Sometimes repeats a phrase rather than a word, eg. បន្តិចម្ដង ៗ ɓɑntecmɗɑːŋ ɓɑntecmɗɑːŋ little by little.

It is also occasionally used to repeat the word at the end of a sentence for the beginning of a new sentence (Huffman), eg. ខ្ញុំទៅផ្ទះខ្ញុំ ។ នៅជិតផ្សារ kɲomtɨwpteə̆hkɲom pteə̆hkɲom nɨwcɨtpsaː .

The sign is usually separated from the text by a space.

U+17D8 KHMER SIGN BEYYAL

Description in the Unicode standard:

• et cetera
• use of this character is discouraged; other abbreviations for et cetera also exist
• preferred spelling: 17D4 179B 17D4

Khmer abbreviation, lanəŋla ។ល។

Means et cetera. Use of this character is discouraged. The preferred representation uses the individual characters, eg. ។ល។.

Other spellings for et cetera also exist. These include:

  • ។បេ។
  • –បេ–
  • –ល–

Pronounced lɑʔ.

U+17D9 KHMER SIGN PHNAEK MUAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates the beginning of a book or a treatise
• the preferred transliteration is phnek moan
→ (thai character fongman - 0E4F)

Khmer punctuation, pnɛːkmoə̆n ភ្នែកមាន់

Marks the beginning of literary and religious texts.

Forms a pair with , which ends a text.

Means cock's eye. It is said to represent the trunk of the elephant-god Ganesha.

U+17DA KHMER SIGN KOOMUUT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• indicates the end of a book or treatise
• this forms a pair with 17D9
• the preferred transliteration is koomoot
→ (thai character khomut - 0E5B)

Khmer punctuation, koːmout គោមូត្រ

Marks the absolute end of a text. Usually used for poetic or religious texts.

Forms a pair with , which starts a text.

Sometimes used in combination as ។៚.

Means cow's urine.

U+17DC KHMER SIGN AVAKRAHASANYA

Description in the Unicode standard:

• rare, shows an omitted Sanskrit vowel, like an apostrophe
• the preferred transliteration is avakraha sannya
→ (devanagari sign avagraha - 093D)
  ៝

U+17DD KHMER SIGN ATTHACAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• mostly obsolete
• indicates that the base character is the final consonant of a word with its inherent vowel sound
→ (khmer sign viriam - 17D1)

Khmer mark

A rarely used sign that indicates that the consonant retains its inherent vowel sound.

Consonant shifters

U+17C9 KHMER SIGN MUUSIKATOAN

Description in the Unicode standard:

• changes the second register to the first
• the preferred transliteration is muusekatoan

Khmer mark, museʔkətoə̯n មូសិកទន្ត or tmɨɲ kɑnɗao ធ្មេញកណ្ដរ

Changes the class of a consonant from ɔː to ɑː, affecting the inherent vowel and any other vowel following the consonant, eg. ម៉ត់ចត់ mɑtcɑt careful, រ៉ាប់ rap to guarrantee. It is used for the following consonants that don't have equivalents in the ɑː class: ងញមយរវ. It is usually written over the right-hand side of the consonant glyph. This is also especially useful for spelling foreign names. Eg. យ៉ាង jaːŋ kind (cf. យាង yiəŋ to go (royalty)).

Changes the sound of ɓɑː from ɓ to p, eg. ប៉ះ pah to touch. This is the only way to write an ɑː class p. Eg. ប៉ាន paːn to cover (cf. បាន ɓaːn to have).

When this appears with a vowel sign above the consonant, the ក្បៀសក្រោម kɓiəhkraom form is used. This looks exactly like sra-o អុ, eg. ម៉ឺន məɨn 10,000; ញ៉ាំ ɲam to eat.

You can prevent this behaviour using a zero-width non-joiner between this character and the following one, eg. ញ៉‌ាំ.

tmɨɲ kɑnɗao means "rat's teeth".

U+17CA KHMER SIGN TRIISAP

Description in the Unicode standard:

• changes the first register to the second
• the preferred transliteration is treisap

Khmer mark, trəisaɓ ត្រីសព្ទ

Changes the class of a consonant from ɔː to , affecting the inherent vowel and also any other vowel following the consonant, eg. ក្រុមហ៊ុន kromhun company; ហ៊ាន hiən to dare (cf. ហានhaːnshop); អ៊ូ ʔuː dry dock (cf. អូʔouexclamation). This is especially useful for spelling foreign names.

When this appears with a vowel sign above the consonant, the ក្បៀសក្រោម kɓiəhkraom form is used. This looks exactly like sra-o អុ, eg. in ស៊ី siː to eat.

You can prevent this behaviour using a zero-width non-joiner between this character and the following one, eg. ស៊‌ី.

Lunar date sign

U+17D3 KHMER SIGN BATHAMASAT

Description in the Unicode standard:

• originally intended as part of lunar date symbols
• use of this character is discouraged in favor of the complete set of lunar date symbols
→ (khmer symbol pathamasat - 19E0)

Currency symbol

U+17DB KHMER CURRENCY SYMBOL RIEL

Khmer currency sign, saɲ ɲaː riəl សញ្ញារៀល

Placed after the amount, eg. ៣០០០ ៛ ɓej poan riəl 3000 riel.

Digits

U+17E0 KHMER DIGIT ZERO

Khmer digit, soun សូន

U+17E1 KHMER DIGIT ONE

Khmer digit, muəj មួយ

U+17E2 KHMER DIGIT TWO

Khmer digit, piː ពីរ

U+17E3 KHMER DIGIT THREE

Khmer digit, ɓəj បី

U+17E4 KHMER DIGIT FOUR

Khmer digit, ɓuən បួន

U+17E5 KHMER DIGIT FIVE

Khmer digit, pram ប្រាំ

U+17E6 KHMER DIGIT SIX

Khmer digit, prammuəj ប្រាំមួយ

U+17E7 KHMER DIGIT SEVEN

Khmer digit, prampiː / prampɨl ប្រាំពីរ

U+17E8 KHMER DIGIT EIGHT

Khmer digit, pramɓəj ប្រាំបី

U+17E9 KHMER DIGIT NINE

Khmer digit, pramɓuən ប្រាំបួន

Numeric symbols for divination lore

U+17F0 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK SON

U+17F1 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK MUOY

U+17F2 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK PII

U+17F3 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK BEI

U+17F4 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK BUON

U+17F5 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK PRAM

U+17F6 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK PRAM-MUOY

U+17F7 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK PRAM-PII

U+17F8 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK PRAM-BEI

U+17F9 KHMER SYMBOL LEK ATTAK PRAM-BUON

First published 3 Feb 2014. This version 2016-03-11 10:08 GMT.  •  Copyright r12a@w3.org. Licence CC-By.